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7-GeV Advanced Photon Source : Conceptual Design Report

Description: During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV.
Date: April 1987
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

²³⁵U(n,f), ²³⁸U(n, gamma), ²³⁸U(n,f), ²³⁹Pu(n,f) Reaction Rate Measurement Calibrations at ZPPR

Description: New reference deposits for uranium-235, plutonium-239 and uranium-238 have been established with mass uncertainties of <0.2%. These new deposits replace the older reference deposits which were used during the last 17 years and improve the uncertainty of reaction rate measurements due to reference mass uncertainties by about a factor of 6. Measurements of the fission fragment absorption in 2 pi and low-geometry count rates. Two measurements of the uranium-238 capture rate in depleted uranium samples based upon the thermal cross sections of uranium-238(n, gamma), uranium-235(n,f) and plutonium-239(n,f) and based upon the americium-243 calibration technique confirm the ZPPR measurement technique within the quoted uncertainty of +/-0.5%
Date: January 1987
Creator: Poenitz, W. P.; Maddison, D. W.; Gasidlo, J. M.; Carpenter, S.G. & Armani, R. J.

28th Annual Report

Description: The ACIR Library is composed of publications that study the interactions between different levels of government. This document is an annual report.
Date: January 1987
Creator: United States. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.

Active Seismics to Determine Reservoir Characteristics of a Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System

Description: Since 1981 three wells have been drilled to depths of between 2.0 and 2.6 km in the Carnmenellis granite, Cornwall, England in order to create a HDR geothermal system. These wells are separated by between 150 and 300 m and have been hydraulically connected by massive injections of both water and viscous gel (50 cpoise). Passive microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic stimulation and circulation experiments has been used since 1982 to determine the size and structure of the reservoir, and monitor its growth. The active seismic survey techniques of cross-hole seismics and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) have been introduced to complement the passive microseismic monitoring in characterizing the reservoir. The cross-hole seismic surveys indicate that the microseismicity defines the area of joint dilation. The attenuation of high frequencies in the region of microseismicity suggests that the reservoir is composed of a complex zone of cracks rather than a single large fracture. VSP surveys also show a good agreement between the microseismically defined reservoir and seismic signal attenuation. Recent improvements in hardware, computer processing and interpretation indicate that active seismics will play an increasingly important part in mapping and understanding geothermal reservoirs. 11 figs., 10 refs.
Date: January 20, 1987
Creator: Green, A.S.P. & Baria, R.

Addendum to Microalgae Culture Collection 1986-1987

Description: The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Johansen, J. R.; Lemke, P.; Nagle, N. J.; Chelf, P.; Roessler, P. G.; Galloway, R. et al.

AIDS: An Overview of Issues

Description: This report discusses the many difficult policy dilemmas associated with the AIDS epidemic, including past Congressional funding to support AIDS research and education efforts, strategies for controlling the spread of the AIDS virus, and methods and resources available for the care and treatment of persons with AIDS.
Date: December 24, 1987
Creator: Smith, Pamela W

An Algebraic Theory of Program Specification and Correctness Using Symmetry Operations

Description: This report applies some methods from the theory of group representation to the questions of program specification and knowledge about programs. The theory is that of a program as a transformation on a state space, and operators commuting with that transformation being symmetries of the program, means of specifying properties, and generators of program invariants. Because a program can simulate a system in the real world, there is a corresponding model of engineered artifacts, that is, manmade objects having a theory for their design.
Date: March 1987
Creator: Gabriel, John R.

Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report

Description: The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 15, 1987
Creator: Wortman, A.

American firms and the transfer of technology to China: how business people view the process

Description: This report examines some of the ideas and impressions of business people from firm of varying sizes that are transferring technology to China. It also examines the factors that these American business people view as helpful and those that they perceive as stumbling blocks to their China projects.
Date: February 1987
Creator: Grow, Roy F. & Gilbert, Dayton

Analysis of Injection-Backflow Tracer Tests in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs

Description: Tracer tests have been an important technique for determining the flow and reservoir characteristics in various rock matrix systems. While the interwell tracer tests are aimed at the characterization of the regions between the wells, single-well injection-backflow tracer tests may be useful tools of preliminary evaluation, before implementing long term interwell tracer tests. This work is concerned with the quantitative evaluation of the tracer return profiles obtained from single well injection-backflow tracer tests. First, two mathematical models of tracer transport through fractures, have been reviewed. These two models are based on two different principles: Taylor Dispersion along the fracture and simultaneous diffusion in and out of the adjacent matrix. Then the governing equations for the transport during the injection-backflow tests have been solved. Finally the results were applied to field data obtained from Raft River and East Mesa geothermal fields. In order to determine the values of the parameters of the models that define the transport mechanisms through fractures a non-linear optimization technique was employed. 26 refs., 10 figs.
Date: January 20, 1987
Creator: Kocabas, I. & Horne, R.N.

