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Annual Report to the Congress: Fiscal Year 1995

Description: This report includes statements by the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the board, TAAC Chairman, and the director of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). The report discusses the year in review regarding the work in progress, organization and operations of OTA.
Date: March 1996
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
open access

D0 papers on B-physics submitted to DPF '96: b-quark inclusive cross sections and b anti-b correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment; Single muon production in the forward region at [radical]s=1. 8 TEV; Rapidity dependence of the inclusive J[psi] production in the forward region [radical]s=1. 8 TEV; A search for b [r arrow] X[mu][sup +][mu][sup [minus]] and B[sup 0] [r arrow] [mu][sup +][mu][sup [minus]] decays in p anti-p collisions at [radical]s=1. 8 TEV

Description: Paper 1: Using dimuons collected with the D0 detector during the 1993--1995 Tevatron collider run, the authors have measured the b-quark cross section and b[anti b] correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors. (Three other papers are included in this report.)
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Vititoe, D.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics); Kozelov, Alexander; Jesik, Richard & Collaboration., D0
open access

Geologic Processes at the Land Surface

Description: A report about erosion, deposition, soil formation, and water flow. It discusses hazards such as landslides, dust storms, floods, topsoil loss, ecosystem change, water contamination, and soil contamination.
Date: 1996
Creator: Wilshire, Howard G.; Howard, Keith A.; Wentworth, Carl M. & Gibbons, Helen
open access

Chronology of Late Cretaceous Igneous and Hydrothermal Events at the Golden Sunlight Gold-Silver Breccia Pipe, Southwestern Montana

Description: A report about gold mineralization at the Golden Sunlight breccia pipe, southwestern Montana, is related to emplacement of Late Cretaceous alkali-calcic rhyolite and subsequent collapse of the Belt Supergroup wallrock and rhyolite in the pipe.
Date: 1996
Creator: DeWitt, Ed; Foord, Eugene E.; Zartman, Robert E.; Pearson, Robert C. & Foster, Fess
open access

Plugging temperature indicator computer simulation

Description: The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) is a sodium-cooled nuclear reactor with thermal and electrical outputs of 62 and 20 megawatts, respectively. EBR-2 has plugging temperature indicators (PTIs) in the sodium coolant system to measure the temperature that impurities will precipitate from the coolant. High plugging temperatures are undesirable because impurities can precipitate in cold reactor piping and inhibit sodium flow. Reading a plugging temperature accurately from a typical plugging run is important. A computer simulation program performs simulated plugging runs to optimize PTI operation. The simulation program also assisted electrical engineers in designing and testing a new PTI control system in their computer development laboratory.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Vaden, D.E.
open access

Impact-generated atmospheric plumes: The threat to satellites in low-earth orbit

Description: Computational simulations of the impacts of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) fragments on Jupiter provide a framework for interpreting the observations. A reasonably consistent picture has emerged, along with a more detailed understanding of atmospheric collisional processes. The knowledge gained from the observations and simulations of SL9 has led us to consider the threat of impact-generated plumes to satellites in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Preliminary simulations suggest that impacts of a size that recur about once per century on Earth generate plumes that rise to nearly 1000 km over an area thousands of km in diameter. Detailed modeling of such plumes is needed to quantify this threat to satellites in LEO. Careful observations of high-energy atmospheric entry events using both satellite and ground- based instruments would provide validation for these computational models.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Boslough, M. B. & Crawford, D. A.
open access

A Monte Carlo model system for core analysis and epithermal neutron beam design at the Washington State University Radiation Center

Description: The Monte Carlo Model System (MCMS) for the Washington State University (WSU) Radiation Center provides a means through which core criticality and power distributions can be calculated, as well as providing a method for neutron and photon transport necessary for BNCT epithermal neutron beam design. The computational code used in this Model System is MCNP4A. The geometric capability of this Monte Carlo code allows the WSU system to be modeled very accurately. A working knowledge of the MCNP4A neutron transport code increases the flexibility of the Model System and is recommended, however, the eigenvalue/power density problems can be run with little direct knowledge of MCNP4A. Neutron and photon particle transport require more experience with the MCNP4A code. The Model System consists of two coupled subsystems; the Core Analysis and Source Plane Generator Model (CASP), and the BeamPort Shell Particle Transport Model (BSPT). The CASP Model incorporates the S({alpha}, {beta}) thermal treatment, and is run as a criticality problem yielding, the system eigenvalue (k{sub eff}), the core power distribution, and an implicit surface source for subsequent particle transport in the BSPT Model. The BSPT Model uses the source plane generated by a CASP run to transport particles through the thermal column beamport. The user can create filter arrangements in the beamport and then calculate characteristics necessary for assessing the BNCT potential of the given filter want. Examples of the characteristics to be calculated are: neutron fluxes, neutron currents, fast neutron KERMAs and gamma KERMAs. The MCMS is a useful tool for the WSU system. Those unfamiliar with the MCNP4A code can use the MCMS transparently for core analysis, while more experienced users will find the particle transport capabilities very powerful for BNCT filter design.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Burns, T.D. Jr.
open access

SEM/EDS analysis of boron in waste glasses with ultrathin window detector and digital pulse processor

