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Applications of Strain Cycling Considerations to Superheat Fuel Design

Description: A potential performance limitation of superheat fuel is the susceptibility of the fuel cladding to low cycle fatigue failure. Two simplified analytical methods are presented to estimate the cyclic lifetime of circular superheat fuel cladding. One failure relation is based on a displacement method. The other failure relation is based on a stress method. These relations were compared with data from the literature, and with data involving damage obtained by Reynolds. A recommended design procedure involving the relations is presented. The technique was applied to the SADE 4B experiment with moderate success. These cycling relations involve only mechanical damage imposed by cycling, with a modification for additional damage caused by radiation; they do not include any other potential performance limiting mechanisms, such as stress corrosion, which are normally factored into the over-all fuel design. This work work done under Task C (Materials Development) of the Nuclear Superheat Project, AEC Contract AT(04-3)-189 - Project Agreement 13.
Date: June 1963
Creator: Rieger, G. F.

Design and Fabrication of Coextruded Stainless Steel Clad UO2 Fuel Rods

Description: A process was developed in which stainless steel-clad UO2 fuel rods are fabricated by high-temperature coextrusion. The process has a potential of being a more economical method for the preparation of stainless steel-clad UO2 fuel rods than the conventional pellet process. Consequently, it was considered advantageous to evaluate the irradiation characteristics of fuel rods fabricated in this manner. Therefore, 24 coextruded fuel rods were manufactured for evaluation in a reactor. The required amounts of UO2 and clad were soaked in separate containers at 1875 and 760 degree C, respectively. The containers were removed from their respective furnaces and were coextruded in one pass. A force of 450 to 475 tons was used, and a reduction ratio of 18 to 1 was obtained. The coextruded rods were cut to the approximate length, and the ends were sealed with an acid-resistant tape. The carbon steel can covering the stainless steel clad was removed by immersion in 1:1 nitric acid for 20 minutes. The rods were visually inspected, the specified lengths of clad and fuel were obtained by machining, and the correct diameter was obtained by belt sanding. The fabrication of the fuel rods was completed by inserting the plenum support tubes and welding in the end plugs. Nineteen of these fuel rods were sent to the Atomic Power Equipment Department (APED) for irradiation in the Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor (VBWR). The irradiation of 12 of these rods was begun in August 1961, while irradiation of 3 rods was begun in July 1962. The irradiations will continue until an average burnup of at least 10,000 Mwd/t is achieved by some of the fuel rods.
Date: June 1963
Creator: Baroch, C. J.

Design and Operating Experience of the ESADA Vallecitos Experimental Superheat Reactor (EVESR)

Description: Summary: "The various design features significant to superheat are described for the 12-1/2 MW., 960 psig, 1050° F, steam-cooled, low-enriched, annular-fueled, experimental superheat reactor built by the General Electric Company at the Vallecitos Atomic Power Laboratory. Results obtained during the first six months of full-power operation, on the emergency cooling system, core thermal performance, and pressure vessel temperatures are presented and compared with predictions. Operating experience with over-all reactor system is also discussed."
Date: February 1965
Creator: Ianni, P. W.; Fritz, J. R. & Law, D. D.

Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Fifth Quarterly Progress Report, April 1-June 30, 1963

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. The development of pulsed neutron source techniques for large power reactors has led to a new theoretical model recently developed by E. Garelis and J.L. Russell, Jr. The theory is presently based on a bare, one-group model with m-delayed precursors and takes all spatial modes into account. Results indicate, however, that the application of this model is much broader. Experiments were designed and carried out to both verify this new theory and to demonstrate the performance of the experimental hardware in a large power reactor.
Date: July 15, 1963
Creator: Garelis, Edward. & Meyer, P.

Development of Pulsed Neutron Application to Power Reactor Start-Up Procedures. Fourth Quarterly Progress Report, January 1-March 31, 1963

Description: Activities in a program to develop techniques in the use of pulsed neutron sources to measure shutdown parameters related to large thermal power reactors are reported. The experimental work centers around aspects of detecting neutrons in the presence of 10/sup 7/ r/hr gamma fields. Boric acid experiments and Humboldt Bay experiments are reported.
Date: May 13, 1963
Creator: Garelis, Edward & Meyer, Paul

Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 2

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). Two tasks are in progress: Task III-F involves the preparation of test specimens of reactor vessel material for irradiation; Task IV consists of the formulation of specification for a complete data logging and computer system.
Date: April 1, 1963
Creator: Quinn, E. P.

