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A low-speed experimental investigation of the effect of a sandpaper type of roughness on boundary-layer transition

Description: From Summary: "An investigation was made in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to determine the effect of size and location of a sandpaper type of roughness on the Reynolds number for transition. Transition was observed by means of a hot-wire anemometer located at various chordwise stations for each position of the roughness. These observations indicated that when the roughness is sufficiently submerged in the boundary layer to provide a substantially linear variation of boundary-layer velocity with distance from the surface up to the top of the roughness, turbulent "spots" begin to appear immediately behind the roughness when the Reynolds number based on the velocity at the top of the roughness height exceeds a value of approximately 600. At Reynolds numbers even slightly below the critical value (value for transition), the sandpaper type of roughness introduced no measurable disturbances into the laminar layer downstream of the roughness. The extent of the roughness area does not appear to have an important effect on the critical value of the roughness Reynolds number."
Date: August 15, 1956
Creator: von Doenhoff, Albert E. & Horton, Elmer A.

Comparative drag measurements at transonic speeds of rectangular sweptback NACA 65-009 airfoils mounted on a freely falling body

Description: From Summary: "Directly comparable drag measurements have been made of an airfoil with a conventional rectangular plan form and an airfoil with a sweptback plan form mounted on freely falling bodies. Both airfoils had NACA 65-009 sections and were identical in span, frontal area, and chord perpendicular to the leading edge. The sweptback plan form incorporated a sweepback angle of 45 degrees. The data obtained have been used to establish the relation between the airfoil drag coefficients and the free-stream Mach number over a range of Mach numbers from 0.90 to 1.27. The results of the measurements indicate that the drag of the sweptback plan form is less than 0.3 that of the rectangular plan form at a Mach number of 1.00 and is less than 0.4 that at a Mach number of 1.20."
Date: August 9, 1945
Creator: Mathews, Charles W. & Thompson, Jim Rogers

A method of analysis of V-G records from transport operations

Description: A method has been developed for interpreting v-g records taken during the course of commercial transport operation. This method involves the utilization of fairly simple statistical procedures to obtain "flight envelopes," which predict that, on the average, in a stated number of flight hours, one value of airspeed will exceed the envelope, and one positive and one negative acceleration increment will exceed the envelope with equal probability of being experienced at any airspeed. Comparison with the actual data obtained from various airplanes and from various airlines indicates that these envelopes predict the occurrences of large values of acceleration and airspeed with a high degree of accuracy.
Date: August 31, 1945
Creator: Peiser, A. M. & Wilkerson, M.

A Method of Analysis of V-G Records from Transport Operations

Description: A method has been developed for interpreting V-G records taken during the course of commercial transport operation. This method involves the utilization of fairly simple statistical procedures to obtain "flight envelopes," which predict that, on the average, in a stated number of flight hours, one value of airspeed will exceed the envelope, and one positive and one negative acceleration increment will exceed the envelope with equal probability of being experienced at any airspeed. Comparison with the actual data obtained from various airplanes and from various airlines indicates that these envelopes predict the occurrences of large values of acceleration and airspeed with a high degree of accuracy.
Date: August 31, 1945
Creator: Peiser, A. M. & Wilkerson, M.

An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight with application to a study of tolerable dihedral on a conventional fighter airplane

Description: From Summary: "An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented."
Date: August 24, 1949
Creator: Kauffman, William M.; Liddell, Charles J., Jr.; Smith, Allan & Van Dyke, Rudolph D., Jr.

Analysis and modification of theory for impact of seaplanes on water

Description: From Summary: "An analysis of available theory on seaplane impact and a proposed modification thereto are presented. In previous methods the overall momentum of the float and virtual mass has been assumed to remain constant during the impact but the present analysis shows that this assumption is rigorously correct only when the resultant velocity of the float is normal to the keel."
Date: August 20, 1945
Creator: Mayo, Wilbur L.

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on hinge moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the hinge moments of ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and USA-27 wing sections, supplementing the investigations described in NACA-TR-298 and NACA-TR-343, of the rolling and yawing moments due to similar ailerons on these two airfoil sections. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch, but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis.
Date: August 11, 1930
Creator: Monish, B. H.

Exhaust-stack nozzle area and shape for individual cylinder exhaust-gas jet-propulsion system

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation conducted on the effect of exhaust-stack nozzle area, shape, and length on engine power, jet thrust, and gain in net thrust (engine propeller plus jet). Single-cylinder engine data were obtained using three straight stacks 25, 44, and 108 inches in length; an S-shaped stack, a 90 degree bend, a 180 degree bend, and a short straight stack having a closed branch faired into it. Each stack was fitted with nozzles varying in exit area from 0.91 square inch to the unrestricted area of the stack of 4.20 square inches. The engine was generally operated over a range of engine speeds from 1300 to 2100 r.p.m, inlet-manifold pressures from 22 to 30 inches of mercury absolute, and a fuel-air ratio of 0.08. The loss in engine power, the jet thrust, and the gain in net thrust are correlated in terms of several simple parameters. An example is given for determining the optimum nozzle area and the overall net thrust.
Date: August 11, 1942
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin; Turner, L. Richard; Voss, Fred & Humble, Leroy V.

Spectra and diffusion in a round turbulent jet

Description: "In a round turbulent jet at room temperature, measurement of the shear correlation coefficient as a function of frequency (through band-pass filters) has given a rather direct verification of Kolmogoroff's local-isotropy hypothesis. One-dimensional power spectra of velocity and temperature fluctuations, measured in unheated and heated jets, respectively, have been contrasted. Under the same conditions, the two corresponding transverse correlation functions have been measured and compared" (p. 1).
Date: August 17, 1949
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S.

