UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 6,860 Matching Results

Search Results

open access

Batteries for solar energy systems -- A program at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: DOE has selected Sandia National Laboratories as its lead laboratory to direct a program to develop and test batteries for electrical storage in a variety of solar applications. Initial emphasis is on storage in photovoltaic systems, but wind-energy and solar-thermal systems will be considered later. The BSSAP program is divided functionally into five tasks: Task 1--battery requirements analysis; Task 2--laboratory evaluation; Task 3--PV advanced systems tests; Task 4--applied experiments; Task 5--battery research and development. This report briefly discusses these tasks.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials

Description: A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Reda, D. C. & Eaton, R. R.
open access

Disruption scenarios for a nuclear-waste repository on the Nevada Test Site

Description: Scenarios are being constructed for the release of radioactive maerial from hypothetical repositories in different types of rock at NTS. Deductive event trees are constructed; each path through an event tree is a scenario. The complete set of NTS event trees comprises about 340 scenarios, not counting the multiple paths through the subtrees made by expanding complex events. Each of these scenarios is being analyzed for 10 different types of rocks. (DLC)
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Link, R.L.; Bingham, F.W. & Barr, G.E.
open access

[Experimental and theoretical plasma physics program]. Technical progress [in FY 1981]

Description: In recent years, members of the Maryland Theory Group have made significant contributions to the national fusion theory programs and in many cases these theoretical development helped to interpret experimental results and to design new experimental programs. In the following, the authors summarize the technical progress in five major areas: (1) rf interaction with plasmas including wave propagation, rf heating, rf induced runaways and current drive; (2) spheromak -- formation, equilibrium, and stability; (3) stability of nonaxisymmetric systems (EBT, mirror, etc.); (4) stability theory of toroidal plasmas -- tokamak, RFP, etc.; and (5) nonlinear theory.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Griem, H.
open access

[Hadroproduction of charmed and bottom mesons (Fermilab experiment E-653): Progress report, 1981]

Description: This report describes the design of a magnetic spectrometer facility to be built in the Tagged Photon Lab. The design has been developed by a collaboration of physicists from Fermilab, The University of California at Santa Barbara, The University of Colorado and The University of Toronto. This group was formed to build the facility and to carry out the experiment described in Proposal 516, which is a study of photoproduced states (including charm and hidden charm) with a forward mass > 2.5 GeV. Although the design of the facility is developed from that outlined in P-516, much thought has gone into making the facility versatile enough to be used for a continuing program of physics by different groups. In addition to the 100 GeV photon physics of P-516, this facility is designed to be useful for experiments like the following: pion production experiments, hadron jet experiments, {ge} 300 GeV and very high intensity photon physics with the energy doubler including searches for and studies of heavy leptons. The report goes into a detailed description of the various detectors which will be part of this detector system, and the experimental equipment which will be built. Sections of this report give detailed information concerning: muon counters; analysis of Monte Carlo charmed pair events; forward proton trigger; precision time-of-flight; and a modular trigger processing system for high energy physics experiments.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Ionization in liquids. Progress report, May 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

Description: Significant progress has been made in better understanding the electron transport and reaction properties of model liquids and biological systems. The new results complement earlier studies of electrons and are important to all aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter and to the myriad of electronic processes that occur in a variety of systems. These processes range from dielectric breakdown to carcinogenesis as is illustrated in the following list of electron transport and reaction studies that were conducted in this contract period. The studies included: (1) effect of an external electric field on the electron attachment rate constant, k/sub e/, of SF/sub 6/ observed in the molecular liquids ethane and propane; (2) implications of field-dependent k/sub e/'s to dielectric breakdown in liquids; (3) influence of the electron-acceptor dipole moment on k/sub e/ in i-octane and the effect of solvent on electron-dipole interaction; (4) solvent effects on the electron-attachment process through measurements of the k/sub e/ of CCl/sub 4/ and ethyl bromide in i-octane/TMS mixtures; (5) electron attachment to reversed-micellar aggregates and comparison of the influence of the micellar water pool on the electron-capture process in the solvents i-octane and TMS; (6) correlation of diffusion-controlled k/sub e/'s with carcinogenicity and the effect of solvents on the k/sub e/-carcinogenicity correlation; (7) determination of the bacterial mutagenicity of a series of nitroaromatic compounds which have diffusion-controlled k/sub e/'s; and (8) determination of radiation-induced mutagenesis in the Ames' Salmonella tester strains. (ERB)
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Bakale, G.
open access

MISR -- Solar and steam for industry

Description: The goal of the MISR project is to assist industry in developing viable Solar Energy Systems which have high reliability and low cost because they do not require custom engineering and installation for each industrial site. The collector field, piping and steam generation equipment are pre-engineered to be suitable for a wide range of industrial steam applications. The approach of the MISR project is twofold: to develop line-focus industrial solar thermal energy systems which, like conventional packaged steam boilers, are based on the modular concept; and to install and operate a number (10 or less) of these systems at existing industrial plants, supplementing steam produced by conventional boilers. The project is briefly described.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit fact sheet