Development Program for Increased Output in the Garigliano Nuclear Reactor. Quarterly Report No. 3

Description: The United States and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), on May 29, and June 18, 1958, signed an agreement which provides a basis for co-operation in programs for the advancement of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. The work described in this report represents the Joint U.S.-Euratom effort. The over-all development program is designed to obtain the test data and operating experience necessary to eventually realize a 50 percent increase in the output of the Garigliano Nuclear Power Station located at Sessa Aurunca (Campania, Italy). Two tasks are in progress: Task III-F involves the preparation of test specimens of reactor vessel material for irradiation; Task IV consists of the formulation of specification for a complete data logging and computer system.
Date: July 1, 1963
Creator: Sorlie, T.

Environmental Testing of a B4C-Nl Prototype Control Rod

Description: Summary: A prototype control rod containing absorber plates made from an electro- deposited dispersion of boron carbide in nickel was tested in the VBWR. It was exposed to the reactor environment of 545 degree F boiling water and thermal neutron fluxes (perturbed) which ranged from 0.6 to 1.1 x 10/sup 13/ nv for 2236 hours over a period of six months. The maximum B/sup 10/ burnup achieved during the test period was 1.8 percent. After irradiation, the rod was examined. The results of the examination are summarized below: (1) The B/sub 4/C-- Ni plate assembly did not undergo significant dimensional changes during irradiation. (2) Numerous blisters developed on both the outer and inner surfaces of three of the four plates. Blistering was more severe on the outer surface than on the inner, and was most severe in a large region located in the lower half of plate 4. Metallographic examination revealed that the blisters were located only in the 2- mil protective nickel overlay covering the B/sub 4/C-- Ni dispersion. It was concluded that they formed from the buildup of gas pressure at the Ni: Ni-- B/sub 4/C interfaces, rather than from corrosion attack. Helium from the B/sup 10/(n alpha )Li/sup 7/ reaction probably contributed to this pressure. However it is conjectured that the major gas was very likely hydrogen, possibly generated and dissolved in the nickel during electroplating and then released to defects at the Ni: Ni--B/sub 4/C interface during reactor exposure. The variation in the degree of blistering among the four plates of the prototype indicated that the blistering was related to variations in the fabrication process. Failure of the nickel overlay was not observed in any of the blisters examined metallographically, and the underlying B/sub 4/C-- Ni appeared to be in good condition. (3) Evidence of corrosion ...
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Megerth, F. H. & Zimmerman, D. L.

Sodium-Cooled Reactors Program, Fast Ceramic Reactor Development Program: First Quarterly Report, October-December 1961

Description: Quarterly report discussing progress on the Fast Ceramic Reactor Development Program, "an integrated analytical and experimental program directed toward the development of fast reactors employing ceramic fuels, with particular attention to mixed plutonium-uranium oxide" (p. 1).
Date: August 15, 1963
Creator: Leitz, F. J.

Sodium-Cooled Reactors Program, Fast Ceramic Reactor Development Program: Fourth Quarterly Report, July-September 1962

Description: Quarterly report discussing progress on the Fast Ceramic Reactor Development Program, "an integrated analytical and experimental program directed toward the development of fast reactors employing ceramic fuels, with particular attention to mixed plutonium-uranium oxide" (p. 1).
Date: January 31, 1963
Creator: Leitz, F. J.

Fuel Element Experiments in SADE-VBWR Nuclear Superheat Loop

Description: Abstract: Three irradiation experiments are described which have been designed to study the behavior of fuel elements in a reactors superheated steam environment. The experiments were conducted in the Superheat Advanced Demonstration Experiment loop, Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor. The results obtained demonstrated that 304 stainless steel fuel clad in unsatisfactory for use in nuclear super heat fuel sheath designs where plastic strain or plastic deformation is allowed to occur. The results were in agreement with those reported for a previous experiment in SADE (SH-4B) and constituted the basis for change in direction of the superheat fuel program in regard to both design and fuel sheath selection.
Date: May 1963
Creator: Spalaris, C. N.; Raymont, W. R.; Lyons, M. F.; Evans, T. F.; Boyle, R. F.; Murdock, T. B. et al.