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Investigation of frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine

Description: Experimental frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine are presented. These data were obtained by subjecting the engine to sinusoidal variations of fuel flow and propeller-blade-angle inputs. Correlation is made between these experimental data and analytical frequency-response characteristics obtained from a linear differential equation derived from steady-state torque-speed relations.
Date: March 24, 1950
Creator: Taylor, Burt L., III & Oppenheimer, Frank L.

Flight investigation at high speeds of the drag of three airfoils and a circular cylinder representing full-scale propeller shanks

Description: Tests have been made at high speeds to determine the drag of models, simulating propeller shanks, in the form of a circular cylinder and three airfoils, the NACA 16-025, the NACA 16-040, and the NACA 16-040 with the rear 25 percent chord cut off. All the models had a maximum thickness of 4 1/2 inches to conform with average propeller-shank dimensions and a span of 20 1/4 inches. For the tests the models were supported perpendicular to the lower surface of the wing of an XP-51 airplane. A wake-survey rake mounted below the wing directly behind the models was used to determine profile drag of Mach numbers of 0.3 to 0.8 over a small range of angle of attack. The drag of the cylinder was also determined from pressure-distribution and force measurements.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Barlow, William H

Flight determination of drag of normal-shock nose inlets with various cowling profiles at Mach numbers from 0.9 to 1.5

Description: External-drag data are presented for normal-shock nose inlets with NACA 1-series, parabolic, and conic cowling profiles. The tests were made at an angle of attack of 0 degrees by using rocket-propelled models in free flight at Mach numbers from 0.9 to 1.5. The Reynolds number based on body maximum diameter varied from 2.5 x 10 sup 6 to 5.5 x 10 sup 6. At maximum flow rate, the inlet models had about the same external drag at a Mach number of approximately 1.1, but at higher Mach numbers the sharp-lip conic cowling had the least drag. Blunting or beveling the lip of the conic cowling while keeping the fineness ratio constant resulted in drag coefficients slightly higher than for the sharp-lip conic cowling at maximum flow rate. At a mass-flow ratio of about 0.8, the conic cowlings with sharp, blunt, or beveled lips and the parabolic cowling all gave about the same drag. The higher drag of the NACA 1-49-300 cowling, compared with the blunt-lip conic cowling, is associated with the greater fullness back of the inlet.
Date: September 8, 1953
Creator: Sears, R. I.; Merlet, C. F. & Putland, L. W.

A flight evaluation of the longitudinal stability characteristics associated with the pitch-up of a swept-wing airplane in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds

Description: This report presents the results of flight measurements of longitudinal stability and control characteristics made on a swept-wing jet aircraft to determine the origin of the pitch-up encountered in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds. For this purpose measurements were made of elevator angle, tail angle of attack, and wing-fuselage pitching moments (obtained from measurements of the balancing tail loads).
Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Anderson, Seth B & Bray, Richard S

Flight and analytical methods for determining the coupled vibration response of tandem helicopters

Description: Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Yeates, John E , Jr; Brooks, George W & Houbolt, John C

A flight comparison of conventional ailerons on a rectangular wing and of conventional and floating wing-tip ailerons on a tapered wing

Description: Report presents the results of flight tests comparing the relative effectiveness of conventional ailerons of the same size on wings of rectangular and tapered plan forms made with a Fairchild 22 airplane. Information is included comparing conventional and floating wing-tip ailerons on a tapered wing. The results showed that the conventional ailerons were somewhat more effective on the tapered than on the rectangular wing. The difference, however, was so small as to be imperceptible to the pilots. The floating wing-tip ailerons were only half as effective as the conventional ailerons and, for this reason, were considered unsatisfactory.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Soule, H A & Gracey, W

Flight measurements of the dynamic longitudinal stability of several airplanes and a correlation of the measurements with pilots' observations of handling characteristics

Description: The dynamic longitudinal stability characteristics of eight airplanes as defined by the period and damping of the longitudinal oscillations were measured in flight to determine the degree of stability that may be expected in conventional airplanes. An attempt was made to correlate the measured stability with pilots' opinions of the general handling characteristics of the airplanes in order to obtain an indication of the most desirable degree of dynamic stability. The results of the measurements show that the period of oscillation increases with speed. At low speeds a range of periods from 11 to 23 seconds was recorded for the different airplanes. At high speeds the periods ranged from 23 to 64 seconds. The damping showed no definite trend with speed.
Date: July 15, 1936
Creator: Soulé, Hartley A.

