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Addendum to a Proposal for ATLAS: a Precision-Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory, December 1978

Description: This revised proposal for the construction of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is in all essentials the same as the proposal originally presented to NUSAC in March 1978. The only differences worth mentioning are the plan to expand the experimental area somewhat more than was originally proposed and an increased cost, brought about principally by inflation. The outline presented is the same (with minor change in wording) as in the original document, reproduced here for the convenience of the reader.
Date: 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: April-June 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving the components of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, Robert Dean; Nelson, P. A.; Arons, R. M.; Kinoshita, K.; Sim, J. W. et al.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1977

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes work aimed at understanding and improving the performance of fuel cells having molten alkali-carbonate mixtures as electrolytes; the fuel cells operate at temperatures near 925 K.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Kinoshita, K.; Finn, P. A.; Sim, J. W. & Nelson, P. A.

Analysis of Nonlinear Fluid Structure Interaction Transient in Fast Reactors

Description: A generalized Eulerian method is described for analyzing the fluid transients and the structural response in nuclear reactors under the postulated accident conditions. The phenomena considered are the wave propagation, slug impact, sodium spillage, bubble migration, and the fluid-structure interaction. The basic equations and numerical formulation are presented in detail. Sample calculations are given to illustrate the analysis. It is shown from the results that the implicit, iterative method used is unconditionally stable and is especially suitable for problems involving large material distortions.
Date: 1978
Creator: Yang, C. Y.

Approximations of Gamma Cross Sections for Fast Nuclear Reactors

Description: The report shows a method to approximate a P₁ scattering solution for the flux in a fast reactor, using an isotropic, but not a diagonal-transport-approximation scattering matrix. Presented are flux errors relative to a P₁ solution for different levels of transport approximation in an EBR-II type of core surrounded by a stainless steel reflector. Problems associated with the use of the method are also presented.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Grimm, K. N. & Meneghetti, D.

ATLAS: a Proposal for a Precision Heavy Ion Accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: The objective of the proposed Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is to provide precision beams of heavy ions for nuclear physics research in the region of projectile energies comparable to nuclear binding energies (5-25 MeV/A). By using the demonstrated potential of superconducting radiofrequency technology, beams of exceptional quality and flexibility can be obtained. The system is designed to provide beams with tandem-like energy resolution and ease of energy variation, the energy range is comparable to that of approximately 50 MV tandem and, in addition, the beam will be bunched into very short (approximately 50 psec) pulses, permitting fast-timing measurements that can open up major new experimental approaches.
Date: February 1978
Creator: Bollinger, L. M.

Autoradiography as a Safeguards Inspection Technique for Unirradiated LWR Fuel Assemblies

Description: A nondestructive autoradiographic method is described which can provide a verification that rods in the interior of unirradiated LWR fuel assemblies contain low-enriched uranium. Sufficient absorber must be used to reduce contributions to image density by beta radiation from uranium-238 daughters. When appropriate absorbers are used, the density of the image of a uranium-containing fuel rod is proportional to the uranium-235 enrichment in that rod. Exposure times as short as 1.5 hours can be achieved by using fast film and intensifying screens. Methods are discussed for reducing contributions to the image density of any single rod from radiation produced by all other rods in the assembly. The technique is useful for detecting missing rods, dummy rods, and rods containing depleted uranium. These defects can be detected by visual inspection of the autoradiographs. In its present state of development, the technique is not sensitive enough to reliably detect the difference between the various uranium-235 enrichments encountered in current BWR fuel assemblies. Results are presented for field tests of the technique at BWR and PWR facilities.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Brumbach, S. B. & Perry, R. B.

Bilinear Cyclic Stress-Strain Parameters for Types 304 and 316 Stainless Steel

Description: The bilinear cyclic stress-strain parameters for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel are described. The bilinear properties of solution-annealed and aged Type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) and solution-annealed Type 3l6 stainless steel (heat 8092297) under cyclic-loading conditions at a strain rate of 8.6 x 10⁵ s⁻¹, total strain range between 0.2 and 0.8 percent, and temperatures from 22 to 593 degrees C were determined. The dependence of bilinear parameters on maximum strain epsilon and temperature is discussed.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Maiya, P. S.

Chemical Activities of Alkali Sulfates in Hot Corrosion

Description: The condensation temperatures of sodium and potassium sulfates from typical fuel-oil combustion gases were calculated as functions of the concentrations of SO2, HCl, NaCl and O2, and total combustion pressures ranging from 1 to 10 atm. Of these components, oxygen had the greatest effect on the condensation temperature of sodium sulfate, producing an increase of as much as 280 degrees K at 10 atm. Alkali sulfate activities were least affected by sulfur dioxide, tested in the range from 93 to 270 ppM. The order of the effect on the alkali sulfates was as follows: O2 > HCl > NaCl > SO2. With the addition of K2CO3, such as would occur in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) environment, the activity of potassium sulfate overshadowed that of sodium sulfate. The control of the activities of alkali sulfates is discussed in terms of the concentrations of the above-mentioned species and of the system pressure.
Date: June 1978
Creator: Hsu, Chen C.; Johnson, Irving & Blander, Milton

Chemical Engineering Division Basic Energy Sciences Research: July 1976-September 1977

