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The aerodynamic characteristics of six full-scale propellers having different airfoil sections

Description: Wind-tunnel tests are reported of six 3-blade 10-foot propellers operated in front of a liquid-cooled engine nacelle. The propellers were identical except for blade airfoil sections, which were: Clark y, R.A.F. 6, NACA 4400, NACA 2400-34, NACA 2rsub200, and NACA 6400. The range of blade angles investigated extended for 15 degrees to 40 degrees for all propellers except the Clark y, for which it extended to 45 degrees. The results showed that the range in maximum efficiency between the highest and lowest values was about 3 percent. The highest efficiencies were for the low-camber sections.
Date: 1939
Creator: Biermann, David & Hartman, Edwin P

Aircraft rate-of-climb indicators

Description: The theory of the rate-of-climb indicator is developed in a form adapted for application to the instrument in its present-day form. Compensations for altitude, temperature, and rate of change of temperature are discussed from the designer's standpoint on the basis of this theory. Certain dynamic effects, including instrument lag, and the use of the rate-of-climb indicator as a statoscope are also considered. Modern instruments are described. A laboratory test procedure is outlined and test results are given.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Johnson, Daniel P.

Airfoil section characteristics as affected by variations of the Reynolds number

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.
Date: 1939
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Sherman, Albert

Airfoil section data obtained in the NACA variable-density tunnel as affected by support interference and other corrections

Description: The results of an investigation of the effect of support interference on airfoil drag data obtained in the variable-density tunnel are presented. As a result of the support interference, previously published airfoil data from the variable-density tunnel have shown too large drag coefficients and too large a rate of increase of drag coefficients and too large a rate increase of drag coefficients with airfoil thickness. The practical effect of the corrections on the choice of the optimum section is briefly considered and corrected data for a selected list of airfoils are presented as a convenience to the designer. Methods of correcting published data for other airfoils are presented.
Date: 1939
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Abbott, Ira H.

Calculation of the aerodynamic characteristics of tapered wings with partial-span flaps

Description: Factors derived from wing theory are presented. By means of these factors, the angle of zero lift, the lift-curve slope, the pitching moment, the aerodynamic-center position, and the induced drag of tapered wings with partial-span flaps may be calculated. The factors are given for wings of aspect ratios 6 and 10 , of taper ratios from 0.25 to 1.00, and with flaps of various length. An example is presented of the method of application of the factors. Fair agreement with experimental results is shown for two wings of different taper ratio having plain flaps of various spacing.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Person, Henry A & Anderson, Raymond F

The column strength of two extruded aluminum-alloy h-sections

Description: Extruded aluminum-alloy members of various cross sections are used in aircraft as compression members either singly or as stiffeners for aluminum-alloy sheet. In order to design such members, it is necessary to know their column strength or, in the case of stiffeners, the value of the double modulus, which is best obtained for practical purposes from column tests. Column tests made on two extruded h-sections are described, and column formulas and formulas for the ratio of the double modulus to Young's modulus, based on the tests, are given.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Osgood, William R & Holt, Marshall

The compressibility burble and the effect of compressibility on pressures and forces acting on a airfoil

Description: Simultaneous air-flow photographs and pressure-distribution measurements were made of the NACA 4412 airfoil at high speeds to determine the physical nature of the compressibility burble. The tests were conducted in the NACA 24-inch high-speed wind tunnel. The flow photographs were obtained by the Schlieren method and the pressures were simultaneously measured for 54 stations in the 5-inch-chord airfoil by means of a multiple-tube manometer. Following the general program, a few measurements of total-pressure loss in the wake of the airfoil at high speeds were made to illustrate the magnitude of the losses involved and the extent of the disturbed region; and, finally, in order to relate this work to earlier force-test data, a force test of a 5-inch-chord NACA 4412 airfoil was made. The results show the general nature of the phenomenon known as the compressibility burble. The source of the increased drag is shown to be a compression shock that occurs on the airfoil as its speed approaches the speed of sound. Finally, it is indicated that considerable experimentation is needed in order to understand the phenomenon completely.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Stack, John; Lindsey, W F & Littell, Robert E

Cooling on the front of an air-cooled engine cylinder in a conventional engine cowling

