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Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack V : spoilers and ailerons on rectangular wings

Description: This report covers the fifth of a series of systematic investigations in which lateral control devices are compared with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present report deals with tests of spoilers and ordinary ailerons on rectangular Clark y wing models. In an effort to obtain satisfactory control throughout the entire angle-of-attack range that can be maintained in flight, various spoilers were tested in combination with two sizes of previously tested ordinary ailerons - one of average proportions and the other short and wide. In addition, one large spoiler was tested alone. It was found that when ailerons and spoilers are used together the full effect of both is not obtained if the spoilers are located directly in front of the ailerons. With the proper combination of spoiler and aileron, however, it is possible to obtain satisfactory rolling control up to high angles of attack (15 degrees to 20 degrees), together with favorable yawing moments and small control forces. A moderate amount of rolling control with favorable yawing moments and small control forces was obtained with the large spoiler alone.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Shortal, Joseph A.

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack VI : skewed ailerons on rectangular wings

Description: This report covers the sixth of a series of investigations in which various lateral control devices are compared with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present report deals with flap-type ailerons hinged about axes having an angle with respect to the leading and trailing edges of the wing. Tests were made on four different skewed ailerons, including two different angles of skew and two sizes of ailerons. At the high angles of attack, all the skewed ailerons tested were slightly inferior with respect to rolling and yawing moments to straight ailerons having the same span and average chord. Computations indicate that the skewed ailerons are also inferior with respect to hinge moments.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Harris, Thomas A.

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack XII : upper-surface ailerons on wings with split flaps

Description: This report covers the twelfth of a series of tests conducted to compare different lateral control devices with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present wind tunnel tests were made with two sizes of upper-surface ailerons on rectangular Clark Y wing models equipped with full span split flaps. The tests showed the effect of the upper-surface ailerons and of the split flaps on the general performance characteristics of the wings, and on the lateral controllability and stability characteristics. The results are compared with those for plain wings with ordinary ailerons of similar sizes.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Wenzinger, Carl J.

Wind-tunnel research comparing lateral control devices particularly at high angles of attack XIII : auxiliary airfoils used as external ailerons

Description: This is the thirteenth report on a series of systematic tests comparing lateral control devices with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. The present wind tunnel tests were made to determine the most feasible locations for lateral control surfaces mounted externally to a rectangular Clark y wing.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Noyes, Richard W.

Wind tunnel studies in aerodynamic phenomena at high speed

Description: A great amount of research and experimental work has been done and fair success obtained in an effort to place airplane and propeller design upon an empirical basis. However, one can not fail to be impressed by the apparent lack of data available toward establishing flow phenomena upon a rational basis, such that they may be interpreted in terms of the laws of physics. With this end in view it was the object of the authors to design a wind tunnel differing from the usual type especially in regard to large power and speed of flow. This report describes the wind tunnel at Mccook Field and gives the results of experiments conducted in testing the efficiency of the wind tunnel.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Caldwell, F W & Fales, E N

A wind-tunnel test technique for measuring the dynamic rotary stability derivatives at subsonic and supersonic speeds

Description: A method is described for measuring the dynamic stability derivatives of a model airplane in a wind tunnel. The characteristic features of this system are that single-degree-of-freedom oscillations were used to obtain combinations of rolling, yawing and pitching motions; that the oscillations were excited and controlled by velocity feedback which permitted operation under conditions unfavorable for more conventional types of oscillatory testing; and that data processing was greatly simplified by using analog computer elements in the strain-gage circuitry. A small number of experimental data are included to illustrate the general scope of results obtainable with this system.
Date: January 1, 1956
Creator: Beam, Benjamin H

Wind-tunnel tests of 10-foot-diameter autogiro rotors

Description: Report presents the results of a series of 10-foot-diameter autogiro rotor models tested in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. Four of the models differed only in the airfoil sections of the blades, the sections used being the NACA 0012, 0018, 4412, and 4418. Three additional models employing the NACA 0012 section were tested, in which a varying portion of the blade near the hub was replaced by a streamline tube with a chord of about one-fourth the blade chord.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Wheatley, John B & Bioletti, Carlton

Wind-tunnel tests of a 10-foot-diameter gyroplane rotor

Description: This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests on a model gyroplane rotor 10 feet in diameter. The rotor blades had zero sweepback and zero offset; the hub contained a feathering mechanism that provided control of the rotor rolling moment, but not of the pitching moment. The rotor was tested with 4 blades and with 2 blades. The entire useful range of pitch settings and tip-speed ratios was investigated including the phase of operation in which the rotor turned very slowly, or idled.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Wheatley, John B & Bioletti, Carlton

Wind-tunnel tests of a Clark Y wing with a narrow auxiliary airfoil in different positions

Description: Aerodynamic force tests were made on a combination of a Clark Y wing and a narrow auxiliary airfoil to find the best location of the auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. The auxiliary was a highly cambered airfoil of medium thickness having a chord 14.5 per cent that of the main wing. It was tested in 141 different positions ahead of, above, and behind the nose portion of the main wing, the range of the test points being extended until the best aerodynamic conditions were covered. A range of positions was found in which the combination of main wing and auxiliary gave substantially greater aerodynamic efficiency and higher maximum lift coefficients (based on total area) than the main Clark Y wing alone. In the optimum position tested, considering both the maximum lift and the speed-range ratio, the combination of main wing and auxiliary gave an increase in the maximum lift coefficient of 32 per cent together with an increase in the ratio of 21 per cent of the respective values for the main Clark Y wing alone.
Date: January 1, 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Bamber, Millard J.

