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N.A.C.A. Stall-Warning Device

Description: With some airplanes the approach to the stall is accompanied by changes in the behavior, such as tail buffeting or changes in the control characteristics of the airplane so that the pilot obtains a warning of the impending stall. Vith other airplanes it is possible to approach the stall without any perceptible warning other than the reading of the air-speed meter, in which case the danger of inadvertent stalling is considerably greater. Although it is not within the scope of this paper to discuss stalling characteristics, it is desired to point out that in general the danger of inadvertent stalling is greatest with those airplanes that behave worse when the stalling occurs; that is, with airplanes in which the stall starts at the wing tips. A warning of the impending stall is desirable in any case, but is particularly desirable with airplanes of the latter type.
Date: February 1938
Creator: Thompson, F. L.

Aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of airfoils tested in the variable-density wind tunnel

Description: From Summary: "The aerodynamic characteristics of a large number of miscellaneous airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel have been reduced to a comparable form and are published in this report for convenient reference. Plots of the standard characteristics are given in tabular form. Included is a tabulation of important characteristics for the related airfoils reported in NACA report 460. This report, in conjunction with NACA report 610, makes available in comparable and convenient form the aerodynamic data for airfoils tested in the variable-density tunnel since January 1, 1931."
Date: 1938
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M & Greenberg, Harry

The aerodynamic characteristics of four full-scale propellers having different plan forms

Description: From Introduction: "Its main purpose is to present propeller data for four full-scale propellers of Navy design, three of which have somewhat unusual plan forms and the other one has a normal (usual present-day type) plan form. These data may give some clue as to what may be expected from fundamental changes in blade plan form."
Date: 1938~
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David

The aerodynamic characteristics of full-scale propellers having 2, 3, and 4 blades of Clark y and R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections

Description: Aerodynamic tests were made of seven full-scale 10-foot-diameter propellers of recent design comprising three groups. The first group was composed of three propellers having Clark y airfoil sections and the second group was composed of three propellers having R.A.F. 6 airfoil sections, the propellers of each group having 2, 3, and 4 blades. The third group was composed of two propellers, the 2-blade propeller taken from the second group and another propeller having the same airfoil section and number of blades but with the width and thickness 50 percent greater. The tests of these propellers reveal the effect of changes in solidity resulting either from increasing the number of blades or from increasing the blade width propeller design charts and methods of computing propeller thrust are included.
Date: 1938
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P & Biermann, David

The aerodynamic drag of five models of side floats N.A.C.A. Models 51-E, 51-F, 51-G, 51-H, 51-J

Description: The drag of five models of side floats was measured in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The most promising method of reducing the drag of floats indicated by these tests is lowering the angle at which the floats are rigged. The addition of a step to a float does not always increase the drag in the flying range, floats with steps sometimes having lower drag than similar floats without steps. Making the bow chine no higher than necessary might result in a reduction in air drag because of the lower angle of pitch of the chines. Since side floats are used formally to obtain lateral stability when the seaplane is operating on the water at slow speeds or at rest, greater consideration can be given to factors affecting aerodynamic drag than is possible for other types of floats and hulls.
Date: December 1938
Creator: House, R O

Air flow in the boundary layer of an elliptic cylinder

Description: From Introduction: "The present investigation was carried out for the purpose of supplementing the earlier work with information on the boundary layer under such conditions of air speed and turbulence that transition occurs and the layer is partly laminar and partly turbulent. In the work reported in reference 1, the air speed was about 12 feet per second, and it was assumed that the boundary layer remained in the laminar condition until after separation because the separation point remained fixed and the pressure distribution about the cylinder was unaffected until an air speed of 15 feet per second was reached."
Date: August 6, 1938
Creator: Schubauer, G B

Airfoil section characteristics as applied to the prediction of air forces and their distribution on wings

Description: From Introduction: "The system presented herein yields, within the limitations of our present knowledge of aerodynamics, a general solution of the resultant wing forces and moments and their distribution. For the sake of completeness and facility in use, the report contains a table of the important section parameters for many commonly used sections and all other necessary data required to solve the most practical design problems coming within the scope of the system."
Date: 1938
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Rhode, R. V.

