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Pressure element of constant logarithmic stiffness for temperature compensated altimeter

Description: From Summary: "The usual type of altimeter contains a pressure element, the deflections of which are approximately proportional to pressure changes. An evenly divided altitude scale is secured by using a mechanism between the pressure element and pointer which gives the required motion of the pointer. A temperature-compensated altimeter was constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department which contained a manually operated device for controlling the multiplication of the mechanism to the extent necessary for temperature compensation. The introduction of this device made it difficult to adjust the multiplying mechanism to fit an evenly divided altitude scale. To meet this difficulty a pressure element was designed and constructed which gave deflections which were proportional to altitude; that is, to the logarithm of the pressure."
Date: August 7, 1928
Creator: Brombacher, W. G. & Cordero, F.

Flight tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles Part 1: full scale pressure distribution investigation

Description: The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions.
Date: August 14, 1928
Creator: De France, S. J.

Aircraft Accidents: Method of Analysis

Description: From Introduction Purpose and Organization: "This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce."
Date: August 15, 1928
Creator: Special Committee on the Nomenclature, Subdivision, and Classification of Aircraft Accidents

Effect of turbulence in wind-tunnel measurements

Description: This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made.
Date: August 20, 1929
Creator: Dryden, H. L. & Kuethe, A. M.

Pressure distribution over the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in flight

Description: "This report presents the results obtained from pressure distribution tests on the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in a number of conditions of flight. The investigation was made to determine the contribution of the fuselage to the total lift in conditions considered critical for the wing structure, and also to determine whether the fuselage loads acting simultaneously with the maximum tail loads were of such a character as to be of concern with respect to the structural design of other parts of the airplane. The results show that the contribution of the fuselage toward the total lift is small on this airplane" (p. 327).
Date: August 1, 1930
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Lundquist, Eugene E.

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on hinge moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the hinge moments of ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and USA-27 wing sections, supplementing the investigations described in NACA-TR-298 and NACA-TR-343, of the rolling and yawing moments due to similar ailerons on these two airfoil sections. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch, but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis.
Date: August 11, 1930
Creator: Monish, B. H.

Rolling Moments Due to Rolling and Yaw for Four Wing Models in Rotation

Description: "This report presents the results of a series of autorotation and torque tests on four different rotating wing systems at various rates of roll and at several angles of yaw. The investigation covered an angle of attack range up to 90 degrees and angles of yaw of 0 degree, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 20 degrees. The tests were made in a 5-foot, closed-throat atmospheric wind tunnel. The object of the tests was primarily to determine the effects of various angles of yaw on the rolling moments of the rotating wings up to large angles of attack" (p. 301).
Date: August 19, 1930
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Wenzinger, Carl J.

Drop and Flight Tests on NY-2 Landing Gears Including Measurements of Vertical Velocities at Landing

Description: This investigation was conducted to obtain quantitative information on the effectiveness of three landing gears for the NY-2 (consolidated training) airplane. The investigation consisted of static, drop, and flight tests on landing gears of the oleo-rubber-disk and the mercury rubber-chord types, and flight tests only on a landing gear of the conventional split-axle rubber-cord type. The results show that the oleo gear is the most effective of the three landing gears in minimizing impact forces and in dissipating the energy taken.
Date: August 7, 1931
Creator: Peck, W. D. & Beard, A. P.

Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays From a Pump Injection System

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve" (p. 241).
Date: August 24, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Marsh, E. T.

The NACA Apparatus for Studying the Formation and Combustion of Fuel Sprays and the Results From Preliminary Tests

Description: "This report describes the apparatus as designed and constructed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those occurring in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel-injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical-disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows" (p. 549).
Date: August 26, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases From Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: August 17, 1933
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Tessmann, Arthur M.

Flight tests of the drag and torque of the propeller in terminal-velocity dives

Description: From Summary: "The drag and torque of a controllable propeller at various blade-angle settings, and under various diving conditions, were measured by indirect method on F6C-4 airplane in flight. The object of these tests were (1) to provide data on which calculations of the terminal velocity with a throttled engine and the accompanying engine speed could be based and (2) to determine the possibility of utilizing the propeller as an air brake to reduce the terminal velocity. The data obtained were used in the establishment of propeller charts, on the basis of which the terminal velocity and engine speed could be calculated for airplanes whose characteristics fall within the range of these tests."
Date: August 22, 1933
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Pearson, Henry A.

