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Cyclone Incinerator development program FY 1976 annual report

Description: On July 1, 1975, Monsanto Research Corporation was funded by ERDA/DWMT to continue studies at Mound Laboratory with a cyclone incinerator pilot plant for the consolidation of low level radioactive wastes. The report summarizes activities associated with the LSA Cyclone Incinerator Program for the period from July 1, 1975, to June 30, 1976. The document includes work performed in June, 1976, which has not been previously reported. The pilot plant had been installed prior to July 1, 1975, to investigate the feasibility of this method for effectively reducing the volume of LSA wastes. Such a method is badly needed to reduce the costs of transporting such wastes and improving the safety of disposing of them. In addition to using the incinerator to develop parameters for the efficient volume reduction of Mound-generated wastes, the unit is also available for studies to adapt this incinerator concept to the needs of other ERDA sites. The results of such studies then can be used to construct suitable incinerators at these sites.
Date: December 31, 1976

Decontamination of HEPA filters. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1976

Description: Mound Laboratory, in its many years of plutonium processing experience, has recovered over 150 kilograms of plutonium-238. Much of this material has been recovered from HEPA filters and other secondary wastes such as sludge, slag, etc. The basic recovery nitric acid leach process at Mound for the decontamination of HEPA filters will be improved and modified i this project for processing filters from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Efforts this past quarter were directed toward determining the dissolution parameters of plutonium in HNO{sub 3} which included a study of the optimum acid concentration and optimum dissolution temperature.
Date: December 31, 1976

Development of ultrafiltration and inorganic adsorbents for reducing volumes of low-level and intermediate-level liquid waste. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1976

Description: The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate separation methods for removing radionuclides from liquid process waste streams. As part of this program, Mound Laboratory will develop lower cost alternatives for use i n1980 fuel reprocessing and waste solidification plants, evaluate the processes within the nuclear fuel cycle which contribute to low-level and intermediate-level waste, and determine the feasibility of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, inorganic adsorbents and other separation concepts as additions to process design to reduce the generation of this type of waste. In the initial phase of this program, membrane equipment will be obtained from a commercial membrane manufacturer. After the pilot plant is installed, it will be checked out on cold feed in order to obtain initial flux and rejection data for comparison to data obtained later in the program. After completion of the cold tests, the membrane pilot plant will be run on a combined contaminated feed emanating from showers, laboratory drains, janitorial sinks and decontamination in processing areas, as well as a laundry waste stream containing alpha-contaminated wastes. This combined waste stream contains only alpha contamination (uranium and plutonium). However, as part of this program, gamma activity will be added to the waste stream. These wastes will be representative of those streams found at fuel reprocessing plants, as well as various ERDA processing facilities such as Mound, LASL, Hanford, and Rocky Flats. For the second part of the program, laboratory tests will be run on various adsorbents to evaluate their capacities for removing radionuclides. As part of this program, a technique for screening adsorbents developed at Mound Laboratory will be utilized.
Date: December 31, 1976

Geothermal Compax drill bit development. Semiannual technical report, July 1, 1976--December 31, 1976

Description: Results obtained from instrumented single-diamond compact cutter experiments, wear and failure mode analysis, and preliminary bit design concepts are described. A model was developed relating rock cutting forces to the independent diamond cutting variables, using a statistical test design and regression analysis. The model was tested with additional independent cutting data and a satisfactory fit obtained. Experiments on two rock types (with compressive strengths of 8 x 10/sup 3/ psi and 21 x 10/sup 3/ psi respectively) were completed and a third has been initiated. Preliminary analysis of single cutter experimental results indicates that optimum rake angles for cutters on an actual bit will be a function of each cutter's engagement (depth of cut). Wear test results on five types of COMPAX/sup R/ diamond compacts continuously cutting sandstone under non-impact conditions are reported. Wear rates for both types were equivalent at high cutting speeds, where thermal effects were thought to be operative. At speeds below approximately 400 sfm, the coarser sintered diamond product was superior. The wear rate of a diamond compact tested on Texas Pink granite was calculated and found to be almost two orders of magnitude greater than the wear rate of the same product as determined by CR and D. The higher wear rate is thought to be the result of cyclic impact loading and thermal effects at the cutter-rock interface. Test results are also discussed for interrupted cuts with high negative back rake angles which generated cracks in diamond compacts. Preliminary bit design concepts were developed, including various options dependent upon compact attachment techniques, bit body materials, and available technology for actual construction. Diamond compact attachment is discussed in the Appendix of this report.
Date: December 31, 1976
Creator: Hibbs, L.E. Jr. & Flom, D.G.

High-pressure tritium equipment

Description: Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 K are discussed The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be modified easily by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal belows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings and gauges for high- pressure tritium work also is reviewed briefly.
Date: December 31, 1976
Creator: Coffin, D.O.

Neutron fluence map for the rotating target neutron source

Description: Nine nickel, niobium, and gold dosimetry foils incorporated in a neutron irradiation experiment at the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS) facility were analyzed to construct a three-dimensional neutron fluence map. The purpose of the map was to determine the exact neutron fluences received by several pure element specimens irradiated for helium generation studies. However, the map alone provides the most detailed profile yet obtained of the RTNS neutron fluence distribution at the highest flux region accessible for irradiation experiments. This report gives details of the map, and provides a dosimetry procedure for use in future irradiations requiring accurate fluence information. The map also provides precise relative cross sections for the Ni, Nb, and Au dosimetry reactions for 14.8-MeV neutrons. The /sup 58/Ni(n,p)/sup 58/Co cross section is significantly lower than the current published evaluation. An analytical expression was derived to describe the measured fluence distribution; this was compared with an existing mathematical model of the RTNS neutron fluence profile. The model was found to represent approximately the fluence profile for a range of source parameters, but it cannot be used for an accurate determination of the fluence variation in a given irradiation experiment.
Date: December 31, 1976
Creator: Kneff, D. W.; Farrar, H. IV.; Van Konynenburg, R. A. & Heinrich, R. R.

Operation and maintenance manual: ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP, Model 18 EPA 38A01-14,500 GPM. [LMFBR]

Description: This manual is a serialized document issued by General Electric, Fast Breeder Reactor Department, EM Pump Engineering. The manual contains information and requirements relevant to the installation, operation, and maintenance of General Electric ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP Model 18EPA28A01 at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center, Santa Susana, California.
Date: December 31, 1976

Process mechanization and automation

Description: This pamphlet describes efforts in process mechanization and automation by Monsanto company at Mound laboratory. Remote handling of plutonium, loading pyrotechnic components, automatically scanning air filters, and welding automation are examples of current research efforts at Mound.
Date: December 31, 1976

Report for ad hoc committee on status and trends in bioassay of inhaled heavy elements by photon counting

Description: This report focuses on detectors for the assessment of inhaled heavy radioactive elements. Currently, phoswich detectors are the most prevalent type of detectors in use for assessing lung depositions of heavy element low-energy photon emitters. These detectors, along with their associated instrumentation, have proven their reliability for routine monitoring. Most phoswich detector systems are capable of detecting about one-half lung burden of {sup 238}Pu or about one and one-fourth lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu on an average individual who has a uniform distribution of plutonium in the lungs. Most all the large area NaI detection arrays have been replaced by the phoswich detectors. The NaI detectors are similar in basic characteristic to the phoswich, however, the large area NaI detectors exhibit higher background and sensitivities at the lower energies (< 70 keV) used for assessing inhalation exposures of heavy elements. Some lung counter facilities use proportional counters for assessments. Those in current use have anti-coincidence chambers to reduce background counts and improve the sensitivity. Semiconductor detectors are only practical when used in arrays and, therefore, are the most expensive detection system available.
Date: December 31, 1976
Creator: Tomlinson, F.K.

Research in experimental nuclear physics. Progress report, 1 July 1976 to 31 March 1977. [Univ. of Texas at Austin]

Description: The major instrumentation and testing efforts of the University of Texas User's Group at LAMPF were centered on the high-resolution proton and pion spectrometer systems. First data were taken with these systems. Nuclear physics experimentation was devoted to pion-induced nucleon removal from light nuclei such as He, Li, Be, C, and O. Both ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ beams were used. A few excitation functions are presented. Lists of publications, personnel, etc., are included. 23 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)
Date: December 31, 1976

SE-1 detonator

Description: This paper provides a configuration description and specifications for the SE-1 detonator. The SE-1 is often referred to as the all purpose detonator due to its popular use as a test unit by the U.S. Department of Defense and ERDA research and development laboratories such as Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and Sandia Laboratories.
Date: December 31, 1976

Task 5c: measurement and instrumentation under subsystem design of the LLL safeguard material control program. [For fuel reprocessing plant]

Description: A product survey was conducted of all security products currently available on the market. Documentation is presented of the survey and a printout of the data is included. A general description is given of new but recommended instrumentation and security devices for application to fuel reprocessing plants. Security systems and hardware recommended for development, assembly, and testing are discussed briefly. (DLC)
Date: December 31, 1976

[Western Coal Study]. Mound Laboratory-USEPA Interagency Agreement IAG-D5-E681: Progress report number 1, July 12--August 13, 1976

