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Aerodynamic heating and the deflection of drops by an obstacle in an air stream in relation to aircraft icing

Description: Two topics of interest to persons attempting to apply the heat method of preventing ice formation on aircraft are considered. Surfaces moving through air at high speed are shown, both theoretically and experimentally, to be subject to important aerodynamic heating effects that will materially reduce the heat required to prevent ice. Numerical calculations of the path of water drops in an air stream around a circular cylinder are given. From these calculations, information is obtained on the percentage of the swept area cleared of drops.
Date: October 1940
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur

The aileron as an aid to recovery from the spin

Description: As part of a general investigation by the NACA of factors that affect the spin, the use of the aileron as an aid to recovery from the spin was studied. Tests of 10 different models, covering a wide range of mass distribution, were made in the NACA free-spinning tunnel to determine the effects of a large downward deflection of the outboard aileron and of normal angular deflections of the ailerons upon recovery characteristics. The results indicate that the direction of aileron setting, with or against the spin, which will aid recovery from the spin depends upon the airplane weight distribution. For monoplanes and for biplanes with lower-wing ailerons, ailerons with the spin will be favorable when the weight is distributed chiefly along the fuselage (single-engine airplanes) and ailerons against the spin will be favorable when the weight is distributed chiefly along the wings (multi engine airplanes). Downward movement of the outboard aileron through a large angle will not always be effective in aiding recovery, the effectiveness of such a movement also being dependent upon the weight distribution of the airplane.
Date: September 1940
Creator: Neihouse, A. I.

Analysis of cylinder-pressure-indicator diagrams showing effects of mixture strength and spark timing

Description: An investigation was made to determine the effect of mixture strength and of normal as well as optimum spark timing on the combustion, on the cylinder temperature, and on the performance characteristics of an engine. A single-cylinder test unit utilizing an air-cooled cylinder and a carburetor and operating with gasoline having an octane rating of 92 was used. The investigation covered a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.053 to 0.118. Indicator diagrams and engine-performance data were taken for each change in engine conditions. Examination of the indicator shows that for fuel-air ratios less than and greater than 0.082 the rate and the amount of effective fuel burned decreased. For a fuel-air ratio of 0.118 the combustion efficiency was only 58 percent. Advancing the spark timing increased the rate of pressure rise. This effect was more pronounced with leaner mixtures.
Date: August 1940
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Voss, Fred

Correlation of knocking characteristics of fuels in an engine having a hemispherical combustion chamber

Description: Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained with having a hemispherical-dome combustion chamber. The five aircraft-engine fuels used have octane numbers varying from 90 to 100 plus 2 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5 1/4-inch by 4 3/4-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.0 to 8.9. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 110 to 310 F. For each set of conditions, the inlet-air pressure was increased until audible knock occurred and then reduced 2 inches of mercury before data were recorded. The results for each fuel can be correlated by plotting the calculated end-gas density factor against the calculated end-gas temperature. Measurements of spark-plugs, cutting off the switch to one spark plug lowered the electrode temperature of that plug from a value of 1,365 F to a value of 957 F. The results indicate that the surface temperatures of combustion-chamber areas which become new sources of ignition markedly increase after ignition.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Biermann, Arnold E.

Damping formulas and experimental values of damping in flutter models

Description: The problem of determining values of structural damping for use in flutter calculations is discussed. The concept of equivalent viscous damping is reviewed and its relation to the structural damping coefficient g introduced in NACA Technical Report No. 685 is shown. The theory of normal modes is reviewed and a number of methods are described for separating the motions associated with different modes. Equations are developed for use in evaluating the damping parameters from experimental data. Experimental results of measurements of damping in several flutter models are presented.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Coleman, Robert P.

The development of electrical strain gages

Description: The design, construction, and properties of an electrical-resistance strain gage consisting of fine wires molded in a laminated plastic are described. The properties of such gages are discussed and also the problems of molding of wires in plastic materials, temperature compensation, and cementing and removal of the gages. Further work to be carried out on the strain gage, together with instrument problems, is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: De Forest, A V & Leaderman, H