General equations for the stress analysis of rings

Description: In this report it is shown that the shear, axial force, and moment at one point in a simple ring subjected to any loading condition can be given by three independent equations involving certain integrals that must be evaluated regardless of the method of analysis used. It is also shown how symmetry of the ring alone or of the ring and the loading about 1 or 2 axes makes it possible to simplify the three equations and greatly reduces the number of integrals that must be evaluated. Application of the general equations presented in this report to practical problems in the stress analysis of rings makes it possible to shorten, simplify, and systematize the calculations for both simple and braced rings. Three illustrative problems are included to demonstrate the application of the general equations to a simple ring with different loadings.
Date: August 10, 1934
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Burke, Walter F.

Combustion in a Bomb With a Fuel-Injection System

Description: "Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25" (p. 107).
Date: August 9, 1935
Creator: Cohn, Mildred & Spencer, Robert C.

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Aerodynamic Balancing of Upper-Surface Ailerons and Split Flaps

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effectiveness of various methods of reducing the high control forces of unbalanced upper-surface ailerons and of unbalanced split flaps. A balanced split flap was developed that required control forces about half those of the unbalanced split flap when the balanced split flap was deflected to give approximately the same maximum lift.
Date: August 20, 1935
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J.

Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow" (p. 119).
Date: August 26, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.

Effect of Tip Shape and Dihedral on Lateral-Stability Characteristics

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effect of wing-tip shape and dihedral on some of the aerodynamic characteristics of Clark Y wings that affect the performance and lateral stability of airplanes. Force tests at several angles of yaw and rotation tests at zero yaw were made. From these tests the rates of change of rolling moment, yawing moment, and cross-wind force coefficients with angle of yaw and the rate of change of rolling moment coefficient with rolling were determined.
Date: August 27, 1935
Creator: Shortal, Joseph A.

Strength of Welded Aircraft Joints

Description: "This investigation is a continuation of work started in 1928 and described in NACA-TR-348 which shows that the insertion of gusset plates was the most satisfactory way of strengthening a joint. Additional tests of the present series show that joints of this type could be improved by cutting out the portion of the plate between the intersecting tubes. T and lattice joints in thin-walled tubing 1 1/2 by 0.020 inch have somewhat lower strengths than joints in tubing of greater wall thickness because of failure by local buckling. In welding the thin-walled tubing, the recently developed "carburizing flux" process was found to be the only method capable of producing joints free from cracks" (p. 177).
Date: August 12, 1936
Creator: Brueggeman, W. C.

A study of the two-control operation of an airplane

Description: The two-control operation of a conventional airplane is treated by means of the theory of disturbed motions. The consequences of this method of control are studied with regard to the stability of the airplane in its unconstrained components of motion and the movements set up during turn maneuvers.
Date: August 12, 1936
Creator: Jones, Robert T.

A Theory for Primary Failure of Straight Centrally Loaded Columns

Description: "A theory of primary failure of straight centrally loaded columns is presented. It is assumed that the column cross section and the load are constant throughout the length. Primary failure is defined as any type of failure in which the cross sections are translated, rotated, or translated and rotated but not distorted in their own planes" (p. 141).
Date: August 17, 1936
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Fligg, Claude M.

Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings

Description: The cooling of a single-row radial air-cooled engine using several cowling arrangements has been studied in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The results show the effect of the propeller and several cowling arrangements on cooling for various values of the indicated horsepower in the climb condition. A table giving comparative performance of the various cowling arrangements is presented. The dependence of temperature on indicated horsepower and pressure drop across the baffles is shown by charts. Other charts show the limiting indicated horsepower against the pressure drop across the engine and the heat dissipated at various values of the indicated horsepower.
Date: August 20, 1936
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.; Stickle, George W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Heat Transfer to Fuel Sprays Injected Into Heated Gases

Description: This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.
Date: August 25, 1936
Creator: Selden, Robert F. & Spencer, Robert C.

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears

Description: "A theoretical study was made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called kinematic shimmy. Experimental checks, use being made of a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and the spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy are given. A new method of avoiding shimmy -- lateral freedom -- is introduced" (p. 147).
Date: August 11, 1937
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur