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Experimental study of two-phase flow in rough fractures

Description: Two-phase (air-water) flow experiments were conducted in horizontal artificial fractures. The fractures were between glass plates (1 x 0.5 m) artificially roughened by gluing a layer of glass beads of Imm diameter. Three rough fractures were studied: one with the two surfaces in contact, and two without contact. Videotape observations revealed flow structures similar to those observed in two-phase flow in pipes, with structures depending upon the gas and liquid flow rates. The data of flow rates, pressure gradients and saturations were interpreted using the generalized Darcy's law. Relative permeabilities curves were found to be similar to classical curves in porous medium, but not unique functions of saturations. The sum of gas and liquid relative permeabilities were found to be less than one at all saturations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Fourar, M.; Bories, S. & Lenormand, R.

Interference test analysis at the Takigami geothermal field, JP

Description: A long term interference test was conducted under conditions of multiwell variable flow rate at Takigami for about ten months in 1987. The test data have been analyzed with an on-line analysis method on the basis of the linesource solution. This method employs Kalman filtering to process the data and then provides the best estimates of reservoir transmissivity and storativity when a new pressure data at an observation well becomes available. The pressure changes measured at seven observation wells have been analyzed with the present method using an infinite reservoir model. The data from one observation well have been further analyzed assuming a presence of a linear boundary. Performances of the parameters estimated for different reservoir models are compared. Fairly good estimates of reservoir parameters are obtained on the basis of an infinite reservoir model for two wells using the entire pressure data whereas for other five wells using a part of the pressure data.
Date: January 28, 1993
Creator: Itol, Ryuichi; Fukuda, Michihiro; Jinno, Kenji & Gotoh, Hiroki

Interpretation of Borehole Tides and Other Elastomechanical Oscillatory Phenomena in Geothermal Systems

Description: Ultralow to low-frequency oscillatory phenomena of elastomechanical nature have been observed in a number of geothermal areas. These include pressure and water level oscillations in the tidal frequency range 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} Hz (White, 1968), flow oscillations at around 10{sup -3} Hz (Bodvarsson and Bjornsson, 1976) and ground noise in the range 10{sup -1} to 10 Hz (Douze and Sorrel, 1972). The presence of such oscillations conveys certain information on the underlying geothermal systems which is of both theoretical and practical interest. In the following, we will very briefly discuss a few aspects relating to the interpretation of oscillatory field data with the main emphasis on borehole tides. 3 figs., 4 refs.
Date: December 14, 1977
Creator: Bodvarsson, Gunnar

Interpretation of interference effects in three production wells in the Kawerau geothermal field, New Zealand

Description: Downhole temperature and pressure, mass flow, and enthalpy measurements on three production wells at Kawerau geothermal field are interpretted to illustrate interference effects between these wells. Feed zone locations within the wells, together with geology and chemistry are discussed. Downhole measurements are made in one well while production flow changes are made on another well to monitor pressure transient effects. The interference effects have implications for planning future production drilling.
Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Stevens, Lynell & Koorey, Kevin J.

Interpretation of pre- and post-fracturing well tests in a geothermal reservoir

Description: Pre- and post-fracturing well tests in TG-2 well drilled next to the Matsukawa field are interpreted for evaluating effects of a massive hydraulic fracturing treatment. The interpreted data include multiple-step rate tests, a two-step rate test, and falloff tests. Pressure behaviors of massive hydraulic fracturing are matched by a simulator of dynamic fracture option. Fracture parting pressures can be evaluated from the multiple-step rate test data. The multiple-step rates during the massive hydraulic fracturing treatment show that multiple fractures have been induced in sequence. Although the pre-fracturing falloff tests are too short, fracture propagation can be evaluated qualitatively from the falloff data. Interpretation of the falloff test immediately after the MHF suggests that extensive fractures have been created by the MHF, which is verified by simulation. The post-fracturing falloff tests show that the fractures created by the MHF have closed to a great degree.
Date: January 26, 1995
Creator: Arihara, Norio; Fukagawa, Hiroshi; Hyodo, Masami & Abbaszadeh, Maghsood

Interpretation of the return profile of a tracer test in the Thelamork geothermal field, Iceland