Approximate stress analysis of multistringer beams with shear deformation of the flanges

Description: The problem of the skin-stringer combinations used as axially loaded panels or as covers for box beams is considered from the point of view of the practical stress analyst. By a simple substitution the problem is reduced to the problem of the single-stringer structure, which has been treated in NACA Report no. 608. The method of making this substitution is essentially empirical; in order to justify it, comparisons are shown between calculations and strain-gage tests of three beams tested by the author and of one compression panel and three beams tested and reported elsewhere.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Behavior of a plate strip under shear and compressive stresses beyond the buckling limit

Description: The present report is an extension of previous theoretical investigations on the elastic behavior of a plate under compression and shear in the region above the critical. The main object is the clarification of the behavior immediately above the buckling limit since no theoretical expressions for this range have thus far been found and since experimentally, too, any degree of regularity in the behavior of the plate in the range between the critical load and about three to four times the critical, is discernible only with difficulty.
Date: July 1, 1938
Creator: Kromm, A & Marguerre, K

Behavior of static pressure heads at high speeds

Description: These tests proved the practicability of static pressure heads at speeds up to 400 km/h (248.5 mph). It weighs 6.5 kg or 2.5 times as much as the old head. The position of the pressure head below the airplane was determined by bearing method at different speeds and for different lengths of suspension. It was established that for the measured speed range a 20 to 24 meter suspension length was sufficient to assure a minimum distance of 6 meters from the airplane without introducing any appreciable errors in the results due to wrong static pressure.
Date: June 1, 1938
Creator: Danielzig, Helmut

The buckling of curved tension-field girders

Description: The present paper reports on experiments made to determine the buckling load under shear of circular curved tension-field webs. The buckling load of the webs may be expressed with reference to the buckling load of the stiffeners. It is found that within the explored range the buckling load is approximately twice as great as that of the identically stiffened flat wall of equal web depth.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Limpert, G

Calculation of load distribution in stiffened cylindrical shells

Description: Thin-walled shells with strong longitudinal and transverse stiffening (for example, stressed-skin fuselages and wings) may, under certain simplifying assumptions, be treated as static systems with finite redundancies. In this report the underlying basis for this method of treatment of the problem is presented and a computation procedure for stiffened cylindrical shells with curved sheet panels indicated. A detailed discussion of the force distribution due to applied concentrated forces is given, and the discussion illustrated by numerical examples which refer to an experimentally determined circular cylindrical shell.
Date: June 1, 1938
Creator: Ebner, H & Koller, H

Calculation of the chordwise load distribution over airfoil sections with plain, split, or serially hinged trailing-edge flaps

Description: A method is presented for the rapid calculation of the incremental chordwise normal-force distribution over an airfoil section due to the deflection of a plain flap or tab, a split flap, or a serially hinged flap. This report is intended as a supplement to NACA Report no. 631, wherein a method is presented for the calculation of the chordwise normal-force distribution over an airfoil without a flap or, as it may be considered, an airfoil with flap (or flaps) neutral. The method enables the determination of the form and magnitude of the incremental normal-force distribution to be made for an airfoil-flap combination for which the section characteristics have been determined. A method is included for the calculation of the flap normal-force and hinge-moment coefficients without necessitating a determination of the normal-force distribution.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Allen, H Julian

Column strength of tubes elastically restrained against rotation at the ends

Description: Report presents the results of a study made of the effects of known end restraint on commercially available round and streamline tubing of chromium-molybdenum steel, duralumin, stainless steel, and heat-treated chromium-molybdenum steel; and a more accurate method than any previously available, but still a practical method, was developed for designing compression members in riveted or welded structures, particularly aircraft. Two hundred specimens were tested as short, medium-length, and long columns with freely supported ends or elastically restrained ends. Tensile and compressive tests were made on each piece of original tubing from which column specimens were cut.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Osgood, William R

