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Investigation of frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine

Description: Experimental frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine are presented. These data were obtained by subjecting the engine to sinusoidal variations of fuel flow and propeller-blade-angle inputs. Correlation is made between these experimental data and analytical frequency-response characteristics obtained from a linear differential equation derived from steady-state torque-speed relations.
Date: March 24, 1950
Creator: Taylor, Burt L., III & Oppenheimer, Frank L.

Flight determination of drag of normal-shock nose inlets with various cowling profiles at Mach numbers from 0.9 to 1.5

Description: External-drag data are presented for normal-shock nose inlets with NACA 1-series, parabolic, and conic cowling profiles. The tests were made at an angle of attack of 0 degrees by using rocket-propelled models in free flight at Mach numbers from 0.9 to 1.5. The Reynolds number based on body maximum diameter varied from 2.5 x 10 sup 6 to 5.5 x 10 sup 6. At maximum flow rate, the inlet models had about the same external drag at a Mach number of approximately 1.1, but at higher Mach numbers the sharp-lip conic cowling had the least drag. Blunting or beveling the lip of the conic cowling while keeping the fineness ratio constant resulted in drag coefficients slightly higher than for the sharp-lip conic cowling at maximum flow rate. At a mass-flow ratio of about 0.8, the conic cowlings with sharp, blunt, or beveled lips and the parabolic cowling all gave about the same drag. The higher drag of the NACA 1-49-300 cowling, compared with the blunt-lip conic cowling, is associated with the greater fullness back of the inlet.
Date: September 8, 1953
Creator: Sears, R. I.; Merlet, C. F. & Putland, L. W.

Flight measurements of the dynamic longitudinal stability of several airplanes and a correlation of the measurements with pilots' observations of handling characteristics

Description: The dynamic longitudinal stability characteristics of eight airplanes as defined by the period and damping of the longitudinal oscillations were measured in flight to determine the degree of stability that may be expected in conventional airplanes. An attempt was made to correlate the measured stability with pilots' opinions of the general handling characteristics of the airplanes in order to obtain an indication of the most desirable degree of dynamic stability. The results of the measurements show that the period of oscillation increases with speed. At low speeds a range of periods from 11 to 23 seconds was recorded for the different airplanes. At high speeds the periods ranged from 23 to 64 seconds. The damping showed no definite trend with speed.
Date: July 15, 1936
Creator: Soulé, Hartley A.

Free-space oscillating pressures near the tips of rotating propellers

Description: The theory is given for calculating the free-space oscillating pressures associated with a rotating propeller, at any point in space. Because of its complexity this analysis is convenient only for use in the critical region near the propeller tips where the assumptions used by Gutin to simplify his final equations are not valid. Good agreement was found between analytical and experimental results in the tip Mach number range 0.45 to two, three, four, five, six, on eight-blade propellers and for a range of tip clearances from 0.04 to 0.30 times the propeller diameter. If the power coefficient, tip Mach number, and the tip clearance are known for a given propeller, the designer may determine from these charts the average maximum free-space oscillating pressure in the critical region near the plane of rotation. A section of the report is devoted to the fuselage response to these oscillating pressures and indicates some of the factors to be considered in solving the problems of fuselage vibration and noise.
Date: 1950
Creator: Hubbard, Harvey H. & Regier, Arthur A.

Free-stream boundaries of turbulent flows

Description: Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.
Date: 1955
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Kistler, Alan L.

Wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of profile modification and tabs on the characteristics of ailerons on a low-drag airfoil

Description: An investigation has been made to determine the effect of control-surface profile modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA low-drag airfoil equipped with a 0.20-chord and a 0.15-chord aileron. Tab characteristics have been obtained for 0.20-aileron chord tabs on two of the 0.20-chord ailerons. Basic data are presented from which the effect of tabs can be calculated for specific cases. The data are sufficient for the solution of problems of fixed tabs with a differential linkage, as well as simple and spring-linked balancing tabs.
Date: 1944
Creator: Crane, Robert M. & Holtzclaw, Ralph W.