Wind-tunnel tests of four- and six-blade single- and dual-rotating tractor propellers

Description: Test of 10-foot diameter, four and six blade single-rotating and dual-rotating propellers were conducted in the NACA propeller-research tunnel. The propellers were mounted at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners to house the hub portions. The effect of a symmetrical wing mounted in the slipstream ranged from 20 degrees to 65 degrees setting corresponds to airplane speeds greater than 500 miles per hour. The results indicate that dual-rotating propellers were from 0 to 6 percent more efficient than single-rotating ones; but, when the propellers operated in the presence of a wing, the gain was reduced by about one-half. Other advantages of dual-rotating propellers were found to include greater power absorption and greater efficiency at the low V/nD operating range of high-pitch propellers.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Biermann, David & Hartman, Edwin P

Wind-tunnel tests on a series of wing models through a large angle of attack range. Part I : force tests

Description: This investigation covers force tests through a large range of angle of attack on a series of monoplane and biplane wing models. The tests were conducted in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The models were arranged in such a manner as to make possible a determination of the effects of variations in tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweep back, and airfoil profile. The arrangements represented most of the types of wing systems in use on modern airplanes. The effect of each variable is illustrated by means of groups of curves. In addition, there are included approximate autorotational characteristics in the form of calculated ranges of "rotary instability." a correction for blocking in this tunnel which applies to monoplanes at large angles of attack has been developed, and is given in an appendix. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Wenzinger, Carl J.

Wind-tunnel tests on airfoil boundary layer control using a backward-opening slot

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of boundary layer control on the lift and drag of an airfoil. Boundary layer control was accomplished by means of a backward-opening slot in the upper surface of the hollow airfoil. Air was caused to flow through this slot by a pressure which was maintained inside the airfoil by a blower. Various slot locations, slot openings, and wing pressures were used. The tests were conducted in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Under the test conditions, the maximum lift coefficient was increased about 96 per cent for one slot arrangement, and the minimum drag coefficient was decreased about 27 per cent for another, both being compared with the results obtained with the unslotted airfoil. It is believed from this investigation that the above effects may be increased by the use of larger slot openings, better slot locations, multiple slots, improved airfoil profiles, and trailing edge flaps.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Bamber, Millard J

Wind tunnel tests on autorotation and the "flat spin."

Description: This report deals with the autorotational characteristics of certain differing wing systems as determined from wind tunnel tests made at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The investigation was confined to autorotation about a fixed axis in the plane of symmetry and parallel to the wind direction. Analysis of the tests leads to the following conclusions: autorotation below 30 degree angle of attack is governed chiefly by wing profile, and above that angle by wing arrangement. The strip method of autorotation analysis gives uncertain results between maximum C subscript L and 35 degrees. The polar curve of a wing system, and to a lower degree of accuracy the polar of a complete airplane model are sufficient for direct determination of the limits of rotary instability, subject to strip method limitations. The results of the investigation indicate that in free flight a monoplane is incapable of flat spinning, whereas an unstaggered biplane has inherent flat-spinning tendencies. The difficulty of maintaining equilibrium in stalled flight is due primarily to rotary instability, a rapid change from stability to instability occurring as the angle of maximum lift is exceeded. (author).
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Knight, Montgomery

Wind-tunnel tests on combinations of a wing with fixed auxiliary airfoils having various chords and profiles

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on various auxiliary airfoils having three different airfoil sections and several different chord lengths in combination with a Clark y model wing in a sufficient number of relative positions to determine the optimum with regard to certain criterions of aerodynamic performance. The airfoil sections included a symmetrical profile, one of medium camber, and a highly cambered one. The chord sizes of the auxiliary airfoils ranged from 7.5 to 25 percent of the chord of the main wing, and the span was equal to that of the main wing.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Sanders, Robert

Wing characteristics as affected by protuberances of short span

Description: The drag and interference caused by short-span protuberances from the surface of an airfoil have been investigated in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 3,100,000, based on the chord length of the airfoil. The effects of variations of protuberance span length, span position, and shape were measured by determining how the wing characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Sherman, Albert

Wing-fuselage interference, tail buffeting, and air flow about the tail of a low-wing monoplane

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Mcdonnell Douglas airplane to determine the wing-fuselage interference of a low-wing monoplane. The tests included a study of tail buffeting and the air flow in the region of the tail. The airplane was tested with and without the propeller slipstream, both in the original condition and with several devices designed to reduce or eliminate tail buffeting. The devices used were wing-fuselage fillets, a NACA cowling, reflexed trailing edge of the wing, and stub auxiliary airfoils.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: White, James A & Hood, Manley J