Description: Measurements were made of the cooling on the fronts of model cylinders in a conventional cowling for cooling in both the ground and the cruising conditions. The mechanisms of front and rear cooling are essentially different. Cooling on the rear baffled part of the cylinders continually increases with increasing fin width. For the front of the cylinder, an optimum fin width was found to exist beyond which an increase in width reduced the heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient on the front of the cylinders was larger on the side of the cylinder facing the propeller swirl than on the opposite side. This effect became more pronounced as the fin width was increased. These results are introductory to the study of front cooling and show the general effect of several test parameters.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Joyner, U T

Correction of temperatures of air-cooled engine cylinders for variation in engine and cooling conditions

Description: Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Schey, Oscar W.; Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Design charts for predicting downwash angles and wake characteristics behind plain and flapped wings

Description: Equations and design charts are given for predicting the downwash angles and the wake characteristics for power-off conditions behind plain and flapped wings of the types used in modern design practice. The downwash charts cover the cases of elliptical wings and wings of taper ratios 1, 2, 3, and 5, with aspect ratios of 6, 9, and 12, having flaps covering 0, 40, 70, and 100 percent of the span. Curves of the span load distributions for all these cases are included. Data on the lift and the drag of flapped airfoil sections and curves for finding the contribution of the flap to the total wing lift for different types of flap and for the entire range of flap spans are also included. The wake width and the distribution of dynamic pressure across the wake are given in terms of the profile-drag coefficient and the distance behind the wing. A method of estimating the wake position is also given. The equations and charts are based on theory that has been shown in a previous report to be in agreement with experiment.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Katzoff, S

Design of NACA cowlings for radial air-cooled engines

Description: The information on the propeller-cowling-nacelle combinations, presented in Technical Reports nos. 592, 593, and 596 and in Technical Note 620, is applied to the practical design of NACA cowlings. The main emphasis is placed on the method of obtaining the dimensions of the cowling; consequently, the physical functioning of each part of the cowling is treated very briefly. A practical method of designing cowlings and some examples are presented.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Stickle, George W

Determination of the profile drag of an airplane wing in flight at high Reynolds numbers

Description: Flight tests were made to determine the profile-drag coefficients of a portion of the original wing surface of an all-metal airplane and of a portion of the wing made aerodynamically smooth and more nearly fair than the original section. The wing section was approximately the NACA 2414.5. The tests were carried out over a range of airplane speeds giving a maximum Reynolds number of 15,000,000. Tests were also carried out to locate the point of transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer and to determine the velocity distribution along the upper surface of the wing. The profile-drag coefficients of the original and of the smooth wing portions at a Reynolds number of 15,000,000 were 0.0102 and 0.0068, respectively; i.e., the surface irregularities on the original wing increased the profile-drag coefficient 50 percent above that of the smooth wing.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Bicknell, Joseph

Downwash and wake behind plain and flapped airfoils

Description: Extensive experimental measurements have been made of the downwash angles and the wake characteristics behind airfoils with and without flaps and the data have been analyzed and correlated with the theory. A detailed study was made of the errors involved in applying lifting-line theory, such as the effects of a finite wing chord, the rolling-up of the trailing vortex sheet, and the wake. The downwash angles, as computed from the theoretical span load distribution by means of the Biot-Savart equation, were found to be in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. The rolling-up of the trailing vortex sheet may be neglected, but the vertical displacement of the vortex sheet requires consideration. By the use of a theoretical treatment indicated by Prandtl, it has been possible to generalize the available experimental results so the predictions can be made of the important wake parameters in terms of the distance behind the airfoil trailing edge and the profile-drag coefficient. The method of application of the theory to design and the satisfactory agreement between predicted and experimental results when applied to an airplane are demonstrated.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Silverstein, Abe; Katzoff, S & Bullivant, W Kenneth

The effect of continuous weathering on light metal alloys used in aircraft

Description: An investigation of the corrosion of light metal alloys used in aircraft was begun at the National Bureau of Standards in 1925 and has for its purpose causes of corrosion in aluminum-rich and magnesium-rich alloys together with the development of methods for its prevention. The results, obtained in an extensive series of laboratory and weather-exposure tests, reveal the relative durability of a number of commercially available materials and the extent to which the application of various surface coatings of oxide alone and with paint coatings afforded additional protection. The paper may be considered as a supplement to NACA report 490.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Mutchler, Willard