Flight studies of the horizontal-tail loads experienced by a fighter airplane in abrupt maneuvers

Description: Field measurements were made on a fighter airplane to determine the approximate magnitude of the horizontal tail loads in accelerated flight. In these flight measurements, pressures at a few points were used as an index of the tail loads by correlating these pressures with complete pressure-distribution data obtained in the NACA full-scale tunnel. In addition, strain gages and motion pictures of tail deflections were used to explore the general nature and order of magnitude of fluctuating tail loads in accelerated stalls.
Date: January 1, 1944

Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: Part I gives a general method for finding the steady-flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. Part II, applying this steady-flow method, finds the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms, and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. Part III finds the pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight. Part IV derives general equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid, and in some cases compares the moment values with those found for bodies moving in air. Part V furnishes ready formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms. Thence are derived tables giving numerical values of those coefficients for a comprehensive range of shapes.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Zahm, A F

Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

Description: The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author).
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I E

Flutter and oscillating air-force calculations for an airfoil in two-dimensional supersonic flow

Description: A connected account is given of the Possio theory of non-stationary flow for small disturbances in a two-dimensional supersonic flow and of its application to the determination of the aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil. Further application is made to the problem of wing flutter in the degrees of freedom - torsion, bending, and aileron rotations. Numerical tables for flutter calculations are provided for various values of the Mach number greater than unity. Results for bending-torsion wing flutter are shown in figures and are discussed. The static instabilities of divergence and aileron reversal are examined as is a one-degree-of-freedom case of torsional oscillatory instability.
Date: October 1, 1946
Creator: Garrick, I E & Rubinow, S I

The flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface

Description: An iteration method is employed to obtain the flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface. The first approximation which leads to the Prandtl-Glauert rule, is based on the assumption that the flow differs but little from a pure translation. The iteration process then consists in improving this first approximation in order that it will apply to a flow differing from pure translatory motion to a greater degree. The method fails when the Mach number of the undisturbed stream reaches unity but permits a transition from subsonic to supersonic conditions without the appearance of a compression shock. The limiting value at which potential flow no longer exits is indicated by the apparent divergence of the power series representing the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the solid boundary.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

Free-space oscillating pressures near the tips of rotating propellers

Description: The theory is given for calculating the free-space oscillating pressures associated with a rotating propeller, at any point in space. Because of its complexity this analysis is convenient only for use in the critical region near the propeller tips where the assumptions used by Gutin to simplify his final equations are not valid. Good agreement was found between analytical and experimental results in the tip Mach number range 0.45 to two, three, four, five, six, on eight-blade propellers and for a range of tip clearances from 0.04 to 0.30 times the propeller diameter. If the power coefficient, tip Mach number, and the tip clearance are known for a given propeller, the designer may determine from these charts the average maximum free-space oscillating pressure in the critical region near the plane of rotation. A section of the report is devoted to the fuselage response to these oscillating pressures and indicates some of the factors to be considered in solving the problems of fuselage vibration and noise.
Date: 1950
Creator: Hubbard, Harvey H. & Regier, Arthur A.

Free-stream boundaries of turbulent flows

Description: Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.
Date: 1955
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Kistler, Alan L.

Wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of profile modification and tabs on the characteristics of ailerons on a low-drag airfoil

Description: An investigation has been made to determine the effect of control-surface profile modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA low-drag airfoil equipped with a 0.20-chord and a 0.15-chord aileron. Tab characteristics have been obtained for 0.20-aileron chord tabs on two of the 0.20-chord ailerons. Basic data are presented from which the effect of tabs can be calculated for specific cases. The data are sufficient for the solution of problems of fixed tabs with a differential linkage, as well as simple and spring-linked balancing tabs.
Date: 1944
Creator: Crane, Robert M. & Holtzclaw, Ralph W.

