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Blackout of poultry houses and dairy barns.

Description: Provides detailed instructions for the farmer who wishes to continue his regular routine in the event of a War Department issued blackout notice. Discusses the importance of readiness and the use of existing materials due to war related shortages.
Date: January 1943
Creator: Kelley, M. A. R. (Manley Alexander Raymond), 1888-1943.

Derivation of charts for determining the horizontal tail load variation with any elevator motion

Description: The equations relating the wing and tail loads are derived for a unit elevator displacement. These equations are then converted into a nondimensional form and charts are given by which the wing- and tail-load-increment variation may be determined under dynamic conditions for any type of elevator motion and for various degrees of airplane stability. In order to illustrate the use of the charts, several examples are included in which the wing and tail loads are evaluated for a number of types of elevator motion. Methods are given for determining the necessary derivatives from results of wind-tunnel tests when such tests are available.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Pearson, Henry A

Determination of general relations for the behavior of turbulent boundary layers

Description: An analysis has been made of a considerable amount of data for turbulent boundary layers along wings and bodies of various shapes in order to determine the fundamental variables that control the development of turbulent boundary layers. It was found that the type of velocity distribution in the boundary layer could be expressed in terms of a single parameter. This parameter was chosen as the ratio of the displacement thickness to the momentum thickness of the boundary layer. The variables that control the development of the turbulent boundary layer apparently are: (1) the ratio of the nondimensional pressure gradient, expressed in terms of the local dynamic pressure outside the boundary layer and boundary-layer thickness, to the local skin-friction coefficient and (2) the shape of the boundary layer. An empirical equation has been developed in terms of these variables that, when used with the momentum equation and the skin-friction relation, makes it possible to trace the development of the turbulent boundary layer to the separation point.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Von Doenhoff, Albert E & Tetervin, Neal

Drag Measurements of a Protruding.50-Caliber Machine Gun with Barrel Jacket Removed

Description: Tests were made in 8-ft high-speed wind tunnel to determine the drag reduction possible by eliminating the barrel jacket of a protruding 50-caliber aircraft gun. It was found that the drag of a standard aircraft gun protruding into the air stream at right angles to the flow can be reduced by 23% by discarding the barrel jacket. At 300 mph and sea-level conditions, this amounts to a decrease in drag of from 83 to 64 pounds. A rough surface finish on the barrel was found to have no adverse effects on the drag of the barrel, the drag being actually less at high Mach Numbers.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Luoma, Arvo A.

The Effect of Compressibility on the Growth of the Laminar Boundary Layer on Low-Drag Wings and Bodies

Description: The development of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid is considered. Formulas are given for determining the boundary-layer thickness and the ratio of the boundary-layer Reynolds number to the body Reynolds number for airfoils and bodies of revolution. It i s shown that the effect of compressibility will profoundly alter the Reynolds number corresponding to the upper limit of the range of the low-drag coefficients . The available data indicate that for low-drag and high critical compressibility speed airfoils and bodies of revolution, this effect is favorable.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Allen, H. Julian & Nitzberg, Gerald E.

The effect of compressibility on two-dimensional tunnel-wall interference for a symmetrical airfoil

Description: Summary: The effective change in the velocity of flow past a wing section, caused by the presence of wind-tunnel walls, is known for potential flow. This theory is extended by investigation of the two-dimensional compressible flow past a thin Rankine Oval. It is shown that for a symmetrical section at zero angle of attack the velocity increment due to the tunnel walls in the incompressible case must be multiplied by the factor 1/1-M^2 to take account of compressibility effects. The Mach number, M, corresponds to conditions in the wind-tunnel test section with the model removed (p. 1.).
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Nitzberg, Gerald E

The effect of mass distribution on the lateral stability and control characteristics of an airplane as determined by tests of a model in the free-flight tunnel

