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1978 annual report, INEL geothermal environmental program

Description: The objective of the Raft River Geothermal Environmental Program, in its fifth year, is to characterize the beneficial and detrimental impacts resulting from the development of moderate-temperature geothermal resources in the valley. This report summarizes the monitoring and research efforts conducted as part of this program in 1978. The results of these monitoring programs will be used to determine the mitigation efforts required to reduce long-term impacts resulting from geothermal development.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F. & Stanley, N.E.

1979 SIGNUM Meeting on Numerical Ordinary Differential Equations. [University Inn, Champaign, IL, April 3-5, 1979]

Description: This report gives a summary of the papers presented at the meeting. It consists of all working papers distributed at the conference and all working papers received too late for distribution. In addition, abstracts and/or summaries are included where practical for those talks and workshop sessions that did not generate papers. This document should be a useful reference to very current research in ODEs. These papers are preliminary versions of papers that will be submitted for publication. One paper in this volume has been cited in ERA, and can be located by reference to the entry CONF-790403-- in the Report Number Index.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Skeel, R. D.

Accuracy of small diameter sheathed thermocouples for the core flow test loop

Description: This report summarizes the research and development on 0.5-mm-diameter, compacted, metal sheathed thermocouples. The objectives of this research effort have been: to identify and analyze the sources of temperature measurement errors in the use of 0.5-mm-diameter sheathed thermocouples to measure the surface temperature of the cladding of fuel-rod simulators in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) at ORNL; to devise methods for reducing or correcting for these temperature measurement errors; to estimate the overall temperature measurement uncertainties; and to recommend modifications in the manufacture, installation, or materials used to minimize temperature measurement uncertainties in the CFTL experiments.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, R. L. & Kollie, T. G.

Aerial Gamma-Ray and Magnetic Survey, Final Report. Volume 1: Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles (Wyoming/South Dakota) and Ekalaka Quadrangle (Montana, South and North Dakota)

Description: The following report is the first in a series of volumes presenting data recorded during the months of August and September, 1978, from a radiometric and magnetic survey taken in four quadrangles between eastern Wyoming, North and South Dakota, and southern Montana (Newcastle, Gillette and Ekalaka).
Date: April 1979
Creator: Geometrics, Inc.
Location Info:

Aerial Gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey, Final Report: Volume 2. Montrose Quadrangle

Description: The quadrangle includes portions of the Colorado Plateau and southern Rocky Mountains Physiographic Provinces. The entire area of the Gunnison Uplift and parts of the Uncompahgre and Sawatch Uplifts are included. A part of the Piceance Basin and a segment of the Rio Grande Rift Valley are also included. A basement complex of Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks is exposed in the core of the Gunnison and Sawatch Uplifts in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Jurassic and Cretaceous age sedimentary rocks lie directly on the Precambrian basement in most places. They lie on Paleozoic rocks at the west edge of the Sawatch Uplift in the north-central part of the quadrangle. Triassic beds are mapped only in the canyon of the Uncompahgre River near the southwest corner of the quadrangle. A suite of Tertiary volcanics and some sedimentary rocks occupy extensive areas. Plutonic rocks of Tertiary and laramide age occupy only a small part of the quadrangle. The literature consulted included information on about 100 separate occurrences of radioactive minerals and/or anomalous radioactivity within the quadrangle. Many fracture and stratigraphically controlled forms are reported. Most of these occurrences are clustered in three areas: Cochetopa Creek, Cebolla Creek, and Marshall Pass. Important uranium production is recorded from deposits in the Cochetopa Creek and Marshall Pass areas. A total of 220 anomalies in the uranium channel meet the minimum requirements as defined in the Interpretation methods section of Volume I of this report. A few of them appear to be related to known economic deposits, and provide examples for comparison with anomalies in other parts of the quadrangle where radioactive mineral occurrences have not been reported.
Date: April 1979
Creator: GeoMetrics, Inc.
Location Info:

Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Powder River II Project: the Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles of Wyoming and South Dakota; the Ekalaka Quadrangle of Montana, South and North Dakota. Volume I. Final report

Description: During the months of August through September 1978, geoMetrics, Inc. flew approximately 9000 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in eastern Wyoming and southern Montana over three 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle (Newcastle, Gillette, and Ekalaka) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as four volumes (one Volume I and three Volume II's) in this report. The survey area lies entirely within the northern Great Plains Physiographic Province. The deep Powder River Basin and the Black Hills Uplift are the two dominant structures in the area. Both structures strike NNW approximately parallel to each other with the Powder River Basin to the west of the Uplift. The Basin is one of the largest and deepest in the northern Great Plains and contains over 17,000 feet of Phanerozoic sediments at its deepest point. Economic deposits of oil, coal, bentonite and uranium are found in the Tertiary and/or Cretaceous rocks of the Basin. Gold, silver, lead, copper, manganese, rare-earth elements and uranium have been mined in the Uplift. Epigenetic uranium deposits lie primarily in the Monument Hills - Box Creek and Pumpkin Buttes - Turnercrest districts within arkosic sandstones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. A total of 368 groups of statistical values in the uranium window meet the criteria for valid anomalies and are discussed in the interpretation sections (83 in Newcastle, 109 in Gillette, and 126 in Ekalaka). Most anomalies lie in the Tertiary sediments of the Powder River Basin, but only a few are clearly related to known uranium mines or prospects. Magnetic data generally delineate the deep Powder River Basin relative to the Black Hills Uplift. Higher frequency anomalies appear related to ...
Date: April 1, 1979