Description: As a part of a full scale production test, a long term tracer test was performed in the Thelamork low temperature geothermal system, in N-Iceland. The tracer test was aimed at recovering the transport properties of fractures connecting the injection and production wells. Hence, the estimated parameters might be used in determining the performance of the system under various injection schemes. A qualitative evaluation the tracer return profile showed the presence of strong recirculation effects. In addition, the return profile indicated that the medium appears to be highly dispersive. Earlier modelling studies employed a one-dimensional two path model to match the return profile and substituted the properties of the major path in the Lauwerier model to estimate the thermal breakthrough time. However, the two path model estimates a very large dispersive tiansport almost equal to the convective transport. This large dispersivity necessitates adding a dispersive heat transport term in the Lauwerier model and as a result reduces the Lauwerier thermal breakthrough time almost to half. Considering the injection and production rates, we used a more accurate one-dimensional five-path model in this work. This model infers a smaller dispersivity and leads to a greater breakthrough time than the two path model, owing to both increased heat transfer area with increasing number of fractures and. less dispersive transport of heat.
Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Kocabas, I.; Axelsson, G. & Bjornsson, G.

An inverse problem solution to the flow of tracers in naturally fractured reservoirs

Description: This paper presents a solution for the inverse problem to the flow of tracers in naturally fractured reservoirs. The models considered include linear flow in vertical fractures, radial flow in horizontal fractures, and cubic block matrix-fracture geometry. The Rosenbrock method for nonlinear regression used in this study, allowed the estimation of up to six parameters for the cubic block matrix fracture geometry. The nonlinear regression for the three cases was carefully tested against syntetical tracer concentration responses affected by random noise, with the objective of simulating as close as possible step injection field data. Results were obtained within 95 percent confidence limits. The sensitivity of the inverse problem solution on the main parameters that describe this flow problem was investigated. The main features of the nonlinear regression program used in this study are also discussed. The procedure of this study can be applied to interpret tracer tests in naturally fractured reservoirs, allowing the estimation of fracture and matrix parameters of practical interest (longitudinal fracture dispersivity alpha, matrix porosity phi2, fracture half-width w, matrix block size d, matrix diffusion coefficient D2 and the adsorption constant kd). The methodology of this work offers a practical alternative for tracer flow tests interpretation to other techniques.
Date: January 20, 1994
Creator: S., Jetzabeth Ramirez; V., Fernando Samaniego; Rodriguez, Fernando & R., Jesus Rivera

An investigation of radial tracer flow in naturally fractured reservoirs

Description: This study presents a general solution for the radial flow of tracers in naturally fractured reservoirs. Continuous and finite step injection of chemical and radioactive tracers are considered. The reservoir is treated as being composed of two regions: a mobile region where longitudinal dispersion and convection take place and a stagnant region where only diffusion and adsorption are allowed. Radioactive decay is considered in both regions. The model of this study is thoroughly compared to those previously presented in literature by Moench and Ogata, Tang et al., Chen et al., and Hsieh et al. The solution is numerically inverted by means of the Crump algorithm. A detailed validation of the model with respect to solutions previously presented and/or simplified physical conditions solutions (i.e., homogeneous case) or limit solutions (i.e., for short times) was carried out. The influence of various dimensionless parameters that enter into the solution was investigated. A discussion of results obtained through the Crump and Stehfest algorithm is presented, concluding that the Crump method provides more reliable tracer concentrations.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Jetzabeth, Ramirez-Sabag; Fernando, Samaniego V.; Jesus, Rivera R. & Rodriguez, Fernando

Kamchatka geothermal resources development: Problems and perspectives

Description: There are four long-term exploited geothermal fields in Kamchatka: one steam-water field Pauzhetka (south of Kamchatka peninsula) and three hot water fields: Paratunka (near by town of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky) and Esso and Anavgay (center of peninsula). Pauzhetka and Paratunka fields are exploited during almost 28 years. Esso and Anavgay fields are exploited during 25 years. In Pauzhetka 11 MWe geothermal power plant work and on the other fields thermal energy of hot water is directly used. Kamchatka region satisfies energetic demands mainly by organic imported fuels. At the same time electricity produced by geothermal fluids constitutes less than 2 per cent of total region electricity production, and thermal energy produced by geothermal fluids constitutes less than 3 per cent of total region thermal energy production. The main reasons of small geothermal portion in the energy production balance of Kamchatka are briefly discussed. The geothermal development reserves and perspectives of geothermal energy use increase in Kamchatka are outlined.
Date: January 24, 1966
Creator: Pashkevich, Roman I.