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a propeller with the diameter changed by cutting off the blade tips

Description: Tests were conducted in order to determine how the characteristics of a propeller are affected by cutting off the tips. The diameter of a standard 10-foot metal propeller was changed successively to 9 feet 6 inches, 9 feet 0 inches, 8 feet 6 inches, and 8 feet 0 inches. Each propeller thus formed was tested at four pitch settings using an open cockpit fuselage and a D-12 engine. A small loss in propulsive efficiency is indicated. Examples are given showing the application of the results to practical problems.
Date: December 10, 1929
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Tests of nacelle-propeller combinations in various positions with reference to wings 2: thick wing - various radial-engine cowlings - tractor propeller

Description: This report is the second of a series giving the results obtained in the 20-foot wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on the interference drag and propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller-wing combinations. The first report gave the results of the test of a N.A.C.A. cowled air-cooled engine nacelle located in 21 positions with reference to a thick wing. The present report gives results of tests of a normal engine nacelle with several types of cowling and fairings in four of the positions with reference to the same wing. (author).
Date: May 12, 1932
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Tests of large airfoils in the propeller research tunnel, including two with corrugated surfaces

Description: This report gives the results of the tests of seven 2 by 12 foot airfoils (Clark Y, smooth and corrugated, Gottingen 398, N.A.C.A. M-6, and N.A.C.A. 84). The tests were made in the propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Reynolds numbers up to 2,000,000. The Clark Y airfoil was tested with three degrees of surface smoothness. Corrugating the surface causes a flattening of the lift curve at the burble point and an increase in drag at small flying angles.
Date: May 24, 1929
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Full-scale tests of metal propellers at high tip speeds

Description: This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.
Date: November 5, 1930
Creator: Wood, Donald H.

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a PCA-2 autogiro rotor

Description: This report presents the results of force tests on and air-flow surveys near PCA-2 autogiro rotor in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel. The force tests were made at three pitch settings and several rotor speeds; the effect of fairing protuberances on the rotor blade was determined. Induced downwash and yaw angles were determined at low tip-speed ratios in a plane 1 1/2 feet above the path of the blade tips. The results show that the maximum l/d of the rotor cannot be appreciably increased by increasing the blade pitch angle above about 4.5 degrees at the blade tip; that the protuberances on the blades cause more than 5 percent of the total rotor drag; and that the rotor center-of-pressure travel is very small.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Wheatley, John B & Hood, Manley J

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests on several metal propellers having different blade forms

Description: This report gives the full-scale aerodynamic characteristics of five different aluminum alloy propellers having four different blade forms. They were tested on an open cockpit fuselage with a radial air-cooled engine having conventional cowling. The results show that (1) the differences in propulsive efficiency due to the differences in blade form were small; (2) the form with the thinnest airfoil sections had the highest efficiency; (3) it is advantageous as regards propulsive efficiency for a propeller operating in front of a body, such as a radial engine, to have its pitch reduced toward the hub.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

Further experiments on the flow and heat transfer in a heated turbulent air jet

Description: Measurements have been made of the mean-total-head and mean-temperature fields in a round turbulent jet with various initial temperatures. The results show that the jet spreads more rapidly as its density becomes lower than that of the receiving medium, even when the difference is not sufficiently great to cause dynamic-pressure function. Rough analytical considerations have given the same relative spread. The effective "turbulent Prandtl number" for a section of the fully developed jet was found to be equal to the true (laminar) Prandtl number within the accuracy measurement.
Date: January 1, 1950
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a series of metal propellers on a VE-7 airplane

Description: An adjustable blade metal propeller was tested at five different angle settings, forming a series varying in pitch. The propeller was mounted on a VE-7 airplane in the twenty-foot propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The efficiencies were found to be from 4 to 7 per cent higher than those of standard wood propellers operating under the same conditions. The results are given in convenient form for use in selecting propellers for aircraft.
Date: January 1, 1929
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests with a series of propellers of different diameters on a single fuselage

Description: Aerodynamic tests were made with four geometrically similar metal propellers of different diameters, on a Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine in an open cockpit fuselage. The results show little difference in the characteristics of the various propellers, the only one of any importance being an increase of efficiency of the order of 1 per cent for a 5 per cent increase of diameter, within the range of the tests.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Weick, Fred E.