Aerial Gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey, Volume 1. Final Report: Salina (Utah), Moab (Utah and Colorado), Montrose (Colorado) and Leadville (Colorado) Quadrangles

Description: Final report documenting a high-sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Salina, Moab, Montrose, and Leadville quadrangles including the survey description, specifications, data processing methods, interpretation methods, and regional geologic review.
Date: April 1979
Creator: GeoMetrics, Inc.
Location Info:

Aerial Gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey, Volume 2. Final Report: Leadville Quadrangle, Colorado

Description: Second volume of a report documenting a high-sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Leadville quadrangle including a detailed geologic summary, interpretation report, standard deviation maps, pseudo-contour maps, interpretation maps, flight line and geologic base map, and individual corrected profiles.
Date: April 1979
Creator: GeoMetrics, Inc.
Location Info:

Aerial Gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey, Volume 2. Final Report: Moab Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado

Description: Second volume of a report documenting a high-sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Moab quadrangle including a detailed geologic summary, interpretation report, standard deviation maps, pseudo-contour maps, interpretation maps, flight line and geologic base map, and individual corrected profiles.
Date: April 1979
Creator: GeoMetrics, Inc.
Location Info:

Aerial Gamma Ray and Magnetic Survey, Volume 2. Final Report: Montrose Quadrangle, Colorado

Description: Second volume of a report documenting a high-sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Montrose quadrangle including a detailed geologic summary, interpretation report, standard deviation maps, pseudo-contour maps, interpretation maps, flight line and geologic base map, and individual corrected profiles.
Date: April 1979
Creator: GeoMetrics, Inc.
Location Info:

Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Bozeman National Topographic Map, Montana

Description: The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Bozeman National Topographic Map NL12-8 are presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.
Date: April 5, 1979

Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey, Tonopah National Topographic Map, Nevada: Volume 1

Description: Abstract: The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Tonopah National Topographic Map NJll-5 is presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.
Date: April 27, 1979
Creator: High Life Helicopters, Inc.

Ahuachapan geothermal project: a technical and economic assessment

Description: Theeconomic and technical factors involved in using geothermal energy at Ahuachapan are examined. The experience at Ahuachapan is evaluated in relation to conditions prevailing in El Salvador and to conditions in the U.S. technical characteristics considered are: geological characteristics, well programs and gathering system, well productivity and geofluid characteristics, and energy conversion systems. Economic factors considered for El Salvador are: construction costs; environmental control costs; operating experience and costs; financing; taxes, subsidies, or incentives; marketing; and electrical system characteristics. (MHR)
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Bloomster, C. H.; DiPippo, R.; Kuwada, J. T. & Russell, B. F.

Air velocity profiles near sleeve blockages in an unheated 7 x 7 rod bundle. [PWR]

Description: Local air velocity measurements were obtained with a laser Doppler anemometer near flow blockages in an unheated 7 x 7 rod bundle. Sleeve blockages were positioned on the center nine rods to create an area reduction of 90% in the center four subchannels of the bundle. Experimental results indicated that severe flow disturbances occurred downstream from the blockage cluster but showed only minor flow disturbances upstream from the blockage. Flow reversals were detected downstream from the blockage and persisted for approximately five subchannel hydraulic diameters. The air velocity profiles were in excellent agreement with water velocity data previously obtained at essentially the same Reynolds number. Subchannel average velocity predictions obtained with the COBRA computer program were in good agreement with subchannel average velocities estimated using the measured local velocity data.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Creer, J. M. & Bates, J. M.

