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Evaluation of Buried Conduits as Personnel Shelters

Description: Supersedes ITR-1421. Twelve large-diameter buried conduit sections of various shapes were tested in the 60- to l49-psi overpressure region of Burst Priscilla to make an empirical determination of the degree of personnel protection afforded by commercially available steel and concrete conduits at depths of burial of 5, 7.5, and 10 feet below grade. Essentially, it was desired to assure that Repartment of Defense Class I, 100psi and comparable radiations, and Class II, 50-psi and comparable radiations, protection is afforded by use of such conduits of various configurations. Measurements were made of free-field overpressure at the ground surface above the structure; pressure inside the structures; acceleration of each structure; deflection of each structure; dust inside each structure; fragmentary missiles inside the concrete structures; and gamma and neutron radiation dose inside each structure. All buried conduit sections tested provided adequate Class I protection for the conditions under which the conduits were tested. Standard 8-foot concrete sewer pipe withstood 126-psi overpressure without significant damage, minor tension cracks observed; standard 10-gage corrugated-steel 8-foot circular conduit sections withstood 126- psi overpressure without significant damage; and standard 10-gage corrugated- steel cattle-pass conduits withstood 149-psi overpressure without significant damage. Durations of positive pressure were from 206 to 333 milliseconds. (auth)
Date: July 14, 1960
Creator: Albright, G. H.; LeDoux, J. C. & Mitchell, R. A.
open access

Missile Studies With a Biological Target

Description: Fourteen dogs located on the lee side of planted gravel, of a concrete- block wall, and of glass mounted in the open and in houses were exposed to the environmental variations associated with full-scale nuclear detonations. Aluminum foil was used to protect the animals from thermal effects. The missile environment was monitored through the use of quantitutive missile-trapping techniques. Pressure-time variations in the environment were also recorded. Biologic damage from overpressure and missiles was determined, and the associations between physical envtronmental factors and biologic response were noted and analyzed. The feasibility of utilizing ninssile data, along with other available information from the literature, as a means of quantitutively assesing biologic hazard was estublished by the close correspondence between observed and predicted dangerous wounds. This test provided full-scale validation of procedures and experimsnts worked out chiefly in the laboratory. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Goldizen, V. C.; Richmond, D. R.; Chiffelle, T. L.; Bowen, I. G. & White, C. S.
open access

Protection Against Fallout Radiation in a Simple Structure

Description: A reinforced Butler building was exposed to fallout from Shots Diablo and Shasta, and the resulting dose rates and fallout deposition inside and outside the structure were measured with various instruments and techniques. Protection factors and roof and ground contributions to the total dose rates at points within the structure were determined from the measurements. Comparisons were made with the results of theoretical and other experimental studies. Information obtained from this experiment should be of value as basic experimental data for fallout protection work, although it is recommended that additional substantive data obtained under more controlled conditions.
Date: August 12, 1963
Creator: Breslin, A. J.; Loysen, P. & Weinstein, M. S.
open access

Remote Radiological Monitoring

Description: A gamma-radiation telemetering system was utilized to measure fall-out levels at the Ncvada Test Site. Two methods of signal transmission were used: directcoupled field lines for on-site installations and commercial telephone lines for areas out to 330 miles. Graphic and tabular data cover on-site and off- site residual gamma-radiation dose rate measurements taken as a function of time after selected events. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1958
Creator: Sigoloff, S. C. & Borella, H. M.
open access

Remote Radiological Monitoring

Description: From abstract: A gamma-radiation telemetering system was utilized by Civil Effects Test Group personnel to measure fallout levels at the Nevada Test Site from the vicinity of Ground Zero out to, and including, an area bounded by Reno, Nevada; Salt Lake City, Utah; Kingman, Arizona; and Barstow, California.
Date: May 1, 1959
Creator: Sigoloff, Sanford C. & Borella, H. M.
open access

Response of Dual-Purpose Reinforced-Concrete Mass Shelter

Description: BS>A reinforced-concrete dual-purpose underground parking garage and personnel sheiter designed for a long-duration incident pressure of 40 psi was tested. The sheiter was exposed to shot Priscilla, an approximately 37-kt 700-ft balloon burst (June 24, 1957), at a ground range of 1600 ft (predicted 35-psi peak incident-pressure level). The recorded peak incident pressure at the shelter was approximately 39 psi. Postshot soil borings were made to obtain undisturbed samples for determining soil characteristics. Preshot and postshot field surveys were made to determine the total lateral and vertical displacement of the structure. The test structure provided adequate protection from the effects of the test device at the test GZ distance. Despite failure of the door sealing gasket, a rise in pressure in the interior did not exceed 1.0 psi. The flat-slab roof and supporting structure were more than adequate to resist the 39psi peak incident test loading. (P.C.H.)
Date: April 1, 1961
Creator: Cohen, E.; Laing, E. & Bottenhofer, A.
open access

