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1/m<sub>c</sub> Terms in lambda<sup>+</sup><sub>c</sub> Semileptonic Decays
We use the heavy quark effective theory to investigate the form factors that describe the semileptonic decays lambda<sup>+</sup><sub>c</sub> -> lambda e<sup>+</sup> nu, to order 1/m<sub>c</sub>. We find that a total of four form factors are needed to this order, in contrast with two form factors to leading order, and six form factors in the most general case. We point out some relationships that arise among the general form factors.
A 2 to 4 nm high power FEL on the SLAC linac
We report the results of preliminary studies of a 2 to 4 nm SASE FEL, using a photoinjector to produce the electron beam, and the SLAC linac to accelerate it to an energy up to 10 GeV. Longitudinal bunch compression is used to increases ten fold the peak current to 2.5 kA, while reducing the bunch length to the subpicosecond range. The saturated output power is in the multi-gigawatt range, producing about 10{sup 14} coherent photons within a bandwidth of about 0.2% rms, in a pulse of several millijoules. At 120Hz repetition rate the average power is about 1 W. The system is optimized for x-ray microscopy in the water window around 2 to 4 nm, and will permit imaging a biological sample in a single subpicosecond pulse.
7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative. Conceptual Design Report
In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R & D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R & D.
1991 OCRWM bulletin compilation and index
The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The document is a compilation of issues from the 1991 calendar year. A table of contents and an index have been provided to reference information contained in this year`s Bulletins.
1992 annual report to the National Science Foundation
The Geometry Center research program has a number of different aspects. This report documents the work of the past year. The activities described here are organized under intertwined areas: manifold geometry and associated group theory; optimal geometries; dynamical systems; and computational geometry and computer graphics.
1992 PVUSA progress report
Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date. Fall PV module costs and rising environmental pressures could make PV a significant source of large-scale power within the next decade. However, utility acceptance of this technology requires knowledge of PV operational characteristics in a utility system and confidence in predicting PV performance, reliability, and economics. PVUSA consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technologies (EMTs), which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW (nominal) turnkey systems.
1992 Technical progress report of the University of South Carolina`s High Energy Physics Group
The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina includes five teaching faculty members, one research faculty member, and five graduate students. Professors Childers and Darden devote most of their research effort to Fermilab experiment E789, which is designed to observe charmless two-body decays of b-flavored mesons and baryons. Prof. Wilson works on E789 and also on Fermilab experiment E687 which studies charm physics in the wide-band photon beam. Professors Rosenfeld and Wang participate in the AMY collaboration, which studies electron-positron interactions using the TRISTAN collider at KEK. Prof. Rosenfeld and one student collaborate with personnel from KEK and INS, Tokyo, on an experiment to detect a 17 keV neutrino in the {beta}-decay spectrum of {sup 63}Ni. Profs. Avignone and Rosenfeld are charter members of Fermilab proposal P803, which will search for the oscillation of muon neutrino to tau neutrino with sensitivity better than a factor of 40 than previously achieved. A brief discussion on the progress of each program is given.
33rd Annual Report
The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California
This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.
Accounting for the effect of TDS and NCG on Salton Sea reservoir response
The Salton Sea reservoir, located in Imperial County, Ca., is unique in several ways from most liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs that have been developed to date. One of these differences is the presence of hyper-saline brines containing up to 28% TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and up to 0.2% NCG (Non-Condensible Gas). A simple material and energy balance model has been developed to study the effect of TDS and NCG on Salton Sea reservoir response. This study demonstrated that during the development of a two-phase system the partitioning of the NCG into the vapor phase and the consequential concentration of the TDS in the brine drastically alters the reservoir fluid properties. In modeling pressure depletion of hyper-saline reservoirs, such as the Salton Sea, these changes in reservoir fluid composition were shown to seriously affect the simulation results. As a result of these findings, a compositional fluid property package was developed using published data on H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl mixtures. This fluid property package was then incorporated into the simulation program used by Unocal. Validation of the fluid property package in this simulation program was made using measured reservoir temperature, surface enthalpy, and surface flash data. The development of a compositional simulation program for geothermal applications has advanced our ability to study depletion mechanisms that are sensitive to compositional changes. This program is currently being used to study the effect of injection and steam cap development on long term operations and to develop a field model of the Salton Sea reservoir.