Analysis of the apiclutural industry in relation to geothermal development and agriculture in the Imperial Valley, Imperial County, California

Description: PART I: Continuous exposure to 30 ppB H/sub 2/S increased lifespan of caged worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., 33%; whereas, bees exposed > 13 days to 100 ppB and 300 ppB H/sub 2/S the lifespan was shortened 32% and 51%, respectively, over unexposed bees; bees exposed > 15 days to a combination of 300 ppB H/sub 2/S + 50 ppM CO/sub 2/ the lifespan was shortened 4.4% more that 300 ppB H/sub 2/S alone. The mean temperature and/or relative humidity did not exert a direct effect on the hazard to bees. A continuous exposure to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ was detrimental to caged worker honey bees; and, a mean temperature of 27.2/sup 0/C was 75.7% more toxic than the same dosage at 16.7/sup 0/C. Worker bee lifespans exposed to 300 ppB SO/sub 2/ at 16.7/sup 0/C were shortened 13.5% and 79%, respectively, compared to unexposed bees. Therefore, both dosage and temperature exert direct effects on the hazards to bees. PART II: The status of the apicultural industry in Imperial County, California, was outlined giving a short characterization of the area in relation to the apicultural industry. Agriculture utilizes 500,000 intensely farmed acres which generated a 11-year average income of $370 million. Over 40 agricultural commodities are produced. The apicultural industry is intimately involved in 25% of the total gross agricultural income. In addition, most of the flora growing in the desert community which comprises the remainder of the county are very important to honey bees by providing sustaining nectar and/or pollen for brood rearing. The bee foraged flora provides substantial bee forage when colonies are located outside of the agriculutral area. It is concluded that geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley is contemplated to have minimal effects on the apicultural industry.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Atkins, E.L.

Analysis of the early phase of tokamak plasma ohmic heating

Description: A study of ohmically heated tokamak systems has been performed in which the evolution of the plasma is followed through the initiation period up to 100 eV. A zero-dimensional model of the bulk plasma is utilized, with a one-dimensional model of the plasma inductance. Losses due to ionization and oxygen impurity processes are evaluated using the best available atomic data. The total OH system energy expended in forming and heating the plasma up to a reference temperature of 100 eV is calculated and found to be a function of the maximum induced loop voltage. The latter is found to be limited by thresholds for runaway electron production. Finally, preliminary results are presented on fully one-dimensional calculations which verify rigorously the formation of inverted temperature and current profiles as early as 50 eV in the heating process.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: von Valtier, E.

Analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes of a UO/sub 2/ bubble in sodium for the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST). [LMFBR]

Description: The anticipated behavior of uranium oxide vapor bubbles produced by the capacitor discharge vaporization (CDV) method in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) Facility is discussed on the basis of relatively simple physical models. Results of calculations for the rate of bubble rise and for heat and mass transfer rates are presented. Parametric studies indicate that future analysis efforts should emphasize the diffusion condensation process and the loss of heat from the bubble by radiation. Transfer of heat in the surrounding sodium is rapid enough that simplified models should be adequate. No important effects were noted in connection with bubble depth, initial quantity of UO/sub 2/, or initial superheat.
Date: April 17, 1979
Creator: Tobias, M.L.

Analysis of the Z dependence of laser generated suprathermal electron temperature

Description: Recent experiments with high Z disks on the Argus facility have exteanded our knowledge of the temperature (inferred from the slope of the hard x-ray spectrum) of laser generated suprathermal electrons, from the previous regime of 1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 30 to the Z approx. = 80 regime. The systematic rise of temperature with Z is theoretically analyzed. We believe that material albedoes (electron reflectivity) which increase with Z can account for this behavior, since electrons can make multiple passes through the region of resonant electric fields and are thus reheated. We treat this effect quantitatively and obtain reasonable agreement with experiment. The effects of magnetic fields and filamentation are also examined.
Date: April 17, 1979
Creator: Rosen, M.D. & Estabrook, K.G.

Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1978. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]

Description: Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1978, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 6.6 mrem. This represents about 6.6% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.3% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1978. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be re-established as soon as construction activities permit. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.01 mrem; this represents less than 0.01% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.002% of the technical standard.
Date: April 1, 1979

Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Interim report, October 1, 1977-March 31, 1979

Description: The primary objective of this project is to reduce the energy requirements for finishing fabrics by drastically reducing the water required to wet process the fabrics. Since less water is used, less energy is consumed in the evaporation of water. This is accomplished by replacing much of the water with air, making a foam and using it as the application medium. In the first six months of the project the practicality of foam fabric finishing on a commercial basis had been established. Limited yardage of fabrics equivalent in performance to conventionally wet finished fabrics were processed. In these mill trials, a range of foam fabric finishes including softeners, hand builders, durable press and shrink-resistant types were applied to cotton sheeting, corduroy and polyester/cellulosic blends, etc. In all cases, substantial energy savings were realized. Since the issuance of the first and second interim reports, commercial practice of foam fabric finishing continues to grow with cumulative total estimated as approaching 200,000,000 yards. A number of companies are currently using foam fabric finishing as a commercial production process. Additionally, the pilot range has been used to demonstrate foam fabric finishing to over twenty companies. The range has been used to demonstrate the foam acid dyeing of nylon carpets to several companies in this specialized area of textile processing. Active work still continues with these companies since the foam dyeing of carpets involves only about 1/5 the water used in the normal continuous dyeing of carpets. At the time of writing two carpet companies are actively working to evaluate foam dyeing on a mill scale. (LCL)
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Duke, M.W.