Wing-nacelle-propeller interference for wings of various spans force and pressure-distribution tests

Description: Report presents the results of an experimental investigation made in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the effect of wing span on nacelle-propeller characteristics and, reciprocally, the lateral extent of nacelle and propeller influence on a monoplane wing. The results provide a check on the validity of the previous research on nacelles and propellers with 15-foot-span wings tested in the 20-foot wind tunnel and reported in technical reports 415, 462, 505, 506, and 507.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Robinson, Russell G & Herrnstein, William H , Jr

Wing plan forms for high-speed flight

Description: It is pointed out that, in the case of an airfoil of infinite aspect ratio moving at an angle of sideslip, the pressure distribution is determined solely by that component of the motion in a direction normal to the leading edge. It follows that the attachment of plane waves to the airfoil at near-sonic or supersonic speeds (Ackeret theory) may be avoided and the pressure drag may be reduced by the use of plan forms in which the angle of sweepback is greater than the Mach angle. The analysis indicates that for aerodynamic efficiency, wings designed for flight at supersonic speeds should be swept back at an angle greater than the Mach angle, and the angle of sweepback should be such that the component of velocity normal to the leading edge is less than the critical speed of the airfoil sections. This principle may also be applied to wings designed for subsonic speeds near the speed of sound, for which the induced velocities resulting from the thickness might otherwise be sufficiently great to cause shock waves.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Jones, Robert J

Wing pressure distribution and rotor-blade motion of an autogiro as determined in flight

Description: This report presents the results of tests in which the pressure distribution over the fixed wing of an autogiro was determined in both steady and accelerated flight. In the steady-flight condition, the rotor-blade motion was also measured. These data show that in steady flight the rotor speed as a function of the air speed is largely affected by the variation of the division of load between the rotor and the wing; as the load on the wing increases, the rotor speed decreases. In steady flight the presence of the slipstream increased both the wing lift at a given air speed and the maximum lift coefficient of the wing above the corresponding values without the slipstream. In abrupt high-speed turns, the wing attained a normal force coefficient of unity at almost the initial value of the air speed and experienced its maximum load before maximum acceleration occurred.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Wheatley, John B

Wing spar stress charts and wing truss proportions

Description: In order to simplify the calculation of beams continuous over three supports, a series of charts have been calculated giving the bending moments at all the critical points and the reactions at all supports for such members. Using these charts as a basis, calculations of equivalent bending moments, representing the total stresses acting in two bay-wing trusses of proportions varying over a wide range, have been determined, both with and without allowance for column effect. This leads finally to the determination of the best proportions for any particular truss or the best strut locations in any particular airplane. The ideal proportions are found to vary with the thickness of the wing section used, the aspect ratio, and the ratio of gap to chord.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Warner, Edward P.

Working charts for the determination of the lift distribution between biplane wings

Description: In this report are presented empirical working charts from which the distribution of lift between wings, that is the fraction of the total lift borne by each, can be determined in the positive lift range for any ordinary biplane cellule whose individual wings have the same profile. The variables taken directly into account include airfoil section, stagger, gap/chord ratio, decalage, chord ratio, and overhang. It is shown that the influence of unequal sweepback and unequal dihedral in upper and lower wings may be properly provided for by utilizing the concepts of average stagger and average gap/chord ratio, respectively. The effect of other variables is discussed, but they have not been included in the charts either because their influence was obviously small or because insufficient data existed to make possible a complete determination of their influence. All available pertinent biplane data were analyzed in establishing the charts, and in some cases theoretical relationships were utilized to establish qualitative tendencies.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Working charts for the selection of aluminum alloy propellers of a standard form to operate with various aircraft engines and bodies

Description: Working charts are given for the convenient selection of aluminum alloy propellers of a standard form, to operate in connection with six different engine-fuselage combinations. The charts have been prepared from full-scale test data obtained in the 20-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. An example is also given showing the use of the charts.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

The zero-lift drag of a slender body of revolution (NACA RM-10 research model) as determined from tests in several wind tunnels and in flight at supersonic speeds

Description: The results of tests of a slender body of revolution designated the NACA rm-10 have been compiled from various NACA test facilities. Zero-lift drag data are presented for a Reynolds number range from about 1 x 10(6) to 40 x 10(6) from several wind tunnels and from about 12 x 10(6) to 140 x 10(6) from free-flight tests. The Mach numbers covered include 1.5 to 2.4 for the wind-tunnel data and 0.85 to 2.5 for the flight results. The wind tunnel models were tested with and without 60 degree sweptback stabilizing fins and the flight models were tested with stabilizing fins. Comparison of the data obtained in the several wind tunnels for the body alone (without fins) shows good agreement between the different facilities. There are unexplained differences however between the wind-tunnel results with fins attached and flight results, as well as differences between full-scale and half-scale flight models, which cannot be explained as an effect of Reynolds number.
Date: January 1, 1954
Creator: Evans, Albert J