The effect of nacelle-propeller diameter ratio on body interference and on propeller and cooling characteristics

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the slipstream drag, the body interference, and the cooling characteristics of nacelle-propeller diameter. Four combinations of geometrically similar propellers and nacelles, mounted on standard wing supports, were tested with values of the ratio of nacelle diameter to propeller diameter of 0.25, 0.33, and 0.44.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Mchugh, James G & Derring, Eldridge H

Effect of service stress on impact resistance, x-ray diffraction patterns, and microstructure of 25s aluminum alloy

Description: Report presents the results of a great number of tests made to determine the effect of service stresses on the impact resistance, the x-ray diffraction patterns, and the microstructure of 25s aluminum alloy. Many of the specimens were taken from actual propeller blades and others were cut from 13/16-inch rod furnished by the Aluminum Company of America.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Kies, J A & Quick, G W

Experimental Investigation of the Momentum Method for Determining Profile Drag

Description: Report presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted in the full-scale tunnel to determine the accuracy of the Jones and the Betz equations for computing profile drag from total and static pressure surveys in the wake of wings. Surveys were made behind 6 by 8-foot airfoils of the NACA 0009, and 0018 sections at zero lift and behind the NACA 0012 at positive lifts. The surveys were made at various spanwise positions and at distances behind the airfoil ranging from 0.05c to 3.00c.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Goett, Harry J

Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests of a low-wing monoplane with systematic changes in wings and tails IV : effect of center-of-gravity location

Description: Eight wings and three tails, covering a wide range of aerodynamic characteristics, were independently ballasted so as to be interchangeable with no change in mass distribution. For each of the 24 resulting wing-tail combinations, observations were made of the steady spin for four control settings and of recoveries for five control manipulations. The results are presented in the form of charts comparing the spin characteristics. The tests are part of a general investigation being made in the NACA free-spinning tunnel to determine the effects of systematic changes in wing and tail arrangement upon the steady-spin and the recovery characteristics of a conventional low-wing monoplane for various load distributions.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Neihouse, A I

General airplane performance

Description: Equations have been developed for the analysis of the performance of the ideal airplane, leading to an approximate physical interpretation of the performance problem. The basic sea-level airplane parameters have been generalized to altitude parameters and a new parameter has been introduced and physically interpreted. The performance analysis for actual airplanes has been obtained in terms of the equivalent ideal airplane in order that the charts developed for use in practical calculations will for the most part apply to any type of engine-propeller combination and system of control, the only additional material required consisting of the actual engine and propeller curves for propulsion unit. Finally, a more exact method for the calculation of the climb characteristics for the constant-speed controllable propeller is presented in the appendix.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Rockfeller, W C

The influence of directed air flow on combustion in spark-ignition engine

Description: The air movement within the cylinder of the NACA combustion apparatus was regulated by using shrouded inlet valves and by fairing the inlet passage. Rates of combustion were determined at different inlet-air velocities with the engine speed maintained constant and at different engine speeds with the inlet-air velocity maintained approximately constant. The rate of combustion increased when the engine speed was doubled without changing the inlet-air velocity; the observed increase was about the same as the increase in the rate of combustion obtained by doubling the inlet-air velocity without changing the engine speed. Certain types of directed air movement gave great improvement in the reproducibility of the explosions from cycle to cycle, provided that other variables were controlled. Directing the inlet air past the injection valve during injection increased the rate of burning.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Spencer, R. C.

Interference of Tail Surfaces and Wing and Fuselage from Tests of 17 Combinations in the N.A.C.A. Variable-Density Tunnel

Description: An investigation of the interference associated with tail surfaces added to wing-fuselage combinations was included in the interference program in progress in the NACA variable-density tunnel. The results indicate that, in aerodynamically clean combinations, the increment of the high-speed drag can be estimated from section characteristics within useful limits of accuracy. The interference appears mainly as effects on the downwash angle and as losses in the tail effectiveness and varies with the geometry of the combination. An interference burble, which markedly increases the glide-path angle and the stability in pitch before the actual stall, may be considered a means of obtaining satisfactory stalling characteristics for complete combination.
Date: January 1, 1939
Creator: Sherman, Albert