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Absorption-Multistage Flash Distillation Process

Description: "The major factors which influence the cost of water production from sea water by distillation methods are (1) the cost of fuel or energy required by the distilling plant, and (2) the required capital investment. Preliminary studies on the application of absorption or solution cycles to distillation methods for saline water conversion indicated that the fuel cost or thermal economy of a distillation plant could be improved by combining the distillation process with an absorption or solution cyc… more
Date: September 1963
Creator: Fluor-Singmaster & Breyer, Inc.
open access

Conceptual Design Study of a One Million Gallon Per Day MSM Desalination Plant-Replacement for Demonstration Plant No. 2 at Point Loma, San Diego, California

Description: From foreward: "This is another of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress on saline water conversion with the expectation that the exhange of such data will contribute to the long range development of economical processes applicable to large scale desalination plants for conversion of sea and other saline waters." This particular report describes various aspects of a demonstration plant in San Diego, California.
Date: April 1967
open access

Electrochemically Controlled Ion-Exchange

Description: "For the past several years, the Rocketdyne Research Division has, under the sponsorship of the Office of Saline Water, engaged in a study of the application of electrochemical techniques to the demineralization of brackish water. Early work in this program was concerned with a mechanistic study of electrochemically induced demineralization at chemically treated carbon electrodes. The results of this study led to the development of a process called electrochemically controlled ion-exchange" (p.… more
Date: 1970
Creator: Evans, S.; Accomazzo, M. A.; Ladacki, M. & Lossett, K. A.
open access

An Investigation of the Use of Acoustic Vibrations to Improve Heat Transfer Rates and Reduce Scaling in Distillation Units Used for Saline Water Conversion

Description: Report presenting a study to determine the feasibility of using acoustical energy to improve the economy of evaporator operation as related to saline water conservation. Some of the improvements to be sought are increased film heat transfer coefficients on the water side, possible promotion of dropwise condensation on the steam side, and reduced scale formation.
Date: 1961
Creator: Raben, I. A.; Commerford, George & Dietert, Robert
open access

The Koppers Hydrate Process for Saline Water Conversion Experimental and Engineering Studies

Description: Report covering the research and development work on the Koppers Hydrate Process as a means of desalting sea water. The process is a chemical one, in which a hydrating agent, such as propane or dichlorodifluoromethane, and water combine to form insoluble crystals. Most of the work was carried out in bench-scale equipment or laboratory research.
Date: 1964
Creator: Koppers Company
open access

The Mechanism of Desalination by Reverse Osmosis

Description: Report describing the various parameters operative in fabricating desalination membranes for the Reverse Osmosis Process and the mechanism of separation. The bulk of the membrane contains huge quantities of capillary water which permits the movement of water through the body of the membranes at extremely rapid rates, there being essentially no pressure drop in this portion of the membrane.
Date: 1963
Creator: Aerojet-General Corporation
open access

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1969

Description: From Summary: "This report summarizes the down-flow heat transfer performance of enhanced surface tubes and operations at the four-effect Vertical Tube Evaporator Pilot Plant at the Office of Saline Water East Coast Test Station, Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. The period from July 1, 1968 to June 30, 1969 is covered in this report."
Date: August 1970
Creator: Stearns-Roger Corporation
open access

Operation of a Reverse Osmosis Desalination Pilot Plant

Description: Report demonstrating the technical feasibility of desalination by the Reverse Osmosis Process in a pilot plant cell containing 100 square feet of membrane area. A group of experimental tests are performed relating the desalination cell performance to the operating variables of brine flow rate, pressure, and brine concentration.
Date: 1966
Creator: Aerojet-General Corporation
open access

Research on Thermoelectric Heat Pumps

Description: From Results: "Prior to stating results achieved, let us first discuss the measurements we were able to make, and how these measurements might--or might not--be indicative of the objective we strove to reach. Tables I and II, and related Figs. 11 and 12, show the best results obtained. Final Columns of Tables I and II are believed to show, at least to a degree, how good or how poor our best sputtered films turned out to be, compared with top-quality Peliter semiconductor materials."
Date: November 1963
Creator: Cox, E. F.
open access

Reverse Osmosis for Water Desalination

Description: Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over studies conducted on the reverse-osmosis program. The methods of desalination through osmosis are discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: May 22, 1964
Creator: Lonsdale, H. K.; Merten, U.; Riley, R. L.; Vos, K. D. & Westmoreland, J. C.
open access

Saline Water Conversion by Direct Freezing With Butane

Description: Report presenting a study of a plant to produce 10,000,000 gallons per day of fresh water from sea water. The process used is direct freezing brought about by the evaporation of a hydrocarbon refrigerant in contact with sea water, washing the ice free of saline liquor, and melting the ice to potable water by the condensation of butane vapor.
Date: 1960
Creator: Karnofsky, George & Steinhoff, Paul F.
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