Description: The effects of mass distribution on lateral stability and control characteristics of an airplane have been determined by flight tests of a model in the NACA free-flight tunnel. In the investigation, the rolling and yawing moments of inertia were increased from normal values to values up to five times normal. For each moment-of-inertia condition, combinations of dihedral and vertical-tail area representing a variety of airplane configurations were tested. The results of the flight tests of the model were correlated with calculated stability and control characteristics and, in general, good agreement was obtained.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Campbell, John P & Seacord, Charles L , Jr

Effect of Normal Pressure on the Critical Shear Stress of Curved Sheet

Description: In order to determine the critical stresses caused by an outward acting pressure on the upper surface of a wing due to the difference in internal and external pressures, torsional tests were made on two curved-sheet specimens subjected to an outward acting normal pressure. Results show that an outward acting normal pressure appreciable raises the critical shear stress for an unstiffened curved sheet; the absolute increase in critical shear stress is slightly greater for a 30 in. rib spacing than for a 10 in. rib spacing.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Rafel, Norman

Effect of Rivet Holes on the Ultimate Strength Developed by 24S-T and Alclad 75S-T Sheet in Incomplete Diagonal Tension

Description: Strength tests were made of a number of 24S-T and Alclad 75S-T aluminum-alloy shear webs to determine the effect of rivet or bolt holes on the shear strength. Data were obtained for webs which approached a condition of pure shear stress as well as for webs with well-developed diagonal tension. The rivet factor, (pitch minus diameter) divided by pitch, was varied from approximately 0.81 to 0.62. These tests indicated that the shear stresses on the gross section were nearly constant for all values of the rivet factor investigated if the other properties of the web were not changed.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Levin, L. Ross & Nelson, David H.

The exact solution of shear-lag problems in flat panels and box beams assumed rigid in the transverse direction

Description: A mathematical procedure is herein developed for obtaining exact solutions of shear-lag problems in flat panels and box beams: the method is based on the assumption that the amount of stretching of the sheets in the direction perpendicular to the direction of essential normal stresses is negligible. Explicit solutions, including the treatment of cut-outs, are given for several cases and numerical results are presented in graphic and tabular form. The general theory is presented in a from which further solutions can be readily obtained. The extension of the theory to cover certain cases of non-uniform cross section is indicated. Although the solutions are obtained in terms of infinite series, the present developments differ from those previously given in that, in practical cases, the series usually converge so rapidly that sufficient accuracy is afforded by a small number of terms. Comparisons are made in several cases between the present results and the corresponding solutions obtained by approximate procedures devised by Reissner and by Kuhn and Chiarito.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Hildebrand, Francis B

Exhaust-stack nozzle area and shape for individual cylinder exhaust-gas jet-propulsion system

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation conducted on the effect of exhaust-stack nozzle area, shape, and length on engine power, jet thrust, and gain in net thrust (engine propeller plus jet). Single-cylinder engine data were obtained using three straight stacks 25, 44, and 108 inches in length; an S-shaped stack, a 90 degree bend, a 180 degree bend, and a short straight stack having a closed branch faired into it. Each stack was fitted with nozzles varying in exit area from 0.91 square inch to the unrestricted area of the stack of 4.20 square inches. The engine was generally operated over a range of engine speeds from 1300 to 2100 r.p.m, inlet-manifold pressures from 22 to 30 inches of mercury absolute, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.08. The loss in engine power, the jet thrust, and the gain in net thrust are correlated in terms of several simple parameters. An example is given for determining the optimum nozzle area and the overall net thrust.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin; Turner, Richard; Voss, Fred & Humble, Leroy V

Experimental Investigation of Impact in Landing on Water

Description: The extent of agreement of the theoretical impact computations with the actual phenomenon has not as yet been fully clarified. There is on the one hand a certain imperfection in the theory (simplifying assumptions made) and on the other an insufficiency in the experimental data available. The object of our present paper is to show how far test results agree with the available approximate computation methods, to investigate in greater detail the physical nature of impact on water, and to perfect the experimental method of studying the phenomenon.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Kreps, R. L.