Description: Studies in basic energy science covered many different activities, nearly all of which were designed to gain information required for a better understanding of systems important to national needs in energy and environment. Studies of associating gases included measurements of thermal conductivities and basic molecular orbital calculations. Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry were used to determine thermodynamic and spectroscopic data on salt vapor complexes. Polarized Raman spectra of As2S3 thin films and vapors were recorded. Halogenation of lanthanide oxides with aluminum chloride allowed the separation of the resultant chloride complexes by vapor transport. Electrochemical titrations were used to obtain the solubility product of iron sulfide in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic. Solubility products of eleven sulfides in the same eutectic mixture were calculated. Galvanostatic techniques were used to study metal deposition/dissolution reactions in molten salts. Activity coefficients of lithium in lithium-lead alloys were determined electrochemically; phase diagrams of ternary alloys of Li-Al-Mg and Li-Ca-Mg were computed. Thermodynamic studies are being made of the sorption of hydrogen by Li-Al and Li-Pb alloys. The study of the solubility of oxygen in liquid lithium was completed. An electric resistance method for measuring distribution properties of nonmetallic elements in binary metallic systems containing lithium is being developed. Calorimetric methods were used to measure standard enthalpies of formation of some coal components, lanthanum and rare earth trifluorides, and gamma-UO3, UF6, Cs3CrO4, Cs4CrO4, As4S4, and As2S3. High-temperature enthalpy increments were measured for LaF3 and beta-As4S4. The acidities of airborne ammonium sulfate-bearing particles from various areas of the U.S. were measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Date: 1978?
Creator: Cafasso, F. A.; Blander, M.; Maroni, V. A.; Johnson, C. E.; Kumar, R. & Siegel, S.

Chemical Engineering Division Reactor Fuels and Materials Chemistry Research : July 1976-September 1977

Description: This report describes research and development activities conducted in support of fast-reactor programs during the period July 1976 - September 1977. Reactor safety studies were directed primarily toward obtaining high-temperature physical property data for use in reactor safety analyses. Spectrographic data and an oxygen-potential model were used to calculate thermodynamic properties applicable to the equations of state of uranium-plutonium dioxide and uranium dioxide. Work was continued on the compilation of standard sets of property data on reactor fuels and materials. The viscosity of molten aluminum and the thermal diffusivity of molten uranium dioxide were measured as functions of temperature. Modeling and chemical-interaction studies related to post-accident heat removal were conducted. The efforts in sodium technology supported the LMFBR program. Studies were conducted to explore the feasibility of upgrading the quality of commercial-grade sodium and sodium from decommissioned reactors to provide new sources of reactor-grade sodium.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Cafasso, F. A.; Leibowitz, L.; McPheeters, C. C. & Johnson, C. E.

Chemical Engineering Division Research Highlights 1978

Description: Report of activities at Argonne Chemical Engineering Division, including lithium/metal sulfide batteries, electro-chemical project management, advanced fuel cell development, utilization of coal, magnetohydrodynamics, solar energy, fast reactor chemistry, and fuel cycles.
Date: 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Engineering Division.

Combined Motion of Fuel and Coolant Due to Fuel-Coolant Interactions under High Ramp Rate Reactivity Insertion

Description: An analysis has been made of the combined motion of fuel and coolant due to fuel-coolant interactions following a massive fuel failure in a high-ramp overpower transient. The motion of fuel and coolant was described using a two-fluid model formulation in which the mixture of sodium liquid and vapor and of fission gas, on the one hand, and the fuel particles, on the other, were treated as two superimposed continua. The method of solution employed a numerical procedure called the ACE method, a modified version of the IMF technique.
Date: July 1978
Creator: Chang, K. I. & Cho, D. H.

Community Systems Program: Its Goals and Accomplishments, 1978

Description: The Community Systems Program is concerned with conserving energy and scarce fuels through new methods of satisfying the energy needs of American communities. These programs are designed to develop innovative ways of combining current, emerging, and advanced technologies into Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) that could furnish any, or all, of the energy-using services of a community. The key goals of the Community System Program then, are to identify, evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and deploy energy systems and community designs that will optimally meet the needs of various communities. Integrated systems offer considerable potential for fuel substitution, thereby allowing the use of non-scarce fuel resources that would not be economically usable in smaller unintegrated systems. Input energy sources for such systems may include low-grade waste heat, solid and liquid wastes, solar and geothermal heat, seawater heat dissipation, and use of less-scarce fuels, such as coal and biomass. A Grid-Connected ICES uses a central co-generation plant and distribution system to provide heating, cooling, and electrical energy services. During 1977, contracts for the following Grid-Connected ICES (G-C ICES) demonstration teams were negotiated: City of Independence, Missouri; Clark University; City of Trenton, New Jersey; Health Education Authority of Louisiana (HEAL); and University of Minnesota. A coal-using ICES, proposed for Georgetown University, also has made noticeable strides toward demonstration of the concept.
Date: April 1978
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

Comparison of REXCO Code Predictions with SRI SM-2 Experimental Results

Description: This report deals with the REXCO-code predictions of the SRI SM-2 test. Two calculations were performed with the REXCO-HEP code: one used the pressure history of the core detonation products as input and the other the pressure-volume relations of the detonation products as input. The other inputs of the computer analysis are the vessel and the core-barrel dimensions and boundary conditions, the constitutive equations of the vessel and the core barrel materials, and the equation of state for the coolant. The REXCO-predicted well deformations, pressure loadings, and dynamic strain histories at various gauge positions are compared with the experimental data. Results of the comparisons are discussed.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Chang, Y. W. & Gvildys, J.

Concrete and Rock Core Tests, Major Rehabilitation of Starved Rock Lock and Dam, Illinois Waterway, Chicago District, Phase I, Rehabilitation: Final Report

Description: Abstract: Drilling for laboratory testing of concrete and foundation rock was carried out for the U. S. Army Engineer District, Chicago, as part of a major rehabilitation program at the Starved Rock Lock and Dam.
Date: September 1978
Creator: Stowe, Richard L.; Pavlov, Barbara A. & Wong, Ging S.