Description: Major accomplishments during the first five weeks of this study include: (1) successful adaption of analytical methods; (2) preparation of detailed operational sheets; (3) selection of mines to be sampled, through USGS and various state geologists; and (4) successful completion of coal mine sampling. Complete operational sheets have been prepared which include steps taken from collection of the sample at the mine through counting of that sample for radioactivity. The purpose of these operational sheets is to bring consistency to all the data and traceability of a sample result back through the operational sheets to the mine and day it was sampled.
Date: December 31, 1976

Large scale production task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Final report

Description: 2000 solar power modules capable of producing over 10 kW of peak power were delivered by Spectrolab, Inc., during the period March to October 1976. These modules were comprised of twenty 2-inch diameter silicon solar cells embedded in a silicone elastomeric potting compound on an aluminum T beam extrusion with a glass cover plate and were typical of standard commercial products being manufactured during that time period. These modules have good structural and thermal dissipation characteristics, but difficulties were encountered with respect to delamination of the encapsulant material, low electrical breakdown resistance and humidity sensitivity. The extensive environmental test program and subsequent analytical analysis of results has provided a great deal of new knowledge of the module design. It has shown there were many limitations with this particular commercial module which were not known at the start of the program and should provide a good basis for developing an improved module in the future. Design modifications that have been recommended to improve reliability and reduce cost, include the elimination of metal substrate, replacement of silicone with a more suitable encapsulant, larger module size and use of series-parallel circuit configurations.
Date: December 29, 1976

Alaska Pipeline

Description: This report is intended as a follow-up and continuation of the events and legislative history evoked by the discovery of petroleum on the North Slope in Alaska and the subsequent construction of the Alaska pipeline.
Date: December 28, 1976
Creator: Dyas, Norma W.

Citizen Futures Organizations Group Profiles

Description: This report on Citizen Futures Organizations Group Profiles. This report also describes 29 organizations that develop goals for the future of their communities and encourage the participation of the citizens in the setting of these goals.
Date: December 28, 1976
Creator: Bea, Alan, Keith & Hutson, Elmer, Cynthia

Demonstration of an inductor motor/alternator/flywheel energy storage system. Technical quarterly progress report No. 2, September 28, 1976--December 28, 1976

Description: The overall objective of the ERDA program described is to demonstrate new technology associated with a novel concept for a high-speed flywheel energy storage system. The concept, consisting of a high-speed composite flywheel combined with an integral inductor-type motor/alternator, offers the possibility of a small, lightweight package with high energy storage capability. The basic technology demonstrated in this program will have application to a number of flywheel energy storage systems. The demonstration unit will have a nominal rating of 20 kVA. The program will develop a flywheel energy storage system sized for a 3000 lb battery electric van. The balance of the report discusses the energy storage package: (1) design and fabrication of the inductor motor/alternator/flywheel; and (2) design and fabrication of the solid state power conditioner and control breadboard.
Date: December 28, 1976

Dip coating process. Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Quarterly report No. 4, September 17, 1976--December 17, 1976

Description: The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar cell-quality sheet silicon by coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon from the melt. With the present dip coating facility, pulling rates of 5 to 7 cm/min are most likely to produce layers of the crystalline quality from which high efficiency solar cells can be fabricated. At a pulling rate of 6 cm/min, it is possible to achieve smooth 50-..mu..m thick layers, with grains as large as 2.5-mm wide, generally extending the entire length of the substrate. At pulling rates less than 6 cm/min, single grains as large as 4 mm in width have been observed. Substrates held at an angle of 45/sup 0/ to the surface of the melt during dipping produced layers qualitatively similar to the vertical dipped layers, but they show some potential for improved coating uniformity. Diffractometer measurements on several samples showed that the strongest diffraction peak was from the silicon 220 plane which is about 10/sup 0/ from the sample surface. The (110) surfaces have been found to be dominant in the EFG and dendritic material, and it appears this is a general characteristic of sheet-grown silicon. Mullite substrates containing an excess of SiO/sub 2/ have been shown to match the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon. Mullite, however,dissolves slightly in the silicon melt, adding aluminum impurities to the silicon layers. A preliminary Ion Beam Microprobe analysis revealed that the aluminum concentration measured in three samples of typical dip-coated silicon layers correlated correctly with the measured restitivies. Photodiodes were made on a number of silicon on ceramic (SOC) layers, and results of performance tests are discussed.
Date: December 28, 1976
Creator: Heaps, J. D.; Zook, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Schuldt, S.; Schuller, T. L.; Nelson, L. D. et al.