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1995 Midnite Mine Radiation Survey
Abstract: During the week of September 4, 1995, personnel from the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a Ra-226 survey at the Midnite Mine. One hundred thirty measurements were made on a rectangular grid with 150-m spacings. Concurrently, Shepherd Miller, Inc., took gross gamma readings in gR/h at the same grid points. In addition, the USBM collected 17 soil samples to be analyzed for radium, thorium, and potassium. The results of this survey are summarized in this report.
Accelerated Laboratory Test for Determination of Slacking Characteristics of Coal
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on laboratory testing developed to measure the slacking of coals. Testing methods and results are presented. This report includes tables and graphs.
Accident Experience and Cost of Accidents in Washington Coal Mines
Report containing tables detailing cost of mining accidents in Washington state in comparison with other states.
Aeroradioactivity Survey and Areal Geology of the Hanford Plant Area, Washington and Oregon (ARMS-I)
Report regarding an airborne gamma-radioactivity survey that took place over a 9,000 square mile area in south-central Washington and north-central Oregon. Topics include the types of bedrock noted in the area as well as their levels of radioactivity.
Agglutinating, Coking, and By-Product Tests of Coals From Pierce County, Washington
Report discussing testing of coals in Pierce County, Washington.
American Lignites: Geological Occurrence, Petrographic Composition, And Extractable Waxes
Report discussing experiments done on expandable waxes of lignites to determine yields and properties from certain place in the United States.
Analyses of Coals in the United States with Descriptions of Mine and Field Samples Collected between July 1, 1904 and June 30, 1910: Part 1. -- Analyses
From Significance and value of Analyses of Coal: "The analyses published in this report cover samples of coal collected in many different parts of the country with unusual care by experiences men, in such manner as to make them representative of extensive beds of coal."
Analyses of Coals in the United States with Descriptions of Mine and Field Samples Collected between July 1, 1904 and June 30, 1910 Part 2. Descriptions of Samples
From Introduction: "This volume contains the descriptions of the samples whose analyses are published in the preceding volume, Part I of this bulletin. The descriptions have been compiled from the notebooks of the persons who collected the samples, have been condensed from accounts given in published reports of the United States Geological Survey, or have furnished by the collection themselves. Inasmuch as the descriptions represent the work of many persons during a period of six years, and inasmuch as they were recorded under widely differing conditions, they necessarily vary in fullness detail."
Analyses of Tipple and Delivered Samples of Coal: (Collected During the Fiscal Years 1948 to 1950 Inclusive)
From Forward: "This bulletin is the first of a new series, which includes analyses of only tipple and delivered coal. It covers samples collected throughout the United States from July 1, 1947 to June 30, 1950 (fiscal years 1948-50). It is planned that future publications of this series will cover a period of one fiscal year only and be issued as soon as possible after June 30 of each year."
Analyses of Washington Coals: Supplement to Technical Paper 491
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing the technological advances made in the mining industry between 1931 and 1941. Mechanized methods for mining operations are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and a map.
Analyses of Washington Coals: Supplement to Technical Papers 491 and 618
From Washington Coalfields: The geographical distribution of the principal coal areas of Washington is shown in figure 1. Detailed information concerning these fields is given in Bureau of Mines Technical Paper 491. Further information on the minor coal areas is given in two bulletins of the Washington Division of Mines and Geology. Analyses, plastic properties, free-swelling indexes, and agglutinating values of the separate coals, together with data on yields of carbonization products and properties of the cokes produced in laboratory tests and under operating conditions."
Annual Report of Research and Technologic Work on Coal: Fiscal Year 1941
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the annual report over the research and technology of coal during 1941. As stated in the foreword, "these investigations increase our fund of exact knowledge on the properties and composition of American coals and lead to better methods in mining, preparing, storing, and utilizing coal" (p. 4). This report includes tables, illustrations, photographs, and a map.
Approximate Quantitative Microscopy of Pulverized Ores, Including the Use of the Camera Lucida
Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over microscopy of pulverized ores. As stated in the introduction, "this paper, which deals with the study of pulverized ores and the use of the camera lucida in such work, discusses an investigation undertaken at the Seattle and the Golden mining experiment stations of the Bureau of Mines" (p. 3). This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Beneficiation of Chromite Ores From Western United States
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the sampling of chrome ore deposits in the western United States. Physical properties of the samples collected are presented. This report includes tables.
Burning Washington Coals on Different Types of Domestic Stokers in the Same Hot-Water Boiler: Comparison with Hand and Oil Firing
From Purpose and Scope: "This bulletin presents the results of an investigation of domestic stokers at the Northwest Experiment Station of the Bureau of Mines. Previous publications have dealt with the burning characteristics of Washington coals on a domestic overfeed stoker, a clinker-type domestic underfeed stoker, and an ash-removal-type domestic underfeed stoker designed for burning anthracite. This report includes all the principal results obtained on the three domestic stokers tested and compares these results with those obtained on the same hot-water boiler by hand-firing and oil-firing."
Byproduct Coke-Oven Tests of Washington Coals
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the coking-coal testing done on Washington coal. Descriptions of the testing, and properties of the coals tested are presented. This report includes tables, and photographs.
Cape Disappointment, Washington--Oregon
Map showing biological resources (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms, land use, etc.) in the Cape Disappointment region of the Pacific coast area. Scale 1:250,000.
Cape Flattery, Washington, United States--British Columbia, Canada
Map showing biological resources (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms, land use, etc.) in the Cape Flattery region of the Pacific coast area. Scale 1:250,000.
Carbonizing Properties: British Columbia, Matanuska Valley (Alaska), and Washington Coals and Blends of Six of Them with Lower Sunnyside (Utah) Coals
From Introduction and Summary: "This report gives results of an investigation of the carbonizing properties of 18 coals, including 2 from Alaska, 12 from British Columbia, 3 from Washington, and 1 from Utah. Each coal was carbonized in the standard 13-inch Bureau of Mines-American Gas Association (BM-AGA) retort at 900 degrees C."
City Smoke Ordinances and Smoke Abatement
From Introduction: "In connection with the fuel investigations conducted by the Bureau of Mines much information has been accumulated as to the smoke abatement activities in various cities. The essential features of the information are presented in this report, which, it is believed, will be of public interest and benefit, especially to those communities that are just beginning organized effort to abate unnecessary smoke."
Cle Elum Iron-Nickel Deposits, Kittitas County, Washington
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on the iron-nickel deposits of Kittitas County, Washington. As stated in the introduction, "the investigation consisted of road building, diamond drilling, sampling, and metallurgical tests" (p. 1). This report includes tables and maps.
Coal-Mine Accidents in the United States and Foreign Countries
From Introduction: "The lack of comparable and accurate statistics of coal-mine accidents in the united States as a whole led the Bureau of Mines in 1911 to undertake the collection of such data. The mining departments of the leading foreign coal-producing countries have long taken cognizance of the importance of statistics. The bureau feels that in presenting the tables embodied in this report it is offering the and comparable statistics of coal-min accidents for the country as a whole that have ever been published."
Coal-Mining Problems in the State of Washington
From Introduction: "On account of extensive folding and faulting of the coal measures, mining in Washington presents many difficulties; therefore a description of the methods employed at some of the mines may be useful in planning operations in other regions, and is presented in this bulletin."
The Coke Industry of the United States as Related to the Foundry
From Introduction: "The present bulletin, published by the Bureau of Mines because of the analyzing and testing of fuels have been transferred from the Geographical Survey to the Bureau of Mines, briefly reviews the status of the coke industry, some features of practice in the use of coke in the foundry, the probable happenings of a cupola heat, and the reasons for modifying charging practice so that a particular coke can be used to best advantage."
Columbia River Estuary Hybrid Model Studies: Report 1, Verification of Hybrid Modeling of the Columbia River Mouth
From abstract: The Columbia Hybrid Modeling System was applied to the mouth of the Columbia River estuary to evaluate alternatives for reducing navigation channel maintenance dredging.
Columbia River Magnetite Sands, Clatsop County, Oregon, and Pacific County, Washington, Hammond and McGowan Deposits
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on investigations of the magnetite-bearing sands near the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington. Properties of the sands and magnetite deposits are listed. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Comparative Yields of Light Oil, Tar, and Constituents from Carbonization Tests at 800 Degrees, 900 Degrees, and 1,000 Degrees Celsius
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on testing done on a variety of American coals collected from 32 coal beds across the country. The carbonizing properties of samples tested at 3 different temperatures are presented. This report includes tables, and graphs.
Contributions to Economic Geology (Short Papers and Preliminary Reports), 1913: Part 2 -- Mineral Fuels
From introduction: This report determines the geographic distribution and thickness of the bituminous shale, or oil shale, or tar shale of the Green River formation of the Uinta Basin in Colorado and Utah.
Copalis Beach, Washington
Map showing biological resources (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms, land use, etc.) in the Copalis Beach region of the Pacific coast area. Scale 1:250,000.
Copper Mining in North America
From introduction: "In this paper are assembled and summarized many subjects relating to the copper industry in North America. Production of mines and districts, history of the industry in North America. Production of mines and districts, history of the industry, geology, of the principal deposits, and mining methods and costs are discussed."
Data Dictionary and Discussion for the Midnite Mine GIS Database
Abstract: A geographic information system (GIS) database has been developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) for the Midnite Mine and surroundings in northeastern Washington State (Stevens County) on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mine is an open pit uranium mine which has been inactive since 1981. The GIS database was compiled to serve as a repository and source of historical and research information on the mine site. The database supported USBM hydrological and reclamation research on the mine site. The database also will be used by the Bureau of Land Management and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (as well as others) for environmental assessment and reclamation planning for future remediation and reclamation of the site. This report describes the data in the GIS database and their characteristics. The report also discusses known backgrounds on the data sets and any special considerations encountered by the USBM in developing the database. Most of the database also is planned to be available to the public as a two-CD-ROM set, although separately from this report.
Deposits of Pre-1980 Pyroclastic Flows and Lahars from Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington
From introduction: This report describes the character, origin, age, and extent of deposits of pyroclastic flows and lahars that were formed at Mount St. Helens before 1980, and their stratigraphic relations to other rocks and deposits of volcanic and glacial origin.
Deterioration and Repair of Concrete in the Lower Monumental Navigation Lock Wall
"This report discusses surface deterioration and repairs of concrete in the Lower Monumental Lock on the Snake River in Washington. It includes discussion of laboratory studies, testing, construction, and field evaluation of the original concrete and of the various cementitious coatings used for repairs" (p. i).
Diamond Drilling in the Metaline District, Pend Oreille County, Washington
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines on exploration by diamond drilling in Pend Oreille County. Results of the exploration are presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Energy Related Use Conflicts for the Columbia River Estuary, Volume 2: Atlas
"This volume consists of 3 overviews, an index to the quadrants, and a series of 11 scenario maps that forecast energy related developments of the Lower Columbia River and Estuary from 1981 to 2006."
Exploration, Reserves, Bed Characteristics and Strip-Mining Possibilities of a Lignite Deposit Near Toledo, Lewis County, Washington
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing exploration of Lewis County lignite deposits in Washington. History, development, and drilling methods are presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Geology and Mineral Resources of the Northern Part of the North Cascades National Park, Washington
Introduction: This report was started as part of a study of the North Cascade Primitive Area, an area of about 830,000 acres, which adjoined the Canadian border on the north and which extended from Mount Shuksan on the west to Rock Mountain on the east. In the fall of 1968, Public Law 90-544, 90th Cong., reclassified the North Cascade Primitive Area and certain other national forest lands and created the North Cascades National Park, the Ross Lake National Recreation Area, and the Pasayten Wilderness. Ross Lake National Recreational Area, a corridor 21/2-4 miles wide along the Skagit River and its dammed portions, Ross, Diablo, and Gorge Lakes, separates the park into two parts and separates the northern part of the park from the Pasayten Wilderness. The present study concerns those parts of North Cascades National Park and the Ross Lake National Recreation Area that are north of Skagit River and west of Ross Lake (fig. 1), as well as part of the Mount Baker National Forest west of the park (pl. 2).
Groundwater Flow Model (GWFM) Development, Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington
This Report of Investigations (RI) is one of several describing work that has been completed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines at the Midnite uranium mine, Wellpinit, WA. Dean (in preparation) describes the entire project history. Four diskettes containing three archives compressed using WINZIP (or PKZIP) accompany the current RI. The ultimate purpose of this research effort was to develop a groundwater flow model (GWFM) for the Midnite Mine that can be utilized by the contractor preparing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and by other interested parties. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a shell model of the geology at the site, (2) develop the basis for a GWFM that will meet criteria described elsewhere in this RI and that can be updated with new information generated during the EIS process, and (3) present the results of two steady-state simulations of groundwater flow within the bedrock units. The current GWFM generates nonunique solutions because flow data for the bedrock units currently do not exist. However, the model provides useful results with respect to direction of flow. More data are required to model the bedrock aquifer system accurately. Volmnetric flow rates of the bedrock units should be measured or estimated. Measurements obtained from one or two drains completed in the bedrock in the southern portion of the site should yield these values.
Hoquiam, Washington--Oregon
Map showing biological resources (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms, land use, etc.) in the Hoquiam region of the Pacific coast area. Scale 1:250,000.