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a propeller with the diameter changed by cutting off the blade tips

Description: Tests were conducted in order to determine how the characteristics of a propeller are affected by cutting off the tips. The diameter of a standard 10-foot metal propeller was changed successively to 9 feet 6 inches, 9 feet 0 inches, 8 feet 6 inches, and 8 feet 0 inches. Each propeller thus formed was tested at four pitch settings using an open cockpit fuselage and a D-12 engine. A small loss in propulsive efficiency is indicated. Examples are given showing the application of the results to practical problems.
Date: December 10, 1929
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Tests of nacelle-propeller combinations in various positions with reference to wings 2: thick wing - various radial-engine cowlings - tractor propeller

Description: This report is the second of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the test of a N.A.C.A. cowled air-cooled engine nacelle located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The present report gives results of tests of a normal engine nacelle with several types of cowling and fairings in four of the positions with reference to the same wing. (author).
Date: May 12, 1932
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Tests of large airfoils in the propeller research tunnel, including two with corrugated surfaces

Description: This report gives the results of the tests of seven 2 by 12 foot airfoils (Clark Y, smooth and corrugated, Gottingen 398, N.A.C.A. M-6, and N.A.C.A. 84). The tests were made in the propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Reynolds numbers up to 2,000,000. The Clark Y airfoil was tested with three degrees of surface smoothness. Corrugating the surface causes a flattening of the lift curve at the burble point and an increase in drag at small flying angles.
Date: May 24, 1929
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Full-scale tests of metal propellers at high tip speeds

Description: This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.
Date: November 5, 1930
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Investigation of Pitot tubes

Description: Report describes the principles of operation and characteristics of some of the instruments which have been devised or used to measure both low and high speeds of aeroplanes. Since the pitot tube is the instrument which has been most commonly used in the United States and Great Britain as a speedometer for aeroplanes, it is treated first and somewhat more fully than the others.
Date: 1917
Creator: Herschel, W. H. & Buckingham, E.

Investigation of a systematic group of NACA 1-series cowlings with and without spinners

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley propeller research tunnel to study cowling-spinner combinations based on the NACA 1-series nose inlets and to obtain systematic design data for one family of approximately ellipsoidal spinners. In the main part of the investigation, 11 of the related spinners were tested in various combinations with 9 NACA open-nose cowlings, which were also tested without spinners. The effects of location and shape of the spinner, shape of the inner surface of the cowling lip, and operation of a propeller having approximately oval shanks were investigated briefly. In addition, a study was conducted to determine the correct procedure for extrapolating design conditions determined from the low-speed test data to the design conditions at the actual flight Mach number.
Date: 1949
Creator: Nichols, Mark R. & Keith, Arvid L., Jr.

Intercooler cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop for minimum drag loss

Description: An analysis has been made of the drag losses in airplane flight of cross-flow plate and tubular intercoolers to determine the cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop that give a minimum drag loss for any given cooling effectiveness and, thus, a maximum power-plant net gain due to charge-air cooling. The drag losses considered in this analysis are those due to (1) the extra drag imposed on the airplane by the weight of the intercooler, its duct, and its supports and (2) the drag sustained by the cooling air in flowing through the intercooler and its duct. The investigation covers a range of conditions of altitude, airspeed, lift-drag ratio, supercharger-pressure ratio, and supercharger adiabatic efficiency. The optimum values of cooling air pressure drop and weight flow ratio are tabulated. Curves are presented to illustrate the results of the analysis.
Date: February 25, 1944
Creator: Reuter, J. George & Valerino, Michael F.

Internal-flow systems for aircraft

Description: An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.
Date: 1941
Creator: Rogallo, F. M.

The interdependence of various types of autoignition and knock

Description: A study of the relations existing among pin-point autoignition, homogeneous autoignition, and knock has been made by means of the NACA high-speed camera and the full-view combustion apparatus. High-speed photographic records of combustion, together with corresponding pressure-time traces, of benzene, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, S-4, and M-4 fuels at various engine conditions have shown the engine conditions under which each of these phenomena occur and the relation of these phenomena to one another.
Date: February 10, 1947
Creator: Olsen, H. Lowell & Miller, Cearcy D.

