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UPDATE: nuclear power program information and data, July-September 1981

Description: UPDATE is published by the Office of Coordination and Special Projects, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, to provide a quick reference source on the current status of nuclear powerplant construction and operation in the United States and for information on the fuel cycle, economics, and performance of nuclear generating units. Similar information on other means of electric generation as related to nuclear power is included when appropriate. The subject matter of the reports and analyses presented in UPDATE will vary from issue to issue, reflecting changes in foci of interest and new developments in the field of commercial nuclear power generation. UPDATA is intended to provide a timely source of current statistics, results of analyses, and programmatic information proceeding from the activities of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs and other components of the Department of Energy, as well as condensations of topical articles from other sources of interest to the nuclear community. It also facilitates quick responses to requests for data and information of the type often solicited from this office.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: /NBM--6011986, DOE
open access

Mexican-American Cooperative Program at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: Recent Results of the Well-Drilling Program at Cerro Prieto

Description: The results of the 1980 and 1981 well drilling activities at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field are summarized. Details are given on the new series of deeper wells completed in the western (older) part of the field (Cerro Prieto I), and on the development and step-out wells drilled in the eastern part of the field (Cerro Prieto II and III). Production characteristics of on-line and standby wells are discussed. Recent changes in well completion procedures are also described.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: A., B. Dominguez; Lippmann, M. J. & M., Francisco Bermejo
open access

Impacts of uranium-utilization improvements on light water reactor radionuclide releases

Description: This report discusses potential changes to radionuclide releases as a result of uranium-saving plant modifications and altered operating practices. Only releases to the environment from routine operation are considered; releases resulting from abnormal conditions outside the technical specifications covering plant operation are not considered.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Aaberg, R. L.
open access

Measurement of instantaneous shut-in pressure in crystalline rock

Description: A method is defined which was found useful, not only for determining the instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) during fracture creation, but also for determining the pressure inside the fracture, near the exit and entrance wellbores, when a circulation of fluid through a fracture is taking place. The basic assumption of the Muskat method is that, after a short transient period, the shut-in pressure approaches an asymptotic value, Pa, in an exponential fashion, i.e., if Pa is subtracted from P at each time, t, and the result is plotted, ln (P-Pa) vs t will be a straight line. Various values of Pa are tried until the best straight line fit is found. Two Muskat analyses are shown. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Aamodt, L. & Kuriyagawa, M.
open access

Cermets and method for making same

Description: The present invention is directed to a method for making a wide variety of general-purpose cermets and for radioactive waste disposal from ceramic powders prepared from urea-dispersed solutions containing various metal values. The powders are formed into a compact and subjected to a rapid temperature increase in a reducing atmosphere. During this reduction, one or more of the more readily reducible oxides in the compact is reduced to a selected substoichiometric state at a temperature below the eutectic phase for that particular oxide or oxides and then raised to a temperature greater than the eutectic temperature to provide a liquid phase in the compact prior to the reduction of the liquid phase forming oxide to solid metal. This liquid phase forms at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal and bonds together the remaining particulates in the cermet to form a solid polycrystalline cermet.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Aaron, W. S.; Kinser, D. L. & Quinby, T. C.
open access

Important material considerations in INTOR

Description: A number of important material-related problems were identified and analyzed during the Phase-I study for INTOR. The first wall and divertor collector plate are subjected to severe normal and off-normal conditions. A melt layer is predicted to develop in a bare stainless steel wall under plasma disruptions. Graphite tiles will not melt but they introduce other serious uncertainties into the design. The design strategy for the divertor collector plate focused on separating the surface and high heat flux problems and on utilizing a novel mechanical design concept for attaching tungsten tiles to a stainless steel (or copper) heat sink.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abdou, M. A.; Mattas, R. F. & Smith, D. L.
open access

Geohydrology of Bandelier Tuff

Description: The Los Alamos National Laboratory has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. Environmental studies and monitoring for radioactive contamination started concurrently. In this report, only two mechanisms and rates by which the radionuclides can enter the environment are studied in detail: subsurface transport of radionuclides by migrating water, and diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) in the vapor phase. The report also includes a section concerning the influence of moisture on shear strength and possible resulting subsidences occurring in the pit overburdens. Because subsurface transport of radionuclides is influenced by the hydraulic conductivity and this in turn is regulated by the moisture content of any given material, a study was also undertaken involving precipitation, the most important climatic element influencing the geohydrology of any given area. Further work is in progress to correlate HTO emanation to atmospheric and pedological properties, especially including thermal characteristics of the tuff.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Abeele, M. V.; Wheeler, M. L. & Burton, B. W.
open access

Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council fifth annual report. Final draft

Description: Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth, and can be tapped as a clean, safe, economical alternative source of energy. Much of the geothermal energy resource is recoverable with current or near-current technology and could make a significant contribution both to increasing domestic energy supplies and to reducing the US dependence on imported oil. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural process applications. This report describes the progress for fiscal year 1980 (FY80) of the Federal Geothermal Program. It also summarizes the goals, strategy, and plans which form the basis for the FY81 and FY82 program activities and reflects the recent change in national policy affecting Federal research, development and demonstration programs. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) believes that substantial progress can and will be made in the development of geothermal energy. The IGCC goals are: (1) reduce the institutional barriers so that geothermal projects can be on-line in one-half the current time; (2) make moderate temperature resources an economically competitive source of electricity; (3) remove the backlog of noncompetitive lease applications; (4) competitive lease all KGRA lands; and (5) cut the cost of hydrothermal technology by 25%.
Date: July 7, 1981
Creator: Abel, Fred H.
open access

Engineering evaluation of the proposed boiler addition for Minnegasco Energy Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Final draft report

Description: The results are reported of a technical evaluation of alternate fuels for the proposed oil and natural gas fired No. 3 boiler at the Minnegasco Energy Center (MEC) located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion for their use in considering an alternate fuel exemption petition submitted by MEC. The fuels considered for the proposed boiler include oil, natural gas, bituminous coal, petroleum coke/coal mixture, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel fired. The purchase of steam from the Northern States Power Company (NSPCo) was also considered as an alternative to construction of another boiler at MEC. Evaluation of each fuel included review of the overall plant design, estimates of capital and O and M costs, salvage value, useful life, and quantities of solid waste produced. The MEC supplies steam and chilled water to the downtown Minneapolis area for building heating and cooling using two presently owned and operated 200,000 lb/h oil/natural gas fired boilers. If the proposed boiler is permitted to burn oil and natural gas, it will be identical in design to the existing boilers. The evaluation showed that the use of oil, natural gas, coal, petroleum coke-coal mixtures, coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel firing appear technically feasible as fuel choices for the proposed boiler. The purchase of steam from the NSPCo appears feasible as an alternative to the installation of a new boiler at the MEC. Offsite storage space would be required for receiving and storing coal, petroleum coke, or RDF Offsite fuel preparation facilities are required for preparing petroleum coke-coal mixtures and RDF.
Date: March 16, 1981
Creator: Abendroth, H.R. & Poon, A.
open access

Isotope-dilution mass spectrometry in the measurement of plutonium isotope half-lives

Description: Isotope-dilution mass spectrometry has been used at Los Alamos to measure the half-lives of /sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu. The latter was determined by measuring the rate of decrease of the /sup 241/Pu//sup 242/Pu ratio in an appropriate isotopic mixture over a period of several years. The half-lives of the two lighter isotopes are too long to be determined in this manner. They were determined by measuring the rate of production of the uranium daughter relative to a known added /sup 233/U spike. Experimental procedures were designed to control sources of error and to permit a detailed statistical treatment which included all known sources of error and accounted for all covariances. The uncertainties, at the 95% confidence level, associated with the measured half-lives were less than 0.4% for /sup 241/Pu and less than 0.2% for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abernathey, R.M. & Marsh, S.F.
open access

Shear rigidity of spread stearic acid monolayers on water

Description: The effect of Al/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions and of pH on the two-dimensional shear modulus of stearic acid spread on a water substrate was determined. A large shear modulus was displayed by the films when the subphase contained Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ ions at the self buffered pH. With Fe/sup 3 +/ dissolved in the subphase, the film displayed a viscous relaxation when strained but no residual stress was observed. No effect was observed with the Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Reducing the pH value in the subphase with the trivalent ions caused the shear modulus to disappear. The observations are interpreted in terms of hydrogen bonding.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Abraham, B.M.; Ketterson, J.B.; Miyano, K. & Kueny, A.
open access

Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

Description: A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)
Date: November 13, 1981
Creator: Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L. & Lau, A. S.
open access

Bibliography for the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation Program