Hydraulic Characterization of Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington: Summary of 1994 Field Season
The Midnite Mine is an inactive uranium mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals, primarily pyrite, produces acidic water. Uranium and other radioactive constituents are chemically leached and dissolved in ground and surface waters. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has worked closely with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Spokane Tribe of Indians to address data needs for remediation of the disturbed area. As part of this effort, USBM personnel initiated research to determine water quality and define groundwater flow characteristics. Preliminary results of hydraulic stress tests performed in the bedrock at the site are described. Slug tests and pumping tests were conducted using preexisting USBM monitoring wells. Slug test results were used to generate hydraulic conductivity estimates for fractured and unfractured intrusives. The pumping tests demonstrated varying degrees of spatial continuity. Hydraulically continuous fractured zones along north-south planes were demonstrated in two cases for distances of 90 and 116 m (300 and 380 ft). The short-term pumping tests provided no evidence of east-west hydraulic continuity in fractured zones.
Hydrologic and Geophysical Studies at Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, Washington: Summary of 1995 Field Season
Abstract: The Midnite Mine is an inactive, hard-rock uranium mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals, primarily pyrite, produces large quantities of acidic water. Uranium and other radioactive constituents are chemically leached and dissolved in ground and surface waters. The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has worked closely with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Land Management, and the Spokane Tribe of Indians to address data needs for remediation of the disturbed area. As part of this effort, USBM personnel initiated research to determine water quality and define groundwater flow characteristics. Long-term changes in water quality and the results of slug tests and two geophysical surveys are described. Of the locations monitored, only two exhibited water quality degradation over time. Hydraulic conductivity measurements from slug tests are reported for five additional locations in the bedrock. Relative values of hydraulic conductivity from slug tests agreed well with ranked specific capacity data. A geophysical survey identified buried constructed features that channel subsurface water to a contaminated seep. Historic aerial photos corroborated the results of the geophysical study. A new geophysical technique was successfully used to monitor hydraulic and geochemical responses to a pumping test in saturated waste rock.
Investigation of the Electric Point and Gladstone Lead-Zinc Mines, Stevens County, Washington
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines regarding studies conducted on lead-zinc mines in Stevens County, Washington. As stated in the introduction, "this report presents the factual data obtained from the trenching and sampling operations" (p. 1). This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Investigation of the Young American Lead-Zinc Deposit, Stevens County, Washington
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations of mines in Stevens County, Washington. The history, geology, and physical features of the mines are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Iron and Steel Scrap in the Pacific Northwest
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing the iron and steel scrap industry in the Pacific Northwest. As stated in the introduction, "this report surveys the supply and consumption of iron and steel scrap in the Pacific Northwest, with emphasis on Oregon and Washington" (p. 2). This report includes maps, tables, illustrations
Jigging, Classification, Tabling, and Flotation Tests of Coals Presenting Difficult Washing Problems, with Particular Reference to Coals from Pierce County, Washington
From Content and Arrangement of Report: "For the convenience of the reader the bulletin has been divided into two parts. Part I describes the investigation and summarizes the most important results. Part II gives the detailed data of the best of the washing tests by each process."
Loss of Life Among Wearers of Oxygen Breathing Apparatus
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing fatalities of mine workers while wearing self-contained oxygen breathing apparatuses. Descriptions of the circumstances surrounding the deaths of 26 workers are presented. This report includes a table.
Low-Temperature Carbonization Assays of North American Coals
Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on low-temperature carbonization of coal. Methods and results of the studies are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Mercury: A Materials Survey
Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing materials surveys conducted on mercury. As stated in the foreword, "the surveys dealing with metals and minerals summarize the demand-supply position in the United States and include information on production, imports, consumption, exports, substitutes, and pertinent history" (p. v). This report includes maps, tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Midnite Mine Summary Report
The Midni'e Mine is an inactive, hard-rock uranium mine in Stevens County, WA. Oxidation of sulfide-containing minerals in the ore body produces large quantities of acidic water. The U.S. Bureau of Mines was directed by Congress in Fiscal Year 1994 to perform technological research on the treatment of radioactive water and disposal of treatment residues at the Midnite Mine and en overall site reclamation. This Report of Investigations summarizes the studies that were completed on: 1) treatment alternatives for uranium contaminated acid mine drainage, and 2) overall site reclamation, including: ground water flowpaths in the bedrock, radiation, and waste rock reactivity. As an aid to site reclamation, a Geographic Information System database was also produced that contains available current and historic data and information on the Midnite Mine. This report explains the scope of the Bureau's study and summarizes the results of its investigations.
Ochers and Mineral Pigments of the Pacific Northwest : Occurrence, Possible Methods of Preparation, and Testing of Ochers, Siennas, and Colored Clays
From Introduction: "A review is given of the nomenclature, sources, imports, statistics, common methods of preparation, and testing of mineral pigments. A description of the Deer Park-Spokane colored-clay district and the laboratory methods of preparation of these colored clays, ochers, and siennas follows. The following report is merely preliminary in nature, only three months during the summer of 1927 being devoted to the laboratory investigation."