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Adaptation of aeronautical engines to high altitude flying

Description: Report discussing Issues and techniques relative to the adaptation of aircraft engines to high altitude flight. Covered here are the limits of engine output, modifications and characteristics of high altitude engines, the influence of air density on the proportions of fuel mixtures, methods of varying the proportions of fuel mixtures, the automatic prevention of fuel waste, and the design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying. Summary: 1. Limits of engine output. 2. High altitude engines. 3. Influence of air density on proportions of mixture. 4. Methods of varying proportions of mixture. 5. Automatic prevention of fuel waste. 6. Design and application of air pressure regulators to high altitude flying.
Date: May 1923
Creator: Kutzbach, K

Aerial photography : obtaining a true perspective

Description: Report discussing a demonstration was given within the last few days at the British Museum by Mr. J. W. Gordon, author of "Generalized Linear Perspective" (Constable and Co.), a work describing a newly-worked-out system by which photographs can be made available for the purpose of exactly recording the dimensions of the objects photographed even when the objects themselves are presented foreshortened in the photograph.
Date: April 1923

Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils II : continuation of report no. 93

Description: This collection of data on aerofoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for the use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The absolute system of coefficients has been used, since it is thought by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that this system is the one most suited for international use, and yet is one for which a desired transformation can be easily made. For this purpose a set of transformation constants is included in this report. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and date of test.
Date: 1923~

Aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils II

Description: This investigation is an extension of NACA report no. 75 for the purpose of studying the effect of various modifications in a given wing section, including changes in thickness, height of lower camber, taper in thickness, and taper in plan form with special reference to the development of thick, efficient airfoils. The method consisted in testing the wings in the NACA 5-foot wind tunnel at speeds up to 50 meters (164 feet) per second while they were being supported on a new type of wire balance. Some of the airfoils developed showed results of great promise. For example, one wing (no. 81) with a thickness in the center of 4.5 times that of the U. S. A. 16 showed both uniformly high efficiency and a higher maximum lift than this excellent section. These thick sections will be especially useful on airplanes with cantilever construction. (author).
Date: 1923?~
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Bacon, D. L.

Aeronautic instruments. Section II : altitude instruments

Description: This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.
Date: 1923?
Creator: Mears, A. H.; Henrickson, H. B. & Brombacher, W. G.

Aeronautic instruments. Section III : aircraft speed instruments

Description: Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.
Date: 1923?
Creator: Hunt, Franklin L. & Stearns, H. O.

Aeronautic instruments. Section IV : direction instruments

Description: Part one points out the adequacy of a consideration of the steady state gyroscopic motion as a basis for the discussion of displacements of the gyroscope mounted on an airplane, and develops a simple theory on this basis. Principal types of gyroscopic inclinometers are described and requirements stated. Part two describes a new type of stabilizing gyro mounted on top of a spindle by means of a universal joint, the spindle being kept in a vertical position by supporting it as a pendulum of which the bob is the driving motor. Methods of tests and the difficulties in designing a satisfactory and reliable compass for aircraft use in considered in part three. Part four contains a brief general treatment of the important features of construction of aircraft compasses and description of the principal types used.
Date: 1923?~
Creator: Franklin, W. S.; Stillman, M. H.; Sanford, R. L.; Warner, John A. C.; Sylvander, R. C. & Rounds, E. W.

Aeronautic instruments. Section V : power plant instruments

Description: Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.
Date: 1923
Creator: Washburn, G. E.; Sylvander, R. C.; Mueller, E. F.; Wilhelm, R. M.; Eaton, H. N. & Warner, John A. C.

Aeronautic instruments. Section VI : aerial navigation and navigating instruments

Description: This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.
Date: 1923?~
Creator: Eaton, H. N.

Aeronautic instruments. Section VI : oxygen instruments

Description: This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.
Date: 1923?~
Creator: Hunt, F. L.

Aeronautic instruments. Section VIII : recent developments and outstanding problems

Description: This report is section VIII of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments. The preceding reports in this series have discussed in detail the various types of aeronautic instruments which have reached a state of practical development such that they have already found extensive use. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss briefly some of the more recent developments in the field of aeronautic instrument design and to suggest some of the outstanding problems awaiting solution.
Date: 1923
Creator: Hunt, F. L.

Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

Description: For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.
Date: November 1, 1923
Creator: Weiselsberger, C

The altitude effect on air speed indicators II

Description: In an investigation described in NACA Technical Report 110, it was shown that under certain conditions, particularly for the relatively low-speed flight of airships, the data obtained were not sufficiently accurate. This report describes an investigation in which the data obtained were sufficiently accurate and complete to enable the viscosity correction to be deduced quantitatively for a number of the air-speed pressure nozzles in common use. The report opens with a discussion of the theory of the performance of air-speed nozzles and of the calibration of the indicators, from which the theory of the altitude correction is developed. Then follows the determination of the performance characteristics of the nozzles and calibration constants used for the indicators. In the latter half of the report, the viscosity correction is computed for the Zahm Pitot-venturi nozzles.
Date: 1923?~
Creator: Eaton, H. N. & Macnair, W. A.

Analytical Methods for Certain Metals Including Cerium, Thorium, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Radium, Uranium, Vanadium, Titanium and Zirconium

Description: From Introduction: "This chapter indicates the methods of determining several of the alloy metals when occurring together in the same sample. Most materials seldom contain more than two or three of these elements, but considerable time may be saved if determinations can be combined. Details of the analyses and separations are not given here, as they have been covered more fully in other chapters. Whenever possible, reference is made to the particular chapter. Only sufficient directions have been given to outline the method of procedure, actual conditions for the separations being presented on other pages."
Date: 1923
Creator: Moore, R. B.; Lind, S. C.; Marden, J. W.; Bonardi, J. P.; Davis, C. W. & Conley, J. E.