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Pressure element of constant logarithmic stiffness for temperature compensated altimeter

Description: From Summary: "The usual type of altimeter contains a pressure element, the deflections of which are approximately proportional to pressure changes. An evenly divided altitude scale is secured by using a mechanism between the pressure element and pointer which gives the required motion of the pointer. A temperature-compensated altimeter was constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department which contained a manually operated device for controlling the multiplication of the mechanism to the extent necessary for temperature compensation. The introduction of this device made it difficult to adjust the multiplying mechanism to fit an evenly divided altitude scale. To meet this difficulty a pressure element was designed and constructed which gave deflections which were proportional to altitude; that is, to the logarithm of the pressure."
Date: August 7, 1928
Creator: Brombacher, W. G. & Cordero, F.

Flight tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles Part 1: full scale pressure distribution investigation

Description: The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions.
Date: August 14, 1928
Creator: De France, S. J.

Effect of turbulence in wind-tunnel measurements

Description: This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made.
Date: August 20, 1929
Creator: Dryden, H. L. & Kuethe, A. M.

Pressure distribution over the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in flight

Description: "This report presents the results obtained from pressure distribution tests on the fuselage of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in a number of conditions of flight. The investigation was made to determine the contribution of the fuselage to the total lift in conditions considered critical for the wing structure, and also to determine whether the fuselage loads acting simultaneously with the maximum tail loads were of such a character as to be of concern with respect to the structural design of other parts of the airplane. The results show that the contribution of the fuselage toward the total lift is small on this airplane" (p. 327).
Date: August 1, 1930
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Lundquist, Eugene E.

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on hinge moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the hinge moments of ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and USA-27 wing sections, supplementing the investigations described in NACA-TR-298 and NACA-TR-343, of the rolling and yawing moments due to similar ailerons on these two airfoil sections. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch, but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis.
Date: August 11, 1930
Creator: Monish, B. H.

Rolling Moments Due to Rolling and Yaw for Four Wing Models in Rotation

Description: "This report presents the results of a series of autorotation and torque tests on four different rotating wing systems at various rates of roll and at several angles of yaw. The investigation covered an angle of attack range up to 90 degrees and angles of yaw of 0 degree, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 20 degrees. The tests were made in a 5-foot, closed-throat atmospheric wind tunnel. The object of the tests was primarily to determine the effects of various angles of yaw on the rolling moments of the rotating wings up to large angles of attack" (p. 301).
Date: August 19, 1930
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Wenzinger, Carl J.

Drop and Flight Tests on NY-2 Landing Gears Including Measurements of Vertical Velocities at Landing

Description: This investigation was conducted to obtain quantitative information on the effectiveness of three landing gears for the NY-2 (consolidated training) airplane. The investigation consisted of static, drop, and flight tests on landing gears of the oleo-rubber-disk and the mercury rubber-chord types, and flight tests only on a landing gear of the conventional split-axle rubber-cord type. The results show that the oleo gear is the most effective of the three landing gears in minimizing impact forces and in dissipating the energy taken.
Date: August 7, 1931
Creator: Peck, W. D. & Beard, A. P.

Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays From a Pump Injection System

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve" (p. 241).
Date: August 24, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Marsh, E. T.

The NACA Apparatus for Studying the Formation and Combustion of Fuel Sprays and the Results From Preliminary Tests

Description: "This report describes the apparatus as designed and constructed at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, for studying the formation and combustion of fuel sprays under conditions closely simulating those occurring in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. The apparatus consists of a single-cylinder modified test engine, a fuel-injection system so designed that a single charge of fuel can be injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, an electric driving motor, and a high-speed photographic apparatus. The cylinder head of the engine has a vertical-disk form of combustion chamber whose sides are glass windows" (p. 549).
Date: August 26, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases From Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: August 17, 1933
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Tessmann, Arthur M.

Flight tests of the drag and torque of the propeller in terminal-velocity dives

Description: From Summary: "The drag and torque of a controllable propeller at various blade-angle settings, and under various diving conditions, were measured by indirect method on F6C-4 airplane in flight. The object of these tests were (1) to provide data on which calculations of the terminal velocity with a throttled engine and the accompanying engine speed could be based and (2) to determine the possibility of utilizing the propeller as an air brake to reduce the terminal velocity. The data obtained were used in the establishment of propeller charts, on the basis of which the terminal velocity and engine speed could be calculated for airplanes whose characteristics fall within the range of these tests."
Date: August 22, 1933
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Pearson, Henry A.

General equations for the stress analysis of rings

Description: In this report it is shown that the shear, axial force, and moment at one point in a simple ring subjected to any loading condition can be given by three independent equations involving certain integrals that must be evaluated regardless of the method of analysis used. It is also shown how symmetry of the ring alone or of the ring and the loading about 1 or 2 axes makes it possible to simplify the three equations and greatly reduces the number of integrals that must be evaluated. Application of the general equations presented in this report to practical problems in the stress analysis of rings makes it possible to shorten, simplify, and systematize the calculations for both simple and braced rings. Three illustrative problems are included to demonstrate the application of the general equations to a simple ring with different loadings.
Date: August 10, 1934
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Burke, Walter F.

