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Investigation of Fretting by Microscopic Observation

Description: "An experimental investigation, using microscopic observation and color motion photomicrographs of the action, was conducted to determine the cause of fretting. Glass and other noncorrosive materials, as well as metals, were used as specimens. A very simple apparatus vibrated convex surfaces in contact with stationary flat surfaces at frequencies of 120 cycles or less than l cycle per second, an amplitude of 0.0001 inch, and load of 0.2 pound" (p. 135).
Date: August 31, 1949
Creator: Godfrey, Douglas

Nonlifting Wing-Body Combinations With Certain Geometric Restraints Having Minimum Wave Drag at Low Supersonic Speeds

Description: "Several variational problems involving optimum wing and body combinations having minimum wave drag for different kinds of geometrical restraints are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the wave drag of shortening the fuselage and, for slender axially symmetric bodies, the effect of fixing the fuselage diameter at several points or even of fixing whole portions of its shape" (p. 113).
Date: August 4, 1955
Creator: Lomax, Harvard

The Normal Component of the Induced Velocity in the Vicinity of a Lifting Rotor and Some Examples of Its Application

Description: "Paper presents a practical method for computing the approximate values of the normal component of the induced velocity at points in the flow field of a lifting rotor. Tables and graphs of the relative magnitudes of the normal component of the induced velocity are given for selected points in the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the rotor and on the lateral rotor axis. A method is also presented for utilizing the tables and graphs to determine the interference induced velocities arising from the second rotor of a tandem or side-by-side-rotor helicopter and the induced flow angle at a horizontal tail plane" (p. 1).
Date: August 11, 1952
Creator: Castles, Walter, Jr. & De Leeuw, Jacob Henri

A Comparison of the Spanwise Loading Calculated by Various Methods With Experimental Loadings Obtained on a 45 Degree Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 8.02 at a Reynolds Number of 4.0 X 10(6)

Description: "This report compares the experimental force and moment data obtained by pressure measurements on a wing of aspect ratio 8.02, 45 degree sweptback of the quarter-chord line, taper ratio of 0.45, and NACA 63(sub 1)A012 airfoil sections with the calculated loadings obtained by the standard methods proposed by Weissinger, Falkner, and Multopp, as well as by several variations of these methods" (p. 1175).
Date: August 14, 1951
Creator: Schneider, William C.

Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays From a Pump Injection System

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve" (p. 241).
Date: August 24, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Marsh, E. T.

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Aerodynamic Balancing of Upper-Surface Ailerons and Split Flaps

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effectiveness of various methods of reducing the high control forces of unbalanced upper-surface ailerons and of unbalanced split flaps. A balanced split flap was developed that required control forces about half those of the unbalanced split flap when the balanced split flap was deflected to give approximately the same maximum lift.
Date: August 20, 1935
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J.

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Spoiler, Deflector, and Slot Lateral-Control Devices on Wings With Full-Span Split and Slotted Flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an extensive investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of spoiler, deflector, and slot types of lateral-control device on wings with full-span split and slotted flaps. The static rolling and yawing moments were determined for all the devices tested, and the static hinge moments and the time response were determined for a few devices of each type.
Date: August 13, 1940
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Rogallo, Francis M.

Application of the Analogy Between Water Flow With a Free Surface and Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow

Description: "The theory of the hydraulic analogy -- that is, the analogy between water flow with a free surface and two-dimensional compressible gas flow -- and the limitations and conditions of the analogy are discussed. A test was run using the hydraulic analogy as applied to the flow about circular cylinders of various diameters at subsonic velocities extending into the supercritical range. The apparatus and techniques used in this application are described and criticized" (p. 311).
Date: August 21, 1946
Creator: Orlin, W. James; Lindner, Norman J. & Bitterly, Jack G.

Investigations of Effects of Surface Temperature and Single Roughness Elements on Boundary-Layer Transition

Description: "The laminar boundary layer and the position of the transition point were investigated on a heated flat plate. It was found that the Reynolds number of transition decreased as the temperature of the plate is increased. It is shown from simple qualitative analytical considerations that the effect of variable viscosity in the boundary layer due to the temperature difference produces a velocity profile with an inflection point if the wall temperature is higher than the free-stream temperature" (p. 587).
Date: August 28, 1946
Creator: Liepmann, Hans W. & Fila, Gertrude H.

The NACA Apparatus for Studying the Formation and Combustion of Fuel Sprays and the Results From Preliminary Tests

Description: "This report describes the apparatus as designed and constructed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those occurring in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel-injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical-disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows" (p. 549).
Date: August 26, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases From Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: August 17, 1933
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Tessmann, Arthur M.