Description: The MISR project has two goals. One is to assist industry in developing viable Solar Energy Systems which have high reliability and low cost because they do not require tailored engineering and installation for each industrial site. The collector field, piping and steam generation equipment are pre-engineered to be suitable for a wide range of industrial steam applications. This is the Modular Concept. The second goal is to fabricate, install, and test qualification test systems (representative of full-size MISR designs in all but the size of the collector field) to determine design quality, fabrication and installation correctness, and system cost. This activity allows the designers to produce the first MISR system, experimentally verify its operation and performance before committing to large scale solar installations, thereby avoiding the risks associated with the first system. It provides the potential industrial user with information upon which to base solar energy decisions. Five separate system designs are being developed under the MISR project. Four of the designs are being tested at Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico and one is being tested at the Solar energy Research Institute in Golden, Colorado.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Photovoltaic technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: This report describes the following investigations being pursued under photovoltaic technology development at Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic systems technology; concentrator technology; concentrator arrays and tracking structures; concentrator solar cell development; system engineering; subsystem development; and test and applications.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

Description: Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Kane, M. F.; Webring, M. W. & Bhattacharyya, B. K.
open access

Preparation and evaluation of advanced electro-catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells. Eighth quarterly report, October-December 1981. [Platinum]

Description: In the development of new and highly efficient porous electrocatalysts, two cooperative phenomena are required. The first is an increase in the electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst particle, and the second is the availability of that electrocatalyst particle for the electrochemical reaction. These two processes interact with each other in such a way that improvements in the electrochemical activity must be coupled with improvements in the availability of the electrocatalyst for reaction. Since cost effective and highly reactive electrocatalysts have been developed under this program, the utilization of the electrocatalyst particles in the porous electrode structures is addressed. Based on the performance of the electrocatalysts in porous electrode structures, it is shown that a large percentage of the electrocatalyst in anode structures is not utilized. This low utilization translates directly and dramatically into a noble metal cost penalty for the fuel cell. Dramatic improvements in the cost effectiveness of the fuel cell will be achieved by improvements in electrocatalyst catalyzation technology and electrode structure technology.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hochmuth, J. & Pagliaro, P.
open access

Pulsed power -- Research and technology at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: Over the past 15 years, steady and sometimes exciting progress has been made in the hybrid technology called Pulsed Power. Based on both electrical engineering and physics, pulsed power involves the generation, modification, and use of electrical pulses up to the multitrillion-watt and multimillion-volt ranges. The final product of these powerful pulses can take diverse forms--hypervelocity projectiles or imploding liners, energetic and intense particle beams, X-ray and gamma-ray pulses, laser light beams that cover the spectrum from ultraviolet to infrared, or powerful microwave bursts. At first, the needs of specific applications largely shaped research and technology in this field. New the authors are beginning to see the reverse--new applications arising from technical capabilities that until recently were though impossible. Compressing and heating microscopic quantities of matter until they reach ultra-high energy density represents one boundary of their scientific exploration. The other boundary might be a defensive weapon that can project vast amounts of highly directed energy over long distances. Other applications of the technology may range from the use of electron beams to sterilize sewage, to laboratory simulation of radiation effects on electronics, to electromagnetic launchings of projectiles into earth or into solar orbits. Eventually the authors hope to use pulsed power to produce an inexhaustible supply of energy by means of inertial confinement fusion (ICF)--a technique for heating and containing deuterium-tritium fuel through compression. Topics covered here are: (1) inertial confinement fusion; (2) simulation technology; (3) development of new technology; and (4) application to directed energy technologies.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981

Description: This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Solar energy at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: Basic concepts for using the energy of the sun have been known for centuries. The challenge today, the goal of the Department of Energy`s National Solar Energy Program is to create the technology needed to establish solar energy as a practical, economical alternative to energy produced by depletable fuels--and to use that solar-produced energy in a wide variety of applications. To assist the DOE in this national effort, Sandia sponsors industrial and university research and development, manages a series of technical programs, operates solar experimental facilities, and carries out its own scientific and engineering research. This booklet describes their projects, their technical objectives, and explains how their experimental facilities are used to find the answers we`re seeking. Prospective participants from companies involved in solar-energy development or applications should find it especially useful since it outlines broad areas of opportunity. Projects include: central receiver technology; line-focus thermal technology; photovoltaic systems technology; wind turbine development; energy storage technology; and applied research in improved polycrystalline materials for solar cells and photoelectrolysis of water.
Date: December 31, 1981
open access

