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Corn culture.

Description: A general guide to growing corn crops in the United States, including selection, land preparation, planting, culture, and insect and disease control.
Date: 1940
Creator: Richey, Frederick D. (Frederick David), b. 1884

Corrections on the thermometer reading in an air stream

Description: A method is described for checking a correction formula, based partly on theoretical considerations, for adiabatic compression and friction in flight tests and determining the value of the constant. It is necessary to apply a threefold correction to each thermometer reading. They are a correction for adiabatic compression, friction and for time lag.
Date: October 1, 1940
Creator: Van Der Maas, H J & Wynia, S

Correlation of cooling data from an air-cooled cylinder and several multicylinder engines

Description: The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Correlation of knocking characteristics of fuels in an engine having a hemispherical combustion chamber

Description: Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained with having a hemispherical-dome combustion chamber. The five aircraft-engine fuels used have octane numbers varying from 90 to 100 plus 2 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5 1/4-inch by 4 3/4-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.0 to 8.9. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 110 to 310 F. For each set of conditions, the inlet-air pressure was increased until audible knock occurred and then reduced 2 inches of mercury before data were recorded. The results for each fuel can be correlated by plotting the calculated end-gas density factor against the calculated end-gas temperature. Measurements of spark-plugs, cutting off the switch to one spark plug lowered the electrode temperature of that plug from a value of 1,365 F to a value of 957 F. The results indicate that the surface temperatures of combustion-chamber areas which become new sources of ignition markedly increase after ignition.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Biermann, Arnold E.

Creep strength of stabilized wrought-aluminum alloys

Description: Rohn-type equipment has been mounted on rubber blocks, for the purpose of damping the vibrations of the ground and of rendering the plastic yielding of the test bars less subject to outside interferences. New equipment also included three shockproof creep-testing machines with the Martens mirror instruments for recording the strain curve of the fatigue-tested specimens.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Muller, W

Damping formulas and experimental values of damping in flutter models

Description: The problem of determining values of structural damping for use in flutter calculations is discussed. The concept of equivalent viscous damping is reviewed and its relation to the structural damping coefficient g introduced in NACA Technical Report No. 685 is shown. The theory of normal modes is reviewed and a number of methods are described for separating the motions associated with different modes. Equations are developed for use in evaluating the damping parameters from experimental data. Experimental results of measurements of damping in several flutter models are presented.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Coleman, Robert P.

Design charts relating to the stalling of tapered wings

Description: An aid in airplane design, charts have been prepared to show the effects of wing taper, thickness ratio, and Reynolds number on the spanwise location of the initial stalling point. Means of improving poor stalling characteristics resulting from certain combinations of the variables have also been considered; additional figures illustrate the influence of camber increase to the wing tips, washout, central sharp leading edges, and wing-tip slots on the stalling characteristics. Data are included from which the drag increases resulting from the use of these means can be computed. The application of the data to a specific problem is illustrated by an example.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Soule, H A & Anderson, R F

Determination of ground effect from tests of a glider in towed flight

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made to find the effect of ground on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Franklin PS-2 glider. The lift, the drag, and the angle of attack of the glider in towed flight were determined at several heights from 0.14 to 1.19 span lengths and at various speeds for each height. Two wing arrangements were tested: the plain wing, and the wing with a nearly full-span 30-percent-chord split flap deflected 45 degrees. The experimental results for the plain wing were in good agreement with theoretical values calculated by the method of Wieselsberger for both the angle of attack and the drag coefficient at a height of 0.21 span length; Tani's refinements of the theory had a practically negligible effect on the computed values in this case.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Wetmore, J W & Turner, L I , Jr

The development of electrical strain gages

Description: The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance strain gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the strain gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: De Forest, A V & Leaderman, H

DFS dive-control brakes for gliders and airplanes ; and, Analytical study of the drag of the DFS dive-control brake

Description: These two reports are surveys on the progress and present state of development of dive-control flaps for gliders and airplanes. The second article describes how on the basis of wind tunnel and free-flight tests, the drag increase on brake flaps of the type DFS, can be predicted. Pressure records confirm a two-dimensional load distribution along the brake-flap surface Aerodynamically, the location of the brake flaps along the span is of importance for reasons of avoidance of vibration and oscillation phenomena on control and tail surfaces; statically, because of the magnitude of the frontal drag in diving with respect to the bending moments, which may become decisive for the dimensions of the wing attachment and for the wing covering.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Jacobs, Hans & Wanner, Adolf

Diseases and insects of garden vegetables.

Description: Describes a wide variety of insect pests and diseases of vegetables, their characteristics, and the steps farmers can take to prevent, control, and treat these threats.
Date: 1940
Creator: Gilbert, William W. (William Williams), b. 1880.; Popenoe, C. H. (Charles Holcomb), 1884-1933. & Caffrey, D. J.

Drag determination of the forward component of a tricycle landing gear

Description: Wind-tunnel tests were performed to determine the drag of the front-wheel arrangements of several types of tricycle landing gear. One wheel was tested in arrangements to simulate both nonretracted and partially retracted types. The landing gears were tested in conjunction with a fuselage, and the effects of wheel extension and longitudinal location were determined. The drag changed very little with either longitudinal location or wheel extension for the landing gear with the lowest drag; a completely faired landing gear of the wheelspan, single-strut type. The drag of the trouser-type landing gear increased considerably, however, with an increase in the wheel extension. The wheel of the unaired retractable landing gear was at least one-half retracted into the fuselage before the drag became less than that of the best nonretracted landing gear. The drag per unit frontal area of the landing gears of the present tests was about the same as that found for similar landing gears in earlier tests.
Date: December 1, 1940
Creator: Harmon, Hubert N

Effect of exit-slot position and opening on the available cooling pressure for NACA nose-slot cowlings

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of full-scale nose-slot cowlings conducted in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel to furnish information on the pressure drop available for cooling. Engine conductances from 0 to 0.12 and exit-slot conductances from 0 to 0.30 were covered. Two basic nose shapes were tested to determine the effect of the radius of curvature of the nose contour; the nose shape with the smaller radius of curvature gave the higher pressure drop across the engine. The best axial location of the slot for low-speed operation was found to be in the region of maximum negative pressure for the basic shape for the particular operating condition. The effect of the pressure operating condition on the available cooling pressure is shown.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Stickle, George W; Naiman, Irven & Crigler, John L

Effect of fuel-air ratio, inlet temperature, and exhaust pressure on detonation

Description: An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Taylor, E S; Leary, W A & Diver, J R