The failure of wing panels on a number of TBF-1 and TBM-1 airplanes in flight has prompted several investigations of the possible causes of failure. This report describes tests in the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel to determine whether these failures could be attributed to changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of the ailerons at high speeds. The tests were made of a 12-foot-span section including the tip and aileron of the right wing of a TBF-1 airplane. Hinge moments, control-link stresses due to aerodynamic buffeting, and fabric-deflection photographs were obtained at true airspeeds ranging from 110 to 365 miles per hour. The aileron hinge-moment coefficients were found to vary only slightly with airspeed in spite of the large fabric deflections that developed as the speed was increased. An analysis of these results indicated that the resultant hinge moment of the ailerons as installed in the airplane would tend to restore the ailerons to their neutral position for all the high-speed flight conditions covered in the tests. Serious aerodynamic buffeting occurred at up aileron angles of -10 degrees or greater because of stalling of the sharp projecting lip of the Frise aileron. The peak stresses set up in the aileron control linkages in the buffeting condition were as high as three times the mean stress. During the hinge-moment investigation, flutter of the test installation occurred at airspeeds of about 150 miles per hour. This flutter condition was investigated in some detail and slow-motion pictures were made of the motion of the wing tip and aileron. The flutter was found to involve simultaneous normal bending and chordwise oscillation of the wing and flapping of the aileron. The aileron motion appeared to be coupled with this flutter condition and was investigated in some detail and slow-motion pictures were made of the motion of the ...
A theoretical investigation was made of the behavior of a cantilever beam in rotational motion about a transverse axis through the root determining the stresses, the deflections, and the accelerations that occur in the beam as a result of the arrest of motion. The equations for bending and shear stress reveal that, at a given percentage of the distance from root to tip and at a given trip velocity, the bending stresses for a particular mode are independent of the length of the beam and the shear stresses vary inversely with the length. When examined with respect to a given angular velocity instead of a given tip velocity, the equations reveal that the bending stress is proportional to the length of the beam whereas the shear stress is independent of the length. Sufficient experimental verification of the theory has previously been given in connection with another problem of the same type.
Date: June 1, 1945
Creator: Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schwartz, Edward B & Houbolt, John C
Small high-speed single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were tested to determine their performance characteristics under high supercharging. Calculations were made on the energy available in the exhaust gas of the compression-ignition engines. The maximum power at any given maximum cylinder pressure was obtained when the compression pressure was equal to the maximum cylinder pressure. Constant-pressure combustion was found possible at an engine speed of 2200 rpm. Exhaust pressures and temperatures were determined from an analysis of indicator cards. The analysis showed that, at rich mixtures with the exhaust back pressure equal to the inlet-air pressure, there is excess energy available for driving a turbine over that required for supercharging. The presence of this excess energy indicates that a highly supercharged compression-ignition engine might be desirable as a compressor and combustion chamber for a turbine.
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