An accurate formulation of the solubility of Co{sub 2} in water, for geothermal applications
The solubility correlations for the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} system applied so far for numerical simulation of geothermal reservoir and well flows are crude. This is due, at least partly, to the significant disagreement existing between the solubility models and results published in the specialized literature. In this work we analyze the reasons underlying this disagreement. On this basis, we propose a thermodynamically correct, and numerically accurate model for the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. Its range of validity is up to 350 C and 500 bar. Our main contributions are: (a) the adoption of an equation of state for the gas phase that realistically accounts for the non-ideal behavior of both components and that of the mixture, within the P-T range considered; and (b) to accurately include the effects of temperature and pressure on the solubility of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase. The proposed model fits the available phase equilibrium data for the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} system nicely. In particular, it does not present the severe conflict between the linearity of the model and the lack of linearity of the data, evident in earlier models. The tight fit obtained with our model indicates that the complexities of H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} phase equilibrium are well represented by it.
An accurate PVT model for geothermal fluids as represented by H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl mixtures
Estimates for the pressure decline in high TDS geothermal fluids containing dissolved gases are extremely sensitive to the PVT representation of the reservoir fluid. Significant errors in predicted pressures will occur if the geothermal fluid is represented by one or two pseudo components with modified water properties. As a result, we have developed a PVT model to predict the thermodynamic properties of a prototype geothermal fluid as represented by three-component H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl mixtures. The range of applicability of the model is: Temperatures from 75 to 700+ F, pressures from 14.7 to 5000 psi, carbon dioxide content from 0-5 wt%, and salt concentrations to 30 wt%. The model has been implemented into Unocal's version of a commercially available reservoir simulator and is currently being used to study one of Unocal's high salinity reservoirs located in the Imperial Valley of California.
Actinide Recovery Using Aqueous Biphasic Extraction: Initial Developmental Studies
Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.
Adaptation of the Minerals Management Service's Oil-Weathering Model for Use in the Gulf of Mexico Region
The Minerals Management Service's open-ocean, oil-weathering model has been updated extensively for use on personal computers to determine what oil-weathering processes are wind and/or temperature dependent. Provides detailed user's instructions on how to use the model, examples demonstrating the model, and program listings.
Addendum to Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Effect of 1992 revision of global warming potential (GWP) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
This addendum contains 2 important messages. (1) This document supersedes all previous versions of this work. Please do not use any older versions any more. (2) The atmospheric-science community now believes that it cannot estimate confidently the ''Global Warming Potentials'' (GWPs) of the indirect effects of greenhouse gases. A GWP is a number that converts a mass-unit emission of a greenhouse gas other than CO{sub 2} into the mass amount of CO{sub 2} that has an equivalent warming effect over a given period of time. This report refers to GWPs as ''CO{sub 2}-equivalency factors.'' For example, a forthcoming report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change disavows many of the GWPs estimated in an earlier IPCC report, and states that GWPs for the indirect effects of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases cannot be estimated accurately yet. However, this does not mean that in principle there are no GWPs for the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases; rather, it means that some of the GWPs are uncertain, and that the earlier IPCC estimates of the GWPs may or may not turn out to be right (albeit, in at lease one case, discussed in this paper, the earlier estimates almost certainly will be wrong). In this report the author used the IPCC's 1990 estimates of the GWPs for 20-, 100-, and 500-year time horizons, and expressed the bottom-line results for each of these three time horizons. However, the recent uncertainty about the GWPs affects how you should interpret the results. Because the IPCC has disclaimed some of its GWPs, the GWPs as a group no longer are the best estimates of the warming effects over 20, 100, and 500 years. Instead, they are just a collection of possible values for the GWPs--in short, scenarios. Therefore, you should interpret the ''20-, 100-, and 500-year time ...