Analysis of OH Bolted Ear Connection

Description: The D0 endcap calorimeter outer hadronic (OH) modules play a major structural role in the calorimeter assembly. The disrete modules, once connected together, form a ring within which other massive calorimetry will reside. It has been proposed that the connection of the OH at the downstream end be accomplished by extending the downstream endplates in the radial direction to form 'ears', and then through-bolting between adjacent ears as shown in Fig. 1. A single 2 1/4 in. dia. bolt is used, and previous calculations have determined that the design load on this joint should be 130,000 lbs tension. The high load and serious consequences of failure make this a critical component in the calorimeter assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the stresses in the connection and other mechanical characteristics which determine joint performance.
Date: December 30, 1987
Creator: Wands, Bob

Analysis of Proposed Gamma-Ray Detection System for the Monitoring of Core Water Inventory in a Pressurized Water Reactor

Description: An initial study has been performed of the feasibility of employing an axial array of gamma detectors located outside the pressure vessel to monitor the coolant in a PWR. A one-dimensional transport analysis model is developed for the LOFT research reactor and for a mock-PWR geometry. The gamma detector response to coolant voiding in the core and down-comer has been determined for both geometries. The effects of various conditions (for example, time after shutdown, materials in the transport path, and the relative void fraction in different water regions) on the detector response are studied. The calculational results have been validated by a favorable comparison with LOFT experimental data. Within the limitations and approximations considered in the analysis, the results indicate that the gamma-ray detection scheme is able to unambiguously respond to changes in the coolant inventory within any vessel water region.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Markoff, Diane Melanie

An Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Temperature of theCosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Description: This paper presents an analysis of the results of recent temperature measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). The observations for wavelengths longer than 0.1 cm are well fit by a blackbody spectrum at 2.74 {+-} 0.02 K; however, including the new data of Matsumoto et al. (1987) the result is no longer consistent with a Planckian spectrum. The data are described by a Thomson-distortion parameter u = 0.021 {+-} 0.002 and temperature 2.823 {+-} 0.010 K at the 68% confidence level. Fitting the low-frequency data to a Bose-Einstein spectral distortion yields a 95% confidence level upper limit of 1.4 x 10{sup -2} on the chemical potential {mu}{sub 0}. These limits on spectral distortions place restrictions on a number of potentially interesting sources of energy release to the CMBR, including the hot intergalactic medium proposed as the source of the X-ray background.
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Smoot, G.; Levin, S.M.; Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G. & Rephaeli, Y.

Analysis of Thermally Induced Permeability Enhancement in Geothermal Injection Wells

Description: Reinjection of spent geothermal brine is a common means of disposing of geothermal effluents and maintaining reservoir pressures. Contrary to the predictions of two-fluid models (two-viscosity) of nonisothermal injection, an increase of injectivity, with continued injection, is often observed. Injectivity enhancement and thermally-affected pressure transients are particularly apparent in short-term injection tests at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico. During an injection test, it is not uncommon to observe that after an initial pressure increase, the pressure decreases with time. As this typically occurs far below the pressure at which hydraulic fracturing is expected, some other mechanism for increasing the near-bore permeability must explain the observed behavior. This paper focuses on calculating the magnitude of the near-bore permeability changes observed in several nonisothermal injection tests conducted at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field. In order to evaluate the pressure transient data and calculate the magnitude of the thermally induced permeability changes, a new analytic solution for calculating pressure transients with time-varying sandface flowrates and temperatures has been developed. The effects of temperature-dependent fluid and rock properties, as well as a moving thermal front, are explicitly included in the calculations. Based on this new solution, a technique is developed for calculating the reservoir permeability, skin factor of the well, and near-bore permeability increases. The results of these calculations indicate that the permeability increases by a factor of 5 in the near-bore region during the 2 to 3 hour injection tests. A good correlation between the permeability increase and the sandface injection temperature indicates that the permeability increase is caused by cooling the formation. 9 figs., 9 refs.
Date: January 20, 1987
Creator: Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.S.; Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V. & Ortiz-Ramirez, J.

Analysis of Transient Pressure Tests for Olkaria Exploration Wells

Description: Analysis of transient pressure tests for Olkaria West wells shows that both infinite acting and double porosity models can be used to analyze the well behaviour and infer reservoir properties from fall-off steps of long enough duration, in wells where no significant thermal recovery occurs. The double porosity model gives better estimates of reservoir properties than the infinite acting model, for long fall-off steps in wells intercepting fractures. Semilog methods give fairly good estimates of reservoir transmissivity for the long fall-off steps but are highly inaccurate when used independently, especially for the short fall-off steps conducted in most of the wells. Double porosity models can also be used for recovery test analyses where two phase transients are not significant. 6 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: January 20, 1987
Creator: Haukwa, Charles B.