Further experiments on the flow and heat transfer in a heated turbulent air jet

Description: "Measurements have been made of the mean-total-head and mean-temperature fields in a round turbulent jet with various initial temperatures. The results show that the jet spreads more rapidly as its density becomes lower than that of the receiving medium, even when the difference is not sufficiently great to cause dynamic-pressure function. Rough analytical considerations have given the same relative spread. The effective "turbulent Prandtl number" for a section of the fully developed jet was found to be equal to the true (laminar) Prandtl number within the accuracy measurement" (p. 859).
Date: August 18, 1947
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S.

Theoretical study of the transonic lift of a double-wedge profile with detached bow wave

Description: "A theoretical study is described of the aerodynamic characteristics at small angle of attack of a thin, double-wedge profile in the range of supersonic flight speed in which the bow wave is detached. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the transonic (nonlinear) small-disturbance theory, and the effects of angle of attack are regarded as a small perturbation on the flow previously calculated at zero angle. The mixed flow about the front half of the profile is calculated by relaxation solution of a suitably defined boundary-value problem for transonic small-disturbance equation in the hodograph plane (i.e., the Tricomi equation)" (p. 547).
Date: August 1, 1952
Creator: Vincenti, Walter G. & Wagoner, Cleo B.

Effect of turbulence in wind-tunnel measurements

Description: This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made.
Date: August 20, 1929
Creator: Dryden, H. L. & Kuethe, A. M.

Some Effects of Compressibility on the Flow Through Fans and Turbines

Description: "The laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are applied to the compressible flow through a two-dimensional cascade of airfoils. A fundamental relation between the ultimate upstream and downstream flow angles, the inlet Mach number, and the pressure ratio across the cascade is derived. Comparison with the corresponding relation for incompressible flow shows large differences. The fundamental relation reveals two ranges of flow angles and inlet Mach numbers, for which no ideal pressure ratio exists" (p. 123).
Date: August 1, 1945
Creator: Perl, W. & Epstein, H. T.

Flight tests of the drag and torque of the propeller in terminal-velocity dives

Description: From Summary: "The drag and torque of a controllable propeller at various blade-angle settings, and under various diving conditions, were measured by indirect method on F6C-4 airplane in flight. The object of these tests were (1) to provide data on which calculations of the terminal velocity with a throttled engine and the accompanying engine speed could be based and (2) to determine the possibility of utilizing the propeller as an air brake to reduce the terminal velocity. The data obtained were used in the establishment of propeller charts, on the basis of which the terminal velocity and engine speed could be calculated for airplanes whose characteristics fall within the range of these tests."
Date: August 22, 1933
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Pearson, Henry A.

A study of the two-control operation of an airplane

Description: The two-control operation of a conventional airplane is treated by means of the theory of disturbed motions. The consequences of this method of control are studied with regard to the stability of the airplane in its unconstrained components of motion and the movements set up during turn maneuvers.
Date: August 12, 1936
Creator: Jones, Robert T.

A study of the zero-lift drag-rise characteristics of wing-body combinations near the speed of sound

Description: "Comparisons have been made of the shock phenomena and drag-rise increments for representative wing and central-body combinations with those for bodies of revolution having the same axial developments of cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. On the basis of these comparisons, it is concluded that near the speed of sound the zero-lift drag rise of a low-aspect-ratio thin-wing and body combination is primarily dependent on the axial development of the cross-sectional areas normal to the airstream. It follows that the drag rise for any such configuration is approximately the same as that for any other with the same development of cross-sectional areas" (p. 519).
Date: August 1, 1952
Creator: Whitcomb, Richard T.

Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy

Description: In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Date: August 5, 1958
Creator: Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P. & Freeman, J. W.

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: August 5, 1957
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W. & Graves, Charles C.

Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

Description: "Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature" (p. 207).
Date: August 31, 1948
Creator: Lundin, Bruce T.; Povolny, John H. & Chelko, Louis J.

Pressure distribution over the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in flight

Description: "This report presents the results obtained from pressure distribution tests on the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in a number of conditions of flight. The investigation was made to determine the contribution of the fuselage to the total lift in conditions considered critical for the wing structure, and also to determine whether the fuselage loads acting simultaneously with the maximum tail loads were of such a character as to be of concern with respect to the structural design of other parts of the airplane. The results show that the contribution of the fuselage toward the total lift is small on this airplane" (p. 327).
Date: August 1, 1930
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Lundquist, Eugene E.

Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow" (p. 119).
Date: August 26, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.

Calibration of strain-gage installations in aircraft structures for the measurement of flight loads

Description: "A general method has been developed for calibrating strain-gage installations in aircraft structures, which permits the measurement in flight of the shear or lift, the bending moment, and the torque or pitching moment on the principal lifting or control surfaces. Although the stress in structural members may not be a simple function of the three loads of interest, a straightforward procedure is given for numerically combining the outputs of several bridges in such a way that the loads may be obtained. Extensions of the basic procedure by means of electrical combination of the strain-gage bridges are described which permit compromises between strain-gage installation time, availability of recording instruments, and data reduction time" (p. 1).
Date: August 12, 1952
Creator: Skopinski, T. H.; Aiken, William S., Jr. & Huston, Wilber B.