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Aerodynamic Balancing of Upper-Surface Ailerons and Split Flaps

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effectiveness of various methods of reducing the high control forces of unbalanced upper-surface ailerons and of unbalanced split flaps. A balanced split flap was developed that required control forces about half those of the unbalanced split flap when the balanced split flap was deflected to give approximately the same maximum lift.
Date: August 20, 1935
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J.

Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Description: "High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow" (p. 119).
Date: August 26, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Waldron, C. D.

Effect of Tip Shape and Dihedral on Lateral-Stability Characteristics

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effect of wing-tip shape and dihedral on some of the aerodynamic characteristics of Clark Y wings that affect the performance and lateral stability of airplanes. Force tests at several angles of yaw and rotation tests at zero yaw were made. From these tests the rates of change of rolling moment, yawing moment, and cross-wind force coefficients with angle of yaw and the rate of change of rolling moment coefficient with rolling were determined.
Date: August 27, 1935
Creator: Shortal, Joseph A.

A study of the two-control operation of an airplane

Description: The two-control operation of a conventional airplane is treated by means of the theory of disturbed motions. The consequences of this method of control are studied with regard to the stability of the airplane in its unconstrained components of motion and the movements set up during turn maneuvers.
Date: August 12, 1936
Creator: Jones, Robert T.

Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings

Description: The cooling of a single-row radial air-cooled engine using several cowling arrangements has been studied in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The results show the effect of the propeller and several cowling arrangements on cooling for various values of the indicated horsepower in the climb condition. A table giving comparative performance of the various cowling arrangements is presented. The dependence of temperature on indicated horsepower and pressure drop across the baffles is shown by charts. Other charts show the limiting indicated horsepower against the pressure drop across the engine and the heat dissipated at various values of the indicated horsepower.
Date: August 20, 1936
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.; Stickle, George W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Heat Transfer to Fuel Sprays Injected Into Heated Gases

Description: This report presents the results of a study made of the influence of several variables on the pressure decrease accompanying injection of a relatively cool liquid into a heated compressed gas. Indirectly, this pressure decrease and the time rate of change of it are indicative of the total heat transferred as well as the rate of heat transfer between the gas and the injected liquid. Air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide were used as ambient gases; diesel fuel and benzene were the injected liquids. The gas densities and gas-fuel ratios covered approximately the range used in compression-ignition engines. The gas temperatures ranged from 150 degrees c. to 350 degrees c.
Date: August 25, 1936
Creator: Selden, Robert F. & Spencer, Robert C.

Air Flow in the Boundary Layer of an Elliptic Cylinder

Description: From Introduction: "The present investigation was carried out for the purpose of supplementing the earlier work with information on the boundary layer under such conditions of air speed and turbulence that transition occurs and the layer is partly laminar and partly turbulent. In the work reported in reference 1, the air speed was about 12 feet per second, and it was assumed that the boundary layer remained in the laminar condition until after separation because the separation point remained fixed and the pressure distribution about the cylinder was unaffected until an air speed of 15 feet per second was reached."
Date: August 6, 1938
Creator: Schubauer, G. B.

Correlation of Cooling Data From an Air-Cooled Cylinder and Several Multicylinder Engines

Description: "The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright R-1820-G engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb" (p. 59).
Date: August 15, 1939
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Longitudinal Stability and Control With Special Reference to Slipstream Effects

Description: Report presents the results of a study of data obtained in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel concerning the effects of interference and of propeller operation on longitudinal stability and control. The data include pitching moments for various power conditions for airplanes with tails removed and with tails set at various stabilizer and elevator angles. A number of surveys of the dynamic pressure and the flow direction in the region of the horizontal tail surface are also included.
Date: August 24, 1939
Creator: Katzoff, S.

Wind-tunnel investigation of effect of interference on lateral-stability characteristics of four NACA 23012 wings, an elliptical and a circular fuselage and vertical fins

Description: Report presents the results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of wing-fuselage interference on lateral-stability characteristics made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel on four fuselages and two fins, representing high-wing, low-wing, and midwing monoplanes. The fuselages are of circular and elliptical cross section. The wings have rounded tips and, in plan form, one is rectangular and the three are tapered 3:1 with various amounts of sweep. The rate of change in the coefficients of rolling moment, yawing moment, and lateral force with angle of yaw is given in a form to show the increment caused by wing-fuselage interference for the model with no fin and the effect of wing-fuselage interference on fin effectiveness. Results for the fuselage-fin combination and the wing tested alone are also given.
Date: August 8, 1940
Creator: House, Rufus O. & Wallace, Arthur R.

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Spoiler, Deflector, and Slot Lateral-Control Devices on Wings With Full-Span Split and Slotted Flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an extensive investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of spoiler, deflector, and slot types of lateral-control device on wings with full-span split and slotted flaps. The static rolling and yawing moments were determined for all the devices tested, and the static hinge moments and the time response were determined for a few devices of each type.
Date: August 13, 1940
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Rogallo, Francis M.