Drag determination of the forward component of a tricycle landing gear

Description: Wind-tunnel tests were performed to determine the drag of the front-wheel arrangements of several types of tricycle landing gear. One wheel was tested in arrangements to simulate both nonretracted and partially retracted types. The landing gears were tested in conjunction with a fuselage, and the effects of wheel extension and longitudinal location were determined. The drag changed very little with either longitudinal location or wheel extension for the landing gear with the lowest drag; a completely faired landing gear of the wheelspan, single-strut type. The drag of the trouser-type landing gear increased considerably, however, with an increase in the wheel extension. The wheel of the unaired retractable landing gear was at least one-half retracted into the fuselage before the drag became less than that of the best nonretracted landing gear. The drag per unit frontal area of the landing gears of the present tests was about the same as that found for similar landing gears in earlier tests.
Date: December 1, 1940
Creator: Harmon, Hubert N

The effects of engine speed and mixture temperature on the knocking characteristics of several fuels

Description: Six 100-octane and two 87-octane aviation engine fuels were tested in a modified C.F.R. variable-compression engine at 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 rpm. The mixture temperature was raised from 50 to 300 F in approximately 50 degree steps and, at each temperature, the compression ratio was adjusted to give incipient knock as shown by a cathode ray indicator. The results are presented in tabular form. The results are analyzed on the assumption that the conditions which determine whether a given fuel will knock are the maximum values of density and temperature reached by the burning gases. A maximum permissible density factor, proportional to the maximum density of the burning gases just prior to incipient knock, and the temperature of the burning gases at that time were computed for each of the test conditions. Values of the density factors were plotted against the corresponding end-gas temperatures for the three engine speeds and also against engine speed for several and end-gas temperatures. The maximum permissible density factor varied only slightly with engine speed but decreased rapidly with an increase in the end-gas temperature. The effect of changing the mixture temperature was different for fuels of different types. The results emphasize the desirability of determining the anti knock values of fuels over a wide range of engine and intake-air conditions rather that at a single set of conditions.
Date: July 1, 1940
Creator: Lee, Dana W

Extension of pack method for compressive tests

Description: The pack method for determining compressive stress-strain graphs described in NACA Report No. 649 has been modified to extend it's application to thinner gages and stronger materials. The principal modifications consisted in the provision of additional support against instability cementing the specimens of the pack together with fused shellac and the provision of special clamps to hold the specimens together while the test is in progress. The shellac was found to increase the buckling load of the pack without any appreciable effect on the compressive stress-strain graph of the material. The extended pack method described in this note has made possible the application of stresses in excess of 220 kips per square inch to sheet material having a thickness of only 0.02 inch.
Date: December 1, 1940
Creator: Aitchison, C S

Flight investigation of control-stick vibration of the YG-1B autogiro

Description: As a preliminary step in an investigation of control-stick vibration in direct-control autogiros, the periodic variations in the moments transmitted through the control system of a YG-1B autogiro were recorded in flight. The results of the measurements are presented in the form of coefficients of Fourier series expressing the varying part of the lateral and the longitudinal moments acting between rotor and fuselage at the control trunnions. The most important component of the variation in stick force was found to have frequency of three times the rotor speed and an amplitude that rose from negligible values at tip-speed ratio below 0.20 to +/-5.2 pounds longitudinally and +/-3.2 pounds laterally at tip-speed ratios of 0.35. Variations in stick force at all other frequencies were small in comparison with those at three times the rotor speed.
Date: June 1, 1940
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr

A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-Heat De-Icing

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics conducted exhaust-heat de-icing tests in flight to provide data needed in the application of this method. The capacity to extract heat from the exhaust gas for de-icing purposes, the quantity of heat required, and other factors were examined. The results indicate that a wing-heating system employing a spanwise exhaust tube within the leading edge of the wing removed 30 to 35 percent of the heat from exhaust gas entering the wing. Data are given from which the heat required for ice prevention can be calculated. Sample calculations have been made on the basis of existing engine power/wing area ratios to show that sufficient heating can be obtained for ice protection on modern transportation airplanes, provided that uniform distribution of the heat can be secured.
Date: November 1, 1940
Creator: Jones, Alun R & Rodert, Lewis A

The flow of a compressible fluid past a sphere

Description: The flow of a compressible fluid past a sphere fixed in a uniform stream is calculated to the third order of approximation by means of the Janzen-Rayleigh method. The velocity and the pressure distribution over the surface of the sphere are computed and the terms involving the fourth power of the Mach number, neglected in Rayleigh's calculation, are shown to be of considerable importance as the local velocity of sound is approached on the sphere. The critical Mach number, that is, the value of the Mach number at which the maximum velocity of the fluid past the sphere is just equal to the local velocity of sound, is calculated for both the second and the third approximation and is found to be, respectively, Mcr=0.587 and Mcr=0.573.
Date: May 1, 1940
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