Description: This bibliography encompasses systems definition and engineering aspects; environmental assessment of microwave health and ecology, risks to space workers and atmospheric effects; a societal assessment covering resource requirements (land and materials) international and institutional issues; and a comparative assessment of the SPS Reference System relative to other advanced energy technologies, such as fusion. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Abromavage, M.; Calzadilla, R. & Murray, M.
open access

Stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing: steady-state plane-wave analytic solutions

Description: The equations for plane-wave steady-state propagation of n fields interacting via four wave processes in a Raman medium have been known since at least 1962. Complete analytic solutions have only been found for the process of harmonic generation. However, solutions have been obtained in the gain regime assuming zero pump depletion. Assuming all fields satisfy the phase matching condition, general analytic solutions to these equations have been found. The solutions are complete in that they describe both pump depletion and saturation. Some example problems will be studied.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Ackerhalt, J. R.
open access

Self-focusing in SF/sub 6/

Description: It is shown by explicit calculation of previously published quasicontinuum model that the molecular susceptibility rapidly approaches zero as higher excited states of the molecule become populated. Hence the overtones of the ..nu../sub 3/-pumped mode are totally responsible for the self focusing effects in SF/sub 6/. The ..nu../sub 3/ ladder contribution to the susceptibility is calculated. The vibrational model is a classical triply degenerate anharmonic oscillator in the Cartesian basis with the anharmonicity parameters chosen to be consistent with the latest spectroscopic analysis of the 3..nu../sub 3/ overtone spectrum. The rotational structure is represented by a distribution of these oscillators where the distribution is chosen to correspond to the spectrum of the ..nu../sub 3/ fundamental. Good agreement is found with the 300/sup 0/ in self-focusing data of Nowak and Ham at CO/sub 2/ P(28), P(20) and P(10) in SF/sub 6/.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Ackerhalt, J. R. & Galbraith, H. W.
open access

Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples. [LMFBR]

Description: A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were /sup 241/Am and /sup 244/Cm in the forms of Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Am/sub 6/ Cm(RE)/sub 7/O/sub 21/, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adair, H. L.; Kobisk, E. H.; Quinby, T. C.; Thomas, D. K. & Dailey, J. M.
open access

Small Sample Assay Station users guide

Description: A system for acquisition of delayed neutron data, based on an LSI-11 with 28 K words of memory, is described. Hardware features are a six-channel scaler and level sensor to determine the state of the experiment; and normal peripherals include dual floppy-disk drive, line printer, and CRT terminal. The software for experiment control and for the analysis of data is presented. The protocol for assays that optimally utilize the system is suggested.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, E.L.; Bourret, S. & Meier, M.M.
open access

Sodium oxide and uranium oxide aerosol experiments: NSPP Tests 106-108 and Tests 204-207, data record report

Description: This data record report describes three sodium oxide aerosol tests and four uranium oxide aerosol tests conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of this project is to establish the validity (or level of conservatism) of the aerosol behavioral code, HAARM-3, and follow-on codes under development at the Battelle Columbus Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Descriptions of the seven tests with tables and graphs summarizing the results are included. 92 figs.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, R. E.; Kress, T. S. & Tobias, M. L.
open access

Approach to ecological assessment of power-plant-intake (316b) related issues: the Prairie Island case

Description: Assessment approaches and strategies useful in addressing important issues in section 316(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act are illustrated in this report through the analysis and evaluation of the Prairie Island Nuclear Station 316(b) data base. The main issues in 316(b) demonstrations, cooling water intake operation and location, involve determining the impacts of entrainment and impingement. Entrainment impacts were addressed by applying the equivalent adult approach and correcting for inherent biases and by determining the through-plant survival of zooplankton. An assessment of impingement impacts was made by comparing for each of various species the number of fish impinged to estimates of population size. Densities of plankton and fish were compared between the intake area and an alternate area to determine if the location of the present intake minimizes impacts. No definitive conclusion relative to the best location of the intake could be made because of high year to year variability in the data and the differential dominance of trophic groups between areas.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S. M.; Vaughan, D. S.; Hildebrand, S. G. & Kumar, K. D.
open access

Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

Description: The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S. S. & Saucier, A. E.
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Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

Description: Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S. S. & Smith, R. B.
open access

Environmental Transport Division. 1980 report

Description: Aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial studies and instrumentation developments are described in a series of articles. More details about specific studies are given in publications listed at the end of the report.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.E.; Fliermans, C.B.; Garrett, A.J. & Halverson, J.E.
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