Laboratory measurement of sorption in porous media

Description: A new apparatus for measuring steam adsorption-desorption isothermally on rock samples has been installed and initial runs made for rock samples from geothermal reservoirs. The amounts adsorbed measured in these experiments are the same order of magnitude as previous experiments.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Harr, M. S.; Pettit, P. & Ramey, J. J., Jr.

Laboratory measurements on reservoir rocks from The Geysers geothermal field

Description: A suite of laboratory measurements have been conducted on Geysers metagraywacke and metashale recovered from a drilled depth of 2599 to 2602 meters in NEGU-17. The tests have been designed to constrain the mechanical and water-storage properties of the matrix material. Various measurements have been made at a variety of pressures and at varying degrees of saturation. Both compressional and shear velocities exhibit relatively little change with effective confining pressure. In all of the samples, water saturation causes an increase in the compressional velocity. In some samples, saturation results in a moderate decrease in shear velocity greater in magnitude than would be expected based on the slight increase in bulk density. It is found that the effect of saturation on the velocities can be quantitatively modeled through a modification of Biot-Gassmann theory to include weakening of the shear modulus with saturation. The decrease is attributed to chemo-mechanical weakening caused by the presence of water. The degree of frame weakening of the shear modulus is variable between samples, and appears correlated with petrographic features of the cores. Two related models are presented through which we can study the importance of saturation effects on field-scale velocity variations. The model results indicate that the saturation effects within the matrix are significant and may contribute to previously observed field anomalies. The results help to define ways in which we may be able to separate the effects of variations in rock properties, caused by phenomena such as degree of fracturing, from similar effects caused by variations in matrix saturation. The need for both compressional and shear velocity data in order to interpret field anomalies is illustrated through comparisons of model results with the field observations.
Date: January 26, 1995
Creator: Boitnott, G.N.

Laboratory studies of injection into horizonal fractures

Description: Most geothermal reservoirs are extensively fractured and injected fluids usually enter the reservoir formation at distinct feed points. As the cold water passes through the hot rock, it is heated, and may be recovered at production wells for power production. The influence of fractures is two-fold. Firstly, preferential pathways exist along major faults and the general motion of fluids away from injection wells is controlled by the effective permeability structure. Secondly, since fractures can be spaced several metres or more apart and the flow rates within each fracture can be relatively high, the injected fluid does not necessarily attain thermal equilibrium will all of the host rock at a given distance from the injection well. It is important that sufficient heat transfer between the fluid and rock occurs before the injected fluid is recovered at an injection well in order to prevent thermal breakthrough. In this paper we present preliminary results of an experimental research program examining the effects of injection into fractures. We build upon previous theoretical work by seeking to confirm the results and then discuss the initial results of injection into superheated reservoirs.
Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Pruess, Karsten & van Rappard, Diederik M.

Liquid-phase dispersion during injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

Description: The behavior of water injection plumes in vapor-dominated reservoirs is examined. Stressing the similarity to water infiltration in heterogeneous soils, we suggest that everpresent heterogeneities in individual fractures and fracture networks will cause a lateral broadening of descending injection plumes. The process of lateral spreading of liquid phase is viewed in analogy to transverse dispersion in miscible displacement. To account for the postulated “phase dispersion” the conventional two-phase immiscible flow theory is extended by adding a Fickian-type dispersive term. The validity of the proposed phase dispersion model is explored by means of simulations with detailed resolution of small-scale heterogeneity. We also present an illustrative application to injection into a depleted vapor zone. It is concluded that phase dispersion effects will broaden descending injection plumes, with important consequences for pressure support and potential water breakthrough at neighboring production wells.
Date: January 20, 1994
Creator: Pruess, Karsten

Locating an Active Fault Zone in Coso Geothermal Field by Analyzing Seismic Guided Waves From Microearthquake Data