Investigation with an interferometer of the turbulent mixing of a free supersonic jet

Description: The free turbulent mixing of a supersonic jet of Mach number 1.6 has been experimentally investigated. An interferometer, of which a description is given, was used for the investigation. Density and velocity distributions through the mixing zone have been obtained. It was found that there was similarity in distribution at the cross sections investigated and that, in the subsonic portion of the mixing zone, the velocity distribution fitted the theoretical distribution for incompressible flow. It was found that the rates of spread of the mixing zone both into the jet and into the ambient air were less than those of subsonic jets.
Date: January 21, 1949
Creator: Gooderum, Paul B.; Wood, George P. & Brevoort, Maurice J.

Investigations at supersonic speeds of 22 triangular wings representing two airfoil sections for each of 11 apex angles

Description: The results of tests of 22 triangular wings, representing two leading-edge shapes for each of 11 apex angles, at Mach numbers 1.62, 1.92, and 1.40 are presented and compared with theory. All wings have a common thickness ratio of 8 percent and a common maximum-thickness point at 18 percent chord. Lift, drag, and pitching moment are given for all wings at each Mach number. The relation of transition in the boundary layer, shocks on the wing surfaces, and characteristics of the pressure distributions is discussed for several wings.
Date: March 30, 1949
Creator: Love, Eugene S.

Investigation of separated flows in supersonic and subsonic streams with emphasis on the effect of transition

Description: Report presents the results of experimental and theoretical research conducted on flow separation associated with steps, bases, compression corners, curved surfaces, shock-wave boundary-layer reflections, and configurations producing leading-edge separation. Results were obtained from pressure-distribution measurements, shadowgraph observations, high-speed motion pictures, and oil-film studies. The maximum scope of measurement encompassed Mach numbers between 0.4 and 3.6, and length Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 5,000,000.
Date: November 29, 1956
Creator: Chapman, Dean R.; Kuehn, Donald M. & Larson, Howard K.

A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

Description: A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.
Date: June 18, 1957
Creator: Hill, P. R.

Method of designing cascade blades with prescribed velocity distributions in compressible potential flows

Description: By use of the assumption that the pressure-volume relation is linear, a solution to the problem of designing a cascade for a given turning and with a prescribed velocity distribution along the blade in a potential flow of a compressible perfect fluid was obtained by a method of correspondence between potential flows of compressible and incompressible fluids. The designing of an isolated airfoil with a prescribed velocity distribution along the airfoil is considered as a special case of cascade. If the prescribed velocity distribution is not theoretically attainable, the method provides a means of modifying the distribution so as to obtain a physically significant blade shape. Numerical examples are included.
Date: October 1, 1949
Creator: Costello, George R.

Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

Description: A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.
Date: April 13, 1950
Creator: Hamrick, Joseph T.; Ginsburg, Ambrose & Osborn, Walter M.

Survey of hydrogen combustion properties

Description: This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.
Date: April 26, 1957
Creator: Drell, Isadore L. & Belles, Frank E.

Lift and center of pressure of wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

Description: From Summary: "A method is presented for calculating the lift and centers of pressure of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. A set of design charts and a computing table are presented which reduce the computations to routine operations. Comparison between the estimated and experimental characteristics for a number of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations shows correlation to within + or - 10 percent on lift and to within about + or - 0.02 of the body length on center of pressure."
Date: July 8, 1953
Creator: Pitts, William C.; Nielsen, Jack N. & Kaattari, George E.

Method for calculating the rolling and yawing moments due to rolling for unswept wings with or without flaps or ailerons by use of nonlinear section lift data

Description: From Summary: "The methods of NACA reports 865 and 1090 have been applied to the calculation of the rolling-moment and yawing-moment coefficients due to rolling for unswept wings with or without flaps or ailerons. The methods are based on lifting-line theory and allow the use of nonlinear section lift data. The method presented in this report permits calculations to be made somewhat beyond maximum lift for wings having no twist or continuous twist and employing airfoil sections which do not display large discontinuities in the lift curves. Calculations can be made up to maximum lift for wings with discontinuous twist such as that produced by partial-span flaps or ailerons, or both. Two calculated examples are presented in simplified computing forms in order to illustrate the procedures involved."
Date: January 29, 1953
Creator: Martina, Albert P.