Study of selected off-gases produced during the immobilization of nuclear wastes in the SYNROC process. Final report for year ended December 31, 1981. [Pollucite, CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/, and barium-cesium hollandite, (Ba,Cs)Al/sub 2/Ti/sub 6/O/sub 16/]

Description: Calculation of possible off-gases expected during the fabrication of SYNROC showed that volatilization of cesium would be a significant problem. Samples of the cesium containing minerals pollucite, CsAlSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/, and barium-cesium hollandite, (Ba,Cs)Al/sub 2/Ti/sub 6/O/sub 16/, were prepared for vaporization studies. Fifteen vaporization runs were made with the hollandite samples. With dry air as the carrier gas, the vapor pressure of cesium over Ba/sub 0/ /sub 8/Cs/sub 0/ /sub 4/Al/sub 2/Ti/sub 6/O/sub 16/ was found to be about 1 x 10/sup -7/ atm at 1050/sup 0/C.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Carpenter, J.H.
open access

Thermal stability of ferritic alloys for fossil-fuel processing systems. Final technical report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1981. [at 475/sup 0/C]

Description: This research program has investigated the thermal stability of several ferritic stainless steels containing 15 to 18 weight percent chromium over the temperature range 400/sup 0/C to 550/sup 0/C where the 475/sup 0/C embrittlement reaction is of concern. A major part of the experimental work was concerned with the effect of ternary additions of up to 6 weight percent; aluminum on the kinetics and the magnitude of the embrittlement reaction. The work also included a binary Fe-18Cr alloy, a ternary Fe-18Cr-2Mo, and two commercial alloys, Armco type 430 and type 18SR. Resistometric studies of the kinetics of microstructural instability indicated that aluminum additions promote the tendency of chromium atoms to cluster at temperatures in the vicinity of 475/sup 0/C. The magnitude of embrittling reaction is intensified by the aluminum additions which are expected to restrict dislocation cross slip and increase the coherency strains associated with the alpha prime precipitates. Activation energy determinations for the decomposition reaction indicate that the rate controlling process is most likely determined by the diffusion of chromium, and the tendency of aluminum to enhance the clustering of chromium atoms is similar to the effect reported for molybdenum additions by previous workers.
Date: December 31, 1981
Creator: Polonis, D.H. & Spear, W.S.
open access

Ocean thermal energy. Quarterly report, October-December 1981

Description: This quarterly report summarizes work on the following tasks: OTEC methanol; approaches for financing OTEC proof-of-concept experimental vessels; investigation of OTEC-ammonia as an alternative fuel; review of electrolyzer development programs and requirements; hybrid geothermal-OTEC power plants: single-cycle performance; estimates; and hybrid geothermal-OTEC power plants: dual-cycle performance estimates.
Date: December 30, 1981
open access

Alternative fuels study: point-of-use component

Description: The purpose of the concept paper is to outline a possible approach to conducting the point-of-use component of the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) study of alternative fuels. Alternative measures for point-of-use application (specifically for the residential sector) would include conservation, solar space conditioning and water heating, and heat pumps. An outline is presented of analytical and field work that will provide information on parameters affecting users, the utility, and the market. Six interdependent activities discussed are: performance analysis, market research, utility impact analysis, comparative analysis, strategy planning, and implementation.
Date: December 28, 1981
open access

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

Description: Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)
Date: December 24, 1981
Creator: Hemker, P.
open access

Burro-series gas-concentration contours

Description: Gas concentration contours generated from the data taken during the Burro series experiments 8 and 9 are presented. The contours are presented as a function of time in both a horizontal and a vertical format for several areas within the array.
Date: December 23, 1981
Creator: Koopman, R. P.
open access

Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

Description: The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.
Date: December 23, 1981
Creator: Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F. & Urmston, R.
open access

Liquid-drop technique for generation of organic glass and metal shells

Description: We have for several years utilized the technique of capillary wave synchronization of the break-up of single and multiple component jets to produce uniform sized liquid drops and solid particles, and hollow liquid and solid shells. The technique has also been used to encapsulate a number of liquids in impermeable spherical shells. Highly uniform glass shells have been made by generating uniform drops of glass forming materials in an aqueous solution, subsequently evaporating the water, and then fusing and blowing the remaining solids in a high temperature vertical tube furnace. Experimental results will be presented and the critical problems in further research in this field will be discussed.
Date: December 23, 1981
Creator: Hendricks, C.D.
open access

Colliding droplets: a short film presentation

Description: A series of experiments were performed in which liquid droplets were caused to collide. Impact velocities to several meters per second and droplet diameters up to 600 micrometers were used. The impact parameters in the collisions vary from zero to greater than the sum of the droplet radii. Photographs of the collisions were taken with a high speed framing camera in order to study the impacts and subsequent behavior of the droplets. The experiments will be discussed and a short movie film presentation of some of the impacts will be shown.
Date: December 22, 1981
Creator: Hendricks, C.D.
Back to Top of Screen