The frequencies of cantilever wings in beam and torsional vibrations

Description: Methods are described for calculating the period and frequency of vibration of cantilever wings and similar structures in which the weight and moment of inertia vary along the span. Both the beam and torsional frequencies may be calculated by these methods. The procedure is illustrated by examples. It is shown that a surprisingly close approximation to the beam frequency may be obtained by a very brief calculation in which the curvature of the wing in vibration is assumed to be constant. A somewhat longer computation permits taking account of the true curvature of the beam by a series of successive approximations which are shown to be strongly convergent. Analogous methods are applied to calculations of the torsional frequency. For the first approximation it is assumed that the angle of twist varies linearly alone the semispan. True variation of the twist is computed by successive approximations which are strongly convergent, as in the case of beam vibrations.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Burgess, C P

A full-scale investigation of the effect of several factors on the shimmy of cantering wheels

Description: A full-scale investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of various factors on the shimmy of castering wheels. The factors considered were the geometric arrangement, the tire types, the variations of load, the spindle moment of inertia, and the tire inflation. A comparison of the results of the present investigation with those calculated from existing theory was made. The constants needed in the calculations to determine the damping required for a castering wheel were measured. The results indicate that solid friction appears to be impracticable as the sole damping agent for castering nose wheels on large airplanes. Also it was concluded that the existing theory is adequate for calculating the damping required to prevent shimmy. The caster angle and the spindle moment of inertia were found to influence the solid friction required to prevent shimmy. The effect of variations in the type and the pressure of the tire was insignificant.
Date: April 1, 1940
Creator: Howard, Walter B , Jr

A generalized vortex theory of the screw propeller and its application

Description: The vortex theory as presented by the author in earlier papers has been extended to permit the solution of the following problems: (1) the investigation of the relation between thrusts and torque distribution and energy loss as given by the induction of helical vortex sheets and by the parasite drag; (2) the checking of the theorem of Betz of the rigidly behaving helical vortex sheet of minimum induced energy loss; (3) the extension of the theory of the screw propeller of minimum energy loss for the inclusion of parasite-drag distribution along the blades. A simple system of diagrams has been developed to systematize the design of airplane propellers for a wide range of parasite-drag distribution along the blades.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Reissner, Hans

Internal-flow systems for aircraft

Description: An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of a problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing. When an internal-flow system tends to decrease the final velocity of it's wake, the results showed that it should be arranged in series with the propulsive system; the inlet opening should be located at a forward stagnation point; and the outlet opening should be so shaped and located as to recover the kinetic energy of the jet without increasing the drag of other portions of the aircraft. When an internal-flow system tends to increase the final velocity new b's wake, as does a propeller, location of the inlet opening in the boundary layer or in the wake of the wing or in the fuselage may be desirable.
Date: October 1, 1940
Creator: Rogallo, F M

An investigation of sheet-stiffener panels subjected to compression loads with particular reference to torsionally weak stiffeners

Description: A total of 183 panel specimens of 24ST aluminum alloy with nominal thickness of 0.020, and 0.040 inch with extruded bulb-angle sections of 12 shapes spaced 4 and 5 inches as stiffeners were tested to obtain the buckling stress and the amplitude of the maximum wave when buckled. Bulb angles from 3 to 27 1/2 inches long were tested as pin-end columns. The experimental data are presented as stress-strain and column curves and in tabular form. Some comparisons with theoretical results are presented. Analytical methods are developed that make it possible for the designer to predict with reasonable accuracy the buckling stress and the maximum-wave amplitude of the sheet in stiffened-panel combinations. The scope of the tests was insufficient to formulate general design criteria but the results are presented as a guide for design and an indication of the type of theoretical and experimental work that is needed.
Date: February 1, 1940
Creator: Dunn, Louis G

An Investigation of the Prevention of Ice on the Airplane Windshield

Description: An investigation of three methods for the prevention and the removal of ice on an airplane windshield has been completed. The methods were: electric heating; hot-air heating; and an alcohol-dispensing, rotating wiper blade. The results showed that vision through the airplane windshield could be maintained during severe icing conditions by the use of heat. When put in operation prior to the formation of ice on the windshield the rotating wiper blade prevented the formation of ice. A combination of heated air and a rotating wiper blade would appear to protect against formation of ice on the windshield exterior, to prevent frost on the interior and to provide for the removal of rainfall.
Date: March 1, 1940
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A