Description: Analysis of boron in waste glasses and in the reaction products that form during the reaction of glass is important for understanding the reaction kinetics and mechanism of glass corrosion. Two borosilicate waste glasses (1.55 and 3.47 wt% B) have been analyzed by SEM/EDS. The 1.55 wt% is the lowest B concentration detected with EDS. However, the B peaks severely overlap with the C peaks due to the carbon films used for conductive layers, but this problem can be solved by subtracting the C peaks, and possibly even lower B content could be detected by EDS with the digital pulse processor.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Luo, J.S.; Wolf, S.F.; Ebert, W.L. & Bates, J.K.
open access

Report on discussions with utility engineers about superconducting generators

Description: This report relates to a series of discussions with electric utility engineers concerning the integration of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generators into the present electric power system. The current and future interest of the utilities in the purchase and use of HTS generators is assessed. Various performance and economic factors are also considered as part of this inspection of the utility prospects for HTS generators. Integration of HTS generators into the electric utility sector is one goal of the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI). The SPI, a major part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, features vertical teaming of a major industrial power apparatus manufacturers, a producer of HTS wire, and an end-user with assistance and technical support for the national laboratories. The SPI effort on HTS generators is headed by a General Electric Corporation internal team comprised of the Corporate Research Laboratories, Power Generation Engineering, and Power Systems Group. Intermagnetics General corporation, which assisted in the development of the superconducting coils, is the HTS wire and tape manufacturer. Additional technical support is provided by the national laboratories: Argonne, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge, and the New York State Institute on Superconductivity. The end-user is represented by Niagara-Mohawk and the Electric Power Research Institute.
Date: March 1, 1996
open access

Multi-kiloampere, electron-beam generation using metal photo-cathodes driven by ArF and KrF lasers

Description: An electron-beam-pumped laser operating at ArF (193 nm) or KrF (248 nm) producing 35 MW (3.5 J in 100 ns) has been used to illuminate a micro-machined aluminum cathode. The cathode was pulsed to 2.75 MV at fields of 185 kV/cm (15-cm AK gap) using REX[1,2](a 4-MV, 5-kA,85-ns) pulsed-diode machine. The extracted current versus incident laser power, and therefore, quantum efficiency was measured for KrF at 5x10{sup -5}; ArF was significantly higher at 1x10{sup -3}. Current densities of 100 A/cm{sup 2} and total currents of 2 kA have been achieved, the latter by increasing the cathode area in proportion to the laser power.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Carlson, R. L.; Moya, S. A.; Ridlon, R. N.; Seitz, G. J. & Shurter, R. P.
open access

Low-cost automated fiber pigtailing machine. Revision 1

Description: The goal of this 2-year ARPA-funded project was to design and build 3 low-cost machines to perform sub-micron alignment and attachments of single-mode fibers to different OE devices. These Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machines (AFPMs) are intended to be compatible with a manufacturing environment and have a modular design for maximum flexibility and standardization of parts. Machine vision enables the AFPM to perform sufficient alignment to couple light for maximization. This work was a collaboration among Uniphase Telecommunications Products (formerly United Technologies Photonics, UTP), Ortel, Newport/Klinger, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Manufacturing Institute (MIT), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). UTP and Ortel are the industrial partners for whom two of the AFPMs were built. MIT and LLNL made up the design and assembly team of the project, while Newport/Klinger was a potential manufacturer of the AFPM and provided guidance to ensure that the design of the AFPM is marketable and compatible with a manufacturing environment. The AFPM for UTP pigtails LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide devices and the AFPM for Ortel pigtails photodiodes. Both of these machines contain proprietary information, so the third AFPM, residing at LLNL, pigtails a non-proprietary waveguide device for demonstrations to US industry and further development.
Date: January 1996
Creator: Strand, O. T.
open access

Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

Description: Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.
Date: February 15, 1996
open access

NMR spectroscopic investigations of surface and interlayer species on minerals, clays and other oxides

Description: The behavior of chemical species adsorbed on solid surfaces and exchanged into clay interlayers plays a significant role in controlling many natural and technologically important processes, including rheological behavior, catalysis, plant growth, transport in natural pore fluids and those near anthropogenic hazardous waste sites, and water-mineral interaction. Adsorption and exchange reactions have been the focus of intense study for many decades. Only more recently, however, have there been extensive spectroscopic studies of surface species. Among the spectroscopic methods useful for studying surface and exchanged species (e.g., infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [XPS] and X-ray absorption spectroscopy [XAS]), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has the considerable advantage of providing not only structural information via the chemical shift and quadrupole coupling constant but dynamical information in the Hz-mHz range via lineshape analysis and relaxation rate measurements. It is also possible to obtain data in the presence of a separate fluid phase, which is essential for many applications. This paper illustrates the range of applications of NMR methods to surface and exchanged species through review of recent work from our laboratory on Cs in clay interlayers and Cs, Na and phosphate adsorbed on oxide surfaces. The substrate materials used for these experiments and our long-term objectives are related to problems of geochemical interest, but the principals and techniques are of fundamental interest and applicable to a wide range of technological problems.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Kirkpatrick, R. J.; Yeongkyoo, Kim.; Weiss, C. A. & Cygan, R. T.
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