Addendum to environmental monitoring plan Nevada Test Site and support facilities
This 1992 Addendum to the ``Environmental Monitoring Plan Nevada Test Site and Support Facilities -- 1991,`` Report No. DOE/NV/1 0630-28 (EMP) applies to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) operations on the Continental US (including Amchitka Island, Alaska) that are under the purview of the DOE Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The primary purpose of these operations is the conduct of the nuclear weapons testing program for the DOE and the Department of Defense. Since 1951, these tests have been conducted principally at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. In accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, this 1992 Addendum to the EMP brings together, in one document, updated information and/or new sections to the description of the environmental activities conducted at the NTS by user organizations, operations support contractors, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) originally published in the EMP. The EPA conducts both the offsite environmental monitoring program around the NTS and post-operational monitoring efforts at non-NTS test locations used between 1961 and 1973 in other parts of the continental US All of these monitoring activities are conducted under the auspices of the DOE/NV, which has the stated policy of conducting its operations in compliance with both the letter and the spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards.
Adding adsorption to a geothermal simulator
Physical adsorption of steam has increasingly become recognized as an important storage mechanism in vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs. A method has been developed which allows the effects of adsorption to be modeled using TETRAD, a commercially available geothermal simulator. The method consists of replacing the standard steam table with a new steam table which has been derived to include adsorptive effects. The TETRAD simulator, when run with the pseudo steam table, approximately matches the pressure, production, and saturation behavior of a desorbing geothermal system. Adsorption can be described as the existence of an immobile layer of liquid on the surfaces within a porous medium. The presence of an adsorbed liquid water layer in rocks has been shown experimentally to cause the vapor pressure of steam to be lower than its flat surface vapor pressure for a particular The pseudo steam table accounts for this vapor pressure lowering effect. A test run was made with TETRAD using the pseudo steam table and a low porosity, low permeability reservoir matrix. This test run was compared to an equivalent run made with Stanford Geothermal Program's simulator, ADSORB. The program ADSORB is a one dimensional simulator which has adsorption effects built into its difference equations. The comparison of these runs shows that the pseudo steam table allows TETRAD to match the behavior of the ADSORB simulator. Injection was not investigated in this study. A convenient method of modeling adsorption with TETRAD is to use standard steam tables while allowing for the vapor pressure lowering effect of adsorption. This will require modifications of the equations in the code that describe the partial pressure of the steam phase.
Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992
This report contains a description of technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project (ACCP). This project will demonstrate an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal will be processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors that will remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal will be put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process effect separation of the pyrite rich ash. The process will enhance low-rank western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25--55%, sulfur content of 0.5--1.5%, and heating value of 5500--9000 Btu/lb by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1%, sulfur content as low as 0.3%, and heating value up to 12,0 00 Btu/lb. The 45 ton/hr unit will be located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near the town of Colstrip in southeastern Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercia; facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently commercial size.
Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research
This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.
After the Cold War: Living With Lower Defense Spending
This report focuses on ways to handle the dislocation of workers and communities that is, to some degree, inevitable in the defense cutback. It opens a discussion of how defense technologies might be converted to commercial applications. The second and final report of the assessment will continue that discussion and will concentrate on opportunities to channel human and technological resources into building a stronger civilian economy.
Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report
The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility.