Response of Protective Vaults to Blast Loading

Description: A reinforced-concrete steel-plate-lined vault and steel vault door were exposed to a nuclear detonation (shot Priscilla, about 37 kt, balloon suspended, at 700 ft) at the predicted 75-psi peak incident pressure level (1150 ft from Ground Zero). The vault was designed by the ultimate-strength theory to utilize the additional strain energy available in the elastoplastic and plastic ranges. Flexural and thrust capacities were determined, and shear capacity was computed. It was established that above-ground structures can be designed and constructed to survive the pressure levels experienced by this structure. The vault and door provided adequate blast and thermal protection for normal usage, and the structure was adequate to resist overturning and excessive sliding under conditions of the test.
Date: May 28, 1962
Creator: Cohen, Edward; Laing, E. & Bottenhofer, A.
open access

Temperatures From Underground Detonation, Shot Rainier

Description: The results of temaperature measuring experiments conducted for Rainier shot, Operation Plumbbob are described, The temperature distribution in the surrounding tuff resulting from the detonation of an underground nuclear device yielding 1.7 kilotons of energy has been measured, Data indicate peak temperatures in the vicinity or 90 deg existing in the central regions which drop rapidly to approach ambient temperatures at distances of about l80 feet from the original ground zero, Based on measurements taken in three holes drilled into the central regions, contours of constant temperature are constructed The temperature picture is consistent with the consideration that most of the heat entered the water contained originally in the tuff and the unconsolidated material which filled the cavity after its initial collapse, The amount of energy contained in the central regions in the form of tuff heated to below 90 deg C is roughly estimated to be greater than one-half of the total energy release. An unsuccessful attempt to measure the temperature rise across the shock front of the pressure wave produced by the detonation is described, and reasons for failure are discussed. (auth) A slow chopper neutron velocity spectrometer was used to measure the energy spectrum of thermal neutrons emerging from various moderators like beryllium oxide and heavy water. The moderator assembly was placed in front of the core of the swimming pool reactor, Apsara, at the position of the shielding corner to obtain the necessary intensities. The temperatures of the Maxwellian distributions under various conditions were determined as well as the distortions of the Maxwellian spectrum due to the variations with energy of the transport mean free path of these moderators. from these the variation of lambda with energy was estimated. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1958
Creator: Goodale, T. C.; Ragent, B.; Samuel, A. H.; Anderson, A. L.; Nielsen, D. E. & Olsen, J. L.
open access

Tertiary Effects of Blast--Displacement. Preliminary Report

Description: Measurements were made of the velocity and distance of translation of anthropomorphic dummies and equivalent spheres caused by blast winds. The primary technique for recording the movement of these ohjects was phototriangulation. The secondary technique (applicable to certain of the equivalent spheres) was to have the spheres impelled into missile traps. The resultant penetration provides a means for determining the velocity at the time of impact. Analysis of the results from both the primary and secondary techniques is expected to provide some of the irformation identified in the objective. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1957
Creator: Taborelli, R.V. & Bowen, I.G.
open access

Test of German Underground Personnel Shelters

Description: The objective of Project 30.7 was to investigate the predicted behavior of German underground personnel shelters, equipment, and certain instrumentation. Data obtained will be used for evaluation and improvement of present design criteria.
Date: June 25, 1962
Creator: Cohen, Edward & Bottenhofer, A.
open access

Thermal Radiation Measurements. Parts 1 and 2.

Description: Attempts are reported to obtain records of transient air temperatures at selected locations in a blast biology underground shelter during nuclear explosions. No records were obtained due to failure of equipment. An evaluation of thermal burns was made on Chester White pigs used as test animals. One pig in the entrance and one about three feet inside the door received severe burns, while animals away from the entrance and those in the slow fill side received no burns. Possible explanations are discussed. (C.H.)
Date: January 1958
Creator: Greig, A. L. & Pearse, H. E.
open access

Thermal radiation measurements. Parts I and II. Preliminary report. Project 39. 3 (of) Operation Plumbbob

Description: Attempts are reported to obtain records of transient air temperatures at selected locations in a blast biology underground shelter during nuclear explosions. No records were obtained due to failure of equipment. An evaluation of thermal burns was made on Chester White pigs used as test animals. One pig in the entrance and one about three feet inside the door received severe burns, while animals away from the entrance and those in the slow fill side received no burns. Possible explanations are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Greig, A. L. & Pearse, H. E.
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