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Second-law efficiency of solar-thermal cavity receivers

Description: Properly quantified performance of a solar-thermal cavity receiver must not only account for the energy gains and losses as dictated by the First Law of thermodynamics, but it must also account for the quality of that energy. However, energy quality can only be determined from the Second Law. In this paper an equation for the Second-Law efficiency of a cavity receiver is derived from the definition of available energy or availability (occassionally called exergy), which is a thermodynamic property that measures the maximum amount of work obtainable when a system is allowed to come into unrestrained equilibrium with the surrounding environment. The fundamental concepts of the entropy and availability of radiation are explored from which a convenient relationship among the reflected cone half angle, the insolation, and the concentrator geometric characteristics is developed as part of the derivation of the Second-Law efficiency. A comparison is made between First- and Second-Law efficiencies around an example of data collected from two receivers that were designed for different purposes. The author attempts to demonstrate that a Second-Law approach to quantifying the performance of a solar-thermal cavity receiver lends greater insight into the total performance than does the conventional First-Law method.
Date: October 1, 1983
Creator: Moynihan, P. I.
open access

Solar parabolic dish technology annual evaluation report. Fiscal year 1983

Description: This report summarizes the activities of the JPL Solar Thermal Power Systems Parabolic Dish Project for FY 1983. Included are discussions on designs of module development including their concentrator, receiver, and power conversion subsystem together with a separate discussion of concentrator development. Analyses and test results, along with progress on field tests, Small Community Experiment system development, and tests at the Parabolic Dish Test Site are also included.
Date: April 15, 1984
open access

Survey of manufacturers of high-performance heat engines adaptable to solar applications

Description: This report summarizes the results of an industry survey made during the summer of 1983. The survey was initiated in order to develop an information base on advanced engines that could be used in the solar thermal dish-electric program. Questionnaires inviting responses were sent to 39 companies known to manufacture or integrate externally heated engines. Follow-up telephone communication ensured uniformity of response.
Date: June 15, 1984
Creator: Stine, W. B.
open access

Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations

Description: A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Roschke, E. J.
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