Description: Active fault systems usually provide high-permeability channels for hydrothermal outflow in geothermal fields. Locating such fault systems is of a vital importance to plan geothermal production and injection drilling, since an active fault zone often acts as a fracture-extensive low-velocity wave guide to seismic waves. We have located an active fault zone in the Coso geothermal field, California, by identifying and analyzing a fault-zone trapped Rayleigh-type guided wave from microearthquake data. The wavelet transform is employed to characterize guided-wave's velocity-frequency dispersion, and numerical methods are used to simulate the guided-wave propagation. The modeling calculation suggests that the fault zone is {approx} 200m wide, and has a P wave velocity of 4.80 km/s and a S wave velocity of 3.00 km/s, which is sandwiched between two half spaces with relatively higher velocities (P wave velocity 5.60 km/s, and S wave velocity 3.20 km/s). zones having vertical or nearly vertical dipping fault planes.
Date: January 26, 1995
Creator: Lou, M.; Malin, P. E. & Rial, J. A.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering: 1977

Description: The Third Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering convened at Stanford University on December 14, 1977, with 104 attendees from six nations. In keeping with the recommendations expressed by the participants at the Second Workshop, the format of the Workshop was retained, with three days of technical sessions devoted to reservoir physics, well and reservoir testing, field development, and mathematical modeling of geothermal reservoirs. The program presented 33 technical papers, summaries of which are included in these Proceedings. Although the format of the Workshop has remained constant, it is clear from a perusal of the Table of Contents that considerable advances have occurred in all phases of geothermal reservoir engineering over the past three years. Greater understanding of reservoir physics and mathematical representations of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated reservoirs are evident; new techniques for their analysis are being developed, and significant field data from a number of newer reservoirs are analyzed. The objectives of these workshops have been to bring together researchers active in the various physical and mathematical disciplines comprising the field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give the participants a forum for review of progress and exchange of new ideas in this rapidly developing field, and to summarize the effective state of the art of geothermal reservoir engineering in a form readily useful to the many government and private agencies involved in the development of geothermal energy. To these objectives, the Third Workshop and these Proceedings have been successfully directed. Several important events in this field have occurred since the Second Workshop in December 1976. The first among these was the incorporation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) into the newly formed Department of Energy (DOE) which continues as the leading Federal agency in geothermal reservoir engineering research. The Third Workshop under the Stanford Geothermal Program was supported ...
Date: December 15, 1977
Creator: Ramey, H. J., Jr. & Kruger, P. (eds.)

Results from a discrete fracture network model of a Hot Dry Rock system

Description: The work described represents a move towards better representations of the natural fracture system. The discrete fracture network model used during the study was the NAPSAC code (Grindrod et al, 1992). The goals of the work were to investigate the application of discrete fracture network models to Hot Dry Rock systems, increase the understanding of the basic thermal extraction process and more specifically the understanding of the Rosemanowes Phase 2B system. The aim in applying the work to the Rosemanowes site was to use the discrete fracture network approach to integrate a diverse set of field measurements into as simple a model as possible.
Date: January 28, 1993
Creator: Lanyon, G.W.; Batchelor, A.S. & Ledingham, P.

Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

Description: PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii
Date: January 31, 1992
Creator: Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E. & Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

Significance of crack opening monitoring for determining the growth behavior of hydrofractures

Description: A method for determining the size of a crack induced by hydraulic fracturing is presented. The procedure is based on the measurement of the crack opening displacement and the fracture mechanics approach. The proposed method has been tested by conducting laboratory small-scale hydraulic fracturing tests on a granite. It is shown from the preliminary tests that the method provides a reasonable prediction of experimentally observed crack sizes.
Date: January 28, 1993
Creator: Hashida, Toshiyuki; Sato, Kazushi & Takahashi, Hideaki

Simple numerical simulation for liquid dominated geothermal reservoir

Description: A numerical model for geothermal reservoir has been developed. The model used is based on an idealized, two-dimensional case, where the porous medium is isotropic, nonhomogeneous, filled with saturated liquid. The fluids are assumed to have constant and temperature dependent viscosity. A Boussinesq approximation and Darcy’s law are used. The model will utilize a simple hypothetical geothermal system, i.e. graben within horsts structure, with three layers of different permeabilities. Vorticity plays an importance roles in the natural convection process, and its generation and development do not depend only on the buoyancy, but also on the magnitude and direction relation between the flow velocity and the local gradient of permeability to viscosity ratio. This model is currently used together with a physical, scaled-down reservoir model to help conceptual modeling.
Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Wintolo, Djoko; Sutrisno; Sudjatmiko & Sudarman, S.