Los Alamos National Laboratory environmental restoration program group audit report for underground storage tank removal: Audit ER-92- 04, July 22--August 11, 1992
Audit ER-92-04 was conducted on activities being performed by Waste Management (EM-7), Environmental Protection (EM-8), and Environmental Restoration (EM-13) groups for the LANL`s underground storage tank removal program. Scope of the audit was limited to an evaluation of the implementation of the State of New Mexico requirements for underground storage-tank removal. Activities were evaluated using requirements specified in the State of New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board Underground Storage Tank Regulations, EIB/USTR. Two recommendations are made: (1) that a single organization be given the responsibility and authority for the implementation of the program, and (2) that the requirements of the NM State environmental improvement board underground storage tank regulations be reviewed and a Los Alamos procedure written to address requirements and interfaces not contained in SOP-EM7-D&D-001.
America Takes Stock of a Vast Energy Resource
Third of a series produced by the Technical Information Program, National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Utility Wind Interest Group.
Analyses for conversion of the Georgia Tech Research Reactor from HEU to LEU fuel
This document presents information concerning: analyses for conversion of the Georgia Tech Research Reactor from HEU to LEU; changes to technical specifications mandated by the conversion of the GTRR to low enrichment fuel; changes in the Safety Analysis Report mandated by the conversion of the GTRR to low enrichment fuel; and copies of all changed pages of the SAR and the technical specifications.
Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1992
The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is, aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Part of the numerical model task is to investigate the sensitivity of the in-situ rock-physical properties of the formation such as porosity and permeability on three-component seismograms, and the pressure, as well as phase velocity and attenuation. For this purpose we have developed software to simulate synthetic seismograins associated with a point-source (compressional wave), and a point force (shear wave), in stratified fluid-filled porous media. In addition, we have developed software to calculate phase velocity and attenuation from interwell seismic waveforms. To demonstrate the use of these capabilities we present examples to simulate seismograms and dispersion and attenuation curves.
Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], July 1--September 30, 1992
The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Progress reports are presented by Task 3 conduct full-scale experimental field test and Task 4 data processing studies. For Task 3, interwell seismic experiments were conducted in the month of September at the University of Oklahoma Gypsy test site which is located in Pawnee County, Oklahoma. During the field test a full suite of interwell seismic data were acquired and will be used to extract rock porosity and permeability. In particular, interwell seismic experiments were conducted using two borehole hydrophone arrays (streamers) consisting of twelve detector channels (i.e., simultaneous source-to-detector measurements were made in two boreholes pairs having different separation distances) for source-independent seismic attenuation and dispersion studies.
Analysis of a dedicated rotation experiment in TFTR
The results and analysis of a well-diagnosed, dedicated rotation experiment in TFTR are presented. Various neoclassical and anomalous theories for momentum transport are described and compared with the experimental data. The gyroviscocity theory is able to predict the measured central toroidal rotation speed, momentum confinement time and radial torque flow profile reasonably well when a poloidal asymmetry factor {tilde {Theta}} = 1.5 is used. The cold-ion-perpendicular-viscocity theory requires the assumption of an implausibly large number of cold ions in order to predict the magnitude of the experimental torque flow. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode theory, the untrapped-particle-electrostatic-mode theory and the stochastic-magnetic-perturbation theory all predict torque flows that differ greatly in magnitude, radial profile and parametric dependence from the experimental values.
Analysis of Pressure Transient Data from the Sumikawa Geothermal Field
The permeability structure of the Sumikawa geothermal field in northern Japan has been the subject of an extensive pressure-transient testing investigation since 1986. In this paper, various pertinent data sets are presented and analyzed, including results showing reservoir heterogeneity (i.e. boundary) effects and apparent double porosity behavior. Interference tests between wells SB-3 and SD-2 (both of which have feedpoints in dacitic layers in the ''marine-volcanic complex'' formation) were carried out during 1990. The results have been interpreted to indicate the presence of a moderately high permeability ({approx} 4 darcy-meters) layer with two impermeable boundaries intersecting at a right angle. The 1988 pressure buildup data for well SN-7D are also explained by assuming two impermeable boundaries in a high transmissivity reservoir within the deep ''granodiorite'' formation. Interference tests between wells S-4 and KY-1 have suggested that a very permeable north-south channel is present in the ''altered andesite'' layer. Although the response was successfully interpreted using an ''anisotropic line-source model'' by Garg et al. (1991), a ''double porosity channel model'' seems to be particularly applicable for explaining both the short-term and long-term behavior observed in this series of tests.