Heat Transfer to Fuel Sprays Injected Into Heated Gases

Description: This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.
Date: August 25, 1936
Creator: Selden, Robert F. & Spencer, Robert C.

Lift Hysteresis at Stall as an Unsteady Boundary-Layer Phenomenon

Description: "Analysis of rotating stall of compressor blade rows requires specification of a dynamic lift curve for the airfoil section at or near stall, presumably including the effect of lift hysteresis. Consideration of the Magnus lift of a rotating cylinder suggests performing an unsteady boundary-layer calculation to find the movement of the separation points of an airfoil fixed in a stream of variable incidence. The consideration of the shedding of vorticity into the wake should yield an estimate of lift increment proportional to time rate of change of angle of attack" (p. 881).
Date: August 17, 1955
Creator: Moore, Franklin K.

Correlation of Cooling Data From an Air-Cooled Cylinder and Several Multicylinder Engines

Description: "The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright R-1820-G engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb" (p. 59).
Date: August 15, 1939
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

A Theory for Primary Failure of Straight Centrally Loaded Columns

Description: "A theory of primary failure of straight centrally loaded columns is presented. It is assumed that the column cross section and the load are constant throughout the length. Primary failure is defined as any type of failure in which the cross sections are translated, rotated, or translated and rotated but not distorted in their own planes" (p. 141).
Date: August 17, 1936
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Fligg, Claude M.

Spectra and diffusion in a round turbulent jet

Description: "In a round turbulent jet at room temperature, measurement of the shear correlation coefficient as a function of frequency (through band-pass filters) has given a rather direct verification of Kolmogoroff's local-isotropy hypothesis. One-dimensional power spectra of velocity and temperature fluctuations, measured in unheated and heated jets, respectively, have been contrasted. Under the same conditions, the two corresponding transverse correlation functions have been measured and compared" (p. 1).
Date: August 17, 1949
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S.

Further experiments on the flow and heat transfer in a heated turbulent air jet

Description: "Measurements have been made of the mean-total-head and mean-temperature fields in a round turbulent jet with various initial temperatures. The results show that the jet spreads more rapidly as its density becomes lower than that of the receiving medium, even when the difference is not sufficiently great to cause dynamic-pressure function. Rough analytical considerations have given the same relative spread. The effective "turbulent Prandtl number" for a section of the fully developed jet was found to be equal to the true (laminar) Prandtl number within the accuracy measurement" (p. 859).
Date: August 18, 1947
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S.

Theoretical study of the transonic lift of a double-wedge profile with detached bow wave

Description: "A theoretical study is described of the aerodynamic characteristics at small angle of attack of a thin, double-wedge profile in the range of supersonic flight speed in which the bow wave is detached. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the transonic (nonlinear) small-disturbance theory, and the effects of angle of attack are regarded as a small perturbation on the flow previously calculated at zero angle. The mixed flow about the front half of the profile is calculated by relaxation solution of a suitably defined boundary-value problem for transonic small-disturbance equation in the hodograph plane (i.e., the Tricomi equation)" (p. 547).
Date: August 1, 1952
Creator: Vincenti, Walter G. & Wagoner, Cleo B.

Effect of turbulence in wind-tunnel measurements

Description: This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made.
Date: August 20, 1929
Creator: Dryden, H. L. & Kuethe, A. M.

Some Effects of Compressibility on the Flow Through Fans and Turbines

Description: "The laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are applied to the compressible flow through a two-dimensional cascade of airfoils. A fundamental relation between the ultimate upstream and downstream flow angles, the inlet Mach number, and the pressure ratio across the cascade is derived. Comparison with the corresponding relation for incompressible flow shows large differences. The fundamental relation reveals two ranges of flow angles and inlet Mach numbers, for which no ideal pressure ratio exists" (p. 123).
Date: August 1, 1945
Creator: Perl, W. & Epstein, H. T.

A study of the zero-lift drag-rise characteristics of wing-body combinations near the speed of sound

Description: "Comparisons have been made of the shock phenomena and drag-rise increments for representative wing and central-body combinations with those for bodies of revolution having the same axial developments of cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. On the basis of these comparisons, it is concluded that near the speed of sound the zero-lift drag rise of a low-aspect-ratio thin-wing and body combination is primarily dependent on the axial development of the cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. It follows that the drag rise for any such configuration is approximately the same as that for any other with the same development of cross-sectional areas" (p. 519).
Date: August 1, 1952
Creator: Whitcomb, Richard T.

Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy

Description: In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Date: August 5, 1958
Creator: Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P. & Freeman, J. W.