Simulating a challenging water dominated geothermal system: The Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico

Description: A three dimensional, multiphase, numerical simulation model of the Cerro Prieto field was developed and used to verify that the present installed capacity (620 MW) can be sustained for 30 years and to evaluate the impact of an 80 MW addition to the installed capacity in the NE-E of the field on the present production areas. Cerro Prieto is the largest known water-dominated geothermal reservoir in the world, with more than 175 wells drilled to date and 17 years of production history. Wells here produce fluids of varying enthalpy, from moderate-temperature water to dry steam. The varying enthalpy and a complex interaction between the reservoir and the surrounding aquifer posed a real simulation challenge. The simulation approach used to reproduce the major features of the initial-state and the production history of the field is discussed in this paper. From this study it was concluded that the field is capable of sustaining its present 620 MW total installed capacity for 30 years and the addition of the proposed 80 MW should have a negligible effect on the present production area.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Antunez, E.U.; Menzies, A.J. & Sanyal, S.K.

Simulating the effects of adsorption and capillary forces in geothermal reservoirs

Description: Until recently, geothermal reservoir simulators use flat interface thermodynamics to determine the thermodynamic state of the reservoir. Development of new simulators and the modification of existing ones has now incorporated the physics of curved interface thermodynamics. These simulators account for the effects of sorption and capillary forces. The simulators GSS and TETRAD were used to simulate the performance of a hypothetical vapordominated geothermal reservoir. GSS is a simulator specifically developed to account for adsorption by using adsorption isotherms. On the other hand, TETRAD is a commercial simulator that was modified to account for vapor pressure lowering by using capillary pressure relations. GSS and TETRAD yielded similar results. Thus, the two formulations being used to account for curved interface thermodynamics are practically equivalent. Areas for improvement of both GSS and TETRAD were identified. The hysteresis and temperature dependence of sorption and capillary properties are issues that are needed to be addressed.
Date: January 24, 1996
Creator: Sta. Maria, Roman B. & Pingol, Alponso S.

Simulating wellflow of high-nonocondensable-gas geofluids using laboratory measurements on secondary fluids

Description: An experimental simulation of an actual steam-water geothermal well based on field data obtained in New Zealand is carried out in a two-phase flow facility using dichlorotetrafluoroethane, known commercially as refrigerant 114. The simulation of steam-water flow is accomplished by a similarity theory which is achieved by using appropriate dimensionless numbers; namely, the Mach, Froude, and Reynolds numbers at the flashing front. The theory is used to scale the flow properties from that of water to that of refrigerant 114 in the two-phase region, and permits the prediction of steam-water characteristics in a flowing well, under much reduced pressure and temperature levels. Two experimental series were conducted to confront the similarity theory with actual measurements from a flowing well with significant noncondensable gases. Experimental results using refrigerant 114 indicate that the pressure distribution along the pipe can be predicted accurately in the two-phase region of a geothermal well.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Laoulache, R.N. & Dipippo, R.

Simulation of Saturated-Unsaturated Deformable Porous Media

Description: A multiphase consolidation theory is presented which considers a three-dimensional deformation field coupled with a three-dimensional hydrologic flow field. The governing system of equations describes the components of displacement, the fluid pressures and the saturations. The system of equations governing saturated-unsaturated consolidation is obtained as a subset of the above equations. A mixed stress-displacement formulation of the governing equations is introduced, and it facilitates handling of load type boundary conditions while solutions in terms of displacements are still possible. Finite element Galerkin theory is used for spatial approximations, and a weighted implicit finite difference time-stepping scheme is employed to approximate the time derivative terms. Due to the nonlinear nature of the problem, an iterative solution scheme is necessary within each time step. The model predicts the commonly ignored horizontal displacements in a variably saturated system undergoing simultaneous desaturation and deformation, while using a completely interconnected coupling of the stress and pressure fields within the medium. The model is applied to obtain vertical and horizontal displacements, pressure (head) and saturation values due to pumpage in a phreatic aquifer. 1 tab., 10 figs., 13 refs.
Date: December 14, 1977
Creator: Safai, Nader M. & Pinder, George F.