An analytical method for estimating the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters of organic compounds with complex free induction decays for radiation effects studies
The use of {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as a radiation dosimetry tool has only recently been explored. An analytical method for analyzing {sup 14}N NQR complex free induction decays is presented with the background necessary to conduct pulsed NQR experiments. The {sup 14}N NQR energy levels and possible transitions are derived in step-by-step detail. The components of a pulsed NQR spectrometer are discussed along with the experimental techniques for conducting radiation effects experiments using the spectrometer. Three data analysis techniques -- the power spectral density Fourier transform, state space singular value decomposition (HSVD), and nonlinear curve fitting (using the downhill simplex method of global optimization and the Levenberg-Marquart method) -- are explained. These three techniques are integrated into an analytical method which uses these numerical techniques in this order to determine the physical NQR parameters. Sample data sets of urea and guanidine sulfate data are used to demonstrate how these methods can be employed to analyze both simple and complex free induction decays. By determining baseline values for biologically significant organics, radiation effects on the NQR parameters can be studied to provide a link between current radiation dosimetry techniques and the biological effects of radiation.
Angular distribution of the J/psi pi0 events ON and OFF the 1P1 resonance
The angular distribution of the J/{psi} {pi}{sup 0} signal in the {sup 1}P{sub 1} energy region is compared to the distribution of the background events (off resonance and in the {eta}{prime}{sub c} region).
Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures
High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.
Anisotropy of the Topopah Spring Member Tuff
Mechanical properties of the tuffaceous rocks within Yucca Mountain are needed for near and far-field modeling of the potential nuclear waste repository. If the mechanical properties are significantly anisotropic (i.e., direction-dependent), a more complex model is required. Relevant data from tuffs tested in earlier studies indicate that elastic and strength properties are anisotropic. This scoping study confirms the elastic anisotropy and concludes some tuffs are transversely isotropic. An approach for sampling and testing the rock to determine the magnitude of the anisotropy is proposed.
ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991
This report provides an overview of progress during FY 1991 for the Technical Support Program that is part of the ANL Technology Support Activity for DOE, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The purpose is to evaluate, before hot start-up of the Defenses Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), factors that are likely to affect glass reaction in an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. Specific goals for the testing program include the following: (1) to review and evaluate available information on parameters that will be important in establishing the long-term performance of glass in a repository environment; (2) to perform testing to further quantify the effects of important variables where there are deficiencies in the available data; and (3) to initiate long-term testing that will bound glass performance under a range of conditions applicable to repository disposal.
ANL Technical Support Program for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Annual Report October 1990 - September 1991
A program has been established for DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to evaluate factors that are likely to affect waste glass reaction during repository disposal, with emphasis on an unsaturated environment typical of what may be expected for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site.
Annual Coded Wire Program: Oregon Missing Production Groups: 1992 Annual Report.
The goal of this project is to develop the ability to estimate hatchery production survival values and evaluate effectiveness of Oregon hatcheries.
Annual report 1991 - Science and Engineering Alliance, Inc.
Nineteen ninety-one was a busy and productive year for the Science and Engineering Alliance (SEA). This report covers the major programs and activities of the SEA during the fiscal year 1991 (the year ending September 30, 1991), which was the first year of operation. Where warranted, the report highlights some of the events from the last quarter of the calendar year. The SEA is a non-profit consortium of four Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The SEA members are Alabama A&M University (Normal, Alabama); Jackson State University (Jackson, Mississippi); Prairie View A&M University (Prairie View, Texas); and Southern University and A&M College (Baton Rouge, Louisiana). The SEA`s mission is to help increase the number of well-qualified minority scientists for the next century and beyond, and to provide input into the research and development needs of the nation. The SEA collaborates on research projects with government agencies, national laboratories, private foundations, industry and other universities in a broad range of technical areas.
Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991
This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.
Annual report to Congress
This is the eighth annual report submitted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to Congress. It covers activities and expenditures during Fiscal Year 1991, which ended September 30, 1991. Chapter 1 of this report describes OCRWM`s mission and objectives. Chapters 2 through 8 cover the following topics: earning public trust and confidence; geological disposal; monitored retrieval storage; transportation; systems integration and regulatory compliance; international programs; and program management. Financial statements for the Nuclear Waste Fund are presented in Chapter 9.
Annual Report to the Congress: Fiscal Year 1991
This report describes the activities of the Office in Fiscal Year 1991 within the context of the legislative agenda of the 101st Congress and the events in the United States and the world during 1991.
Annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992
The Western Area Power Administration (Western) has established a formal environmental protection, auditing, monitoring, and planning program that has been in effect since 1978. The significant environmental projects and issues Western was involved with in 1992 are discussed in this annual site environmental report. It is written to show the nature and effectiveness of the environmental protection program. The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, Chapter II.4, requires the preparation of an annual site environmental report. Because Western has facilities located in 15 states, this report addresses the environmental activities in all the facilities as one ``site.`` In 1992, Western provided power to 612 wholesale power customers consisting of cooperatives, municipalities, public utility districts, investor-owned utilities, Federal and State agencies, irrigation districts, and project use customers. The wholesale power customers, in turn, provided service to millions of retail consumers in the States of California, Nevada, Montana, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Texas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Colorado, Wyoming, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Kansas. Western is responsible for the operation and maintenance of more than 16,450 miles of transmission lines, 268 substations, 51 hydroelectric power plants, and a coal-fired power plant.
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas. Final progress report
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas arises from the presence of more complicated magnetic and electric fields than are required by the macroscopic equilibrium of the plasma. If one knew these fields, then the transport coefficients, calculated by classical methods, would be correct except for the direct transport of energy by fields (which is usually considered negligible). The limitation of this procedure is the lack of knowledge of the field perturbations, but there are a number of features that are generally accepted whether the perturbations are due to microinstabilities or due to macroscopic effects such as tearing modes. In particular, the frequencies and the wave numbers of perturbations satisfy {omega}* {approx_lt} {omega}, k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx_lt} 1, and k{sub {parallel}} {rho}{sub i} {much_lt} 1 which imply that the magnetic moments of both the ions and the electrons are conserved and that the particle trajectories obey drift equations. The drift equations imply that if magnetic surfaces exist, particles can cross a surface only if there is a spatial variation in the field strength or the electric potential in the surface. If surfaces fail to exist, then particles can also cross the toroidal flux surfaces by moving along the field lines. Here the authors develop Monte Carlo codes to study anomalous transport in ZT-40 and TOKAPOLE 2.
Application of a matrix-fracture transfer pseudofunction in geothermal reservoir simulation
A fine-grid, single porosity model of a matrix-fracture system was used to visualize the pressure response and mass transfer mechanisms in a vapor-dominated geothermal reservoir. The observed pressure response and saturation distributions were used to generate a pseudofunction representing the product of vapor phase relative permeability and matrix-fracture transfer shape factor for a dual-porosity model. The pseudofunction was found to be a function of vapor saturation. It was used in place of the gas relative permeability curve. With the application of the pseudofunction, the dual-porosity model produced pressure decline trends similar to those observed in the fine-grid models. The pseudofunction approach was successfully applied in the history matching of a single Geysers producing well. The TETRAD simulation code was used in this study.