Comparative flight and full-scale wind-tunnel measurements of the maximum lift of an airplane

Description: Determinations of the power-off maximum lift of a Fairchild 22 airplane were made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel and in flight. The results from the two types of test were in satisfactory agreement. It was found that, when the airplane was rotated positively in pitch through the angle of stall at rates of the order of 0.1 degree per second, the maximum lift coefficient was considerably higher than that obtained in the standard tests, in which the forces are measured with the angles of attack fixed. Scale effect on the maximum lift coefficient was also investigated.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S & Hootman, James A

Compressible flow about symmetrical Joukowski profiles

Description: The method of Poggi is employed for the determination of the effects of compressibility upon the flow past an obstacle. A general expression for the velocity increment due to compressibility is obtained. The general result holds whatever the shape of the obstacle; but, in order to obtain the complete solution, it is necessary to know a certain Fourier expansion of the square of the velocity of flow past the obstacle. An application is made to the case flow of a symmetrical Joukowski profile with a sharp trailing edge, fixed in a stream of an arbitrary angle of attack and with the circulation determined by the Kutta condition. The results are obtained in a closed form and are exact insofar as the second approximation to the compressible flow is concerned, the first approximation being the result for the corresponding incompressible flow. Formulas for lift and moment analogous to the Blasius formulas in incompressible flow are developed and are applied to thin symmetrical Joukowski profiles for small angles of attack.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

The conversion of energy in a radiator

Description: It was a worthwhile task to research methods to lower the cooling drag of radiators. And the success of these efforts has been so great that without this research the modern high-speed airplane would have decidedly inferior performance. It is the purpose of this report to give a comprehensive discussion of all the fundamental principles and phenomena that offer a key to understanding modern cooling problems.
Date: July 1, 1938
Creator: Weise, A

Correction of Profile-Drag Results from Variable-Density Tunnel and the Effect on the Choice of Wing-Section Thickness

Description: Profile-drag coefficients published from tests in the N.A.C.A. variable-density tunnel (Technical Reports Nos. 460, 537, 586, and 610, references 1 to 4) have tended to appear high as compared with results from the N.A.C.A. full-scale tunnel (Technical Report No. 530, reference 5) and from foreign sources (references 6 to 8). Such discrepancies were considered in Technical Report No. 586, and corrections for turbulence and tip effects were derived that tended to reduce the profile-drag coefficients, particularly for the thicker airfoils. The corrected profile-drag coefficients, designated by the lower-case symbol cdo as contrasted with the older CDO, have been employed in the airfoil reports published since Technical Report No. 460, but even these corrected results continued to appear high, particularly for the thicker sections. The important practical result is that a smaller increase of drag with airfoil thickness is indicated, which may be of primary importance to the airplane designer in choosing the optimum airfoil sections for actual wings. Further investigations of this subject were, of course, undertaken, one of the most important being an investigation of three symmetrical sections N.A.C A. 0009, 0012, and 0018 under conditions of low turbulence in the full-scale tunnel. Preliminary results from this investigation also indicate a smaller increase in drag with airfoil thickness than the results from the variable-density tunnel. Furthermore, comparative tests made in the two tunnels by applying strings to the surface of the N.A.C.A. 0012 airfoil to move the transition point to a predetermined position indicated that the effective reynolds Number concept would account approximately for the drag as affected by the position of transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the boundary layer.
Date: March 18, 1938
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.

The crinkling strength and the bending strength of round aircraft tubing

Description: The upper limit of the column strength of structural members composed of thin material is the maximum axial stress such members can carry when short enough to fail locally, by crinkling. This stress is a function of the mechanical properties of the material and of the geometrical shape of the cross section. The bending strength, as measured by the modulus of rupture, of structural members is also a function of these same variables. Tests were made of round tubes of chromium-molybdenum steel and of duralumin to determine the crinkling strengths and the bending strengths in terms of the specified yield strength and the ratio of diameter to thickness. Empirical formulas are given relating these quantities.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Osgood, William R