Application to transfer radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site
All waste described in this application has been, and will be, generated by LANL in support of the nuclear weapons test program at the NTS. All waste originates on the NTS. DOE Order 5820.2A states that low-level radioactive waste shall be disposed of at the site where it is generated, when practical. Since the waste is produced at the NTS, it is cost effective for LANL to dispose of the waste at the NTS.
Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program
This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.
Approach to geologic repository post closure system performance assessment
An essential part of the license application for a geologic repository will be the demonstration of compliance with the standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency. The performance assessments that produce the demonstration must rely on models of various levels of detail. The most detailed of these models are needed for understanding thoroughly the complex physical and chemical processes affecting the behavior of the system. For studying the behavior of major components of the system, less detailed models are often useful. For predicting the behavior of the total system, models of a third kind may be needed. These models must cover all the important processes that contribute to the behavior of the system, because they must estimate the behavior under all significant conditions for 10,000 years. In addition, however, computer codes that embody these models must calculate very rapidly because of the EPA standard`s requirement for probabilistic estimates, which will be produced by sampling thousands of times from probability distributions of parameters. For this reason, the total-system models must be less complex than the detailed-process and subsystem models. The total-system performance is evaluated through modeling of the following components: Radionuclide release from the engineered-barrier system. Fluid flow in the geologic units. Radionuclide transport to the accessible environment. Radionuclide release to the accessible environment and dose to man.
Argonne National Laboratory-East Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991
This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1991. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples.
Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites
This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once sites and problems have been located and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated wastes in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirements for long-term monitoring.
Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites
This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once the sites and problems have been located and characterized and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated waste forms in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirement for long-term monitoring.
Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River: Recommendations for Fisheries Enhancement: Final Report.
This report recommends resident fish substitution projects to partially replace anadromous fish losses caused by construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. These recommendations involve enhancing the resident fishery in the Pend Oreille River as a substitute for anadromous fish losses. In developing these recommendations we have intentionally attempted to minimize the impact upon the hydroelectric system and anadromous fish recovery plans. In this report we are recommending that the Northwest Power Planning Council direct Bonneville Power Administration to fund the proposed enhancement measures as resident fish substitution projects under the NPPC's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The Pend Oreille River, located in northeast Washington, was historically a free flowing river which supported anadromous steelhead trout and chinook salmon, and large resident cutthroat trout and bull trout. In 1939, Grand Coulee Dam eliminated the anadromous species from the river. In 1955, Box Canyon Dam was constructed, inundating resident trout habitat in the river and creating many back water and slough areas. By the late 1950's the fishery in the reservoir had changed from a quality trout fishery to a warm water fishery, supporting largemouth bass, yellow perch and rough fish (tenth, suckers, squawfish). The object of this study was to examine the existing fishery, identify fishery improvement opportunities and recommend fishery enhancement projects. Three years of baseline data were collected from the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River to assess population dynamics, growth rates, feeding habits, behavior patterns and factors limiting the fishery. Fishery improvement opportunities were identified based on the results of these data. Relative abundance surveys in the reservoir resulted in the capture of 47,415 fish during the study. The most abundant species in the reservoir were yellow perch, composing 44% of the fish captured. The perch population in the river is stunted and ...
In this paper the effect of changing from the traditional NTP coolant, hydrogen, to several alternative coolants were studied. Hydrogen is generally chosen as an NTP coolant, since its use maximizes the specific impulse for a given operating temperature. However, there are situations in which it may not be available or optimal. The alternative coolants which were considered are ammonia, methane, and carbon dioxide. A particle bed reactor (PBR) generating 200 MW and cooled by hydrogen was used as the baseline against which all the comparisons were made. Both 19 and 37 element cores were considered. The larger number of elements was found to be necessary in the case of carbon dioxide. The coolant reactivity worth was found to be directly proportional to the hydrogen coolant content. It was found that due to differences in the thermophysical proportions of the coolant that it would not be possible to use one reactor for all the coolants. The reactor would have to be constructed specifically for a coolant type.