UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 394 Matching Results

Search Results

Theoretical damping in roll and rolling moment due to differential wing incidence for slender cruciform wings and wing-body combinations

Description: A method of analysis based on slender-wing theory is developed to investigate the characteristics in roll of slender cruciform wings and wing-body combinations. The method makes use of the conformal mapping processes of classical hydrodynamics which transform the region outside a circle and the region outside an arbitrary arrangement of line segments intersecting at the origin. The method of analysis may be utilized to solve other slender cruciform wing-body problems involving arbitrarily assigned boundary conditions. (author).
Date: 1952
Creator: Adams, Gaynor J. & Dugan, Duane W.

Investigation of Downwash, Sidewash, and Mach Number Distribution Behind a Rectangular Wing at a Mach Number of 2.41

Description: An investigation of the nature of the flow field behind a rectangular wing of circular arc cross section has been conducted in the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Pitot- and static-pressure surveys covering a region of flow behind the wing have been made together with detailed pitot surveys throughout the region of the wake. In addition, the flow direction has been measured by means of a weathercocking vane. Theoretical calculations have been made to obtain the variation of both downwash and sidewash with angle of attack by using the superposition method of Lagerstrom, Graham, and Grosslight. In addition, the effect of wing thickness on the sidewash with the wing at 0 degree angle of attack has been evaluated.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Adamson, David & Boatright, William B.

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Subsonic-Flow Fields Beneath Swept and Unswept Wings with Tables or Vortex-Induced Velocities

Description: The flow-field characteristics beneath swept and unswept wings as determined by potential-flow theory are compared with the experimentally determined flow fields beneath swept and unswept wing-fuselage combinations. The potential-flow theory utilized considered both spanwise and chordwise distributions of vorticity as well as the wing-thickness effects. The perturbation velocities induced by a unit horseshoe vortex are included in tabular form. The theoretical predictions of the flow-field characteristics were qualitatively correct in all cases considered, although there were indications that the magnitudes of the downwash angles tended to be overpredicted as the tip of the swept wing was approached and that the sidewash angles ahead of the unswept wing were underpredicted. The calculated effects of compressibility indicated that significant increases in the chordwise variation of flow angles and dynamic-pressure ratios should be expected in going from low to high subsonic speeds.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alford, William J., Jr.

Determination of vortex paths by series expansion technique with application to cruciform wings

Description: A series method of determining two-dimensional vortex paths is considered and applied to the computation of vortex positions behind a slender equal-span cruciform wing at any angle of bank as a function of the distance behind the trailing edge. Calculated paths are shown for four bank angles. For a bank angle of 45 degrees comparison is made with the results of a closed expression given in NACA-TN-2605. For other bank angles water-tank experiments provide qualitative comparison. Satisfactory agreement is found for a sufficient distance downstream to include most practical missile-tail positions. The interference forces on an equal-span cruciform wing are calculated for five angles of bank (including the trivial case of zero bank) from the vortex positions found by use of the series.
Date: February 8, 1956
Creator: Alksne, Alberta Y.

A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds

Description: From Summary: "A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer."
Date: April 28, 1953
Creator: Allen, H. Julian & Eggers, A. J., Jr.

A study of effects of viscosity on flow over slender inclined bodies of revolution

Description: From Summary: "The observed flow field about slender inclined bodies of revolution is compared with the calculated characteristics based upon potential theory. The comparison is instructive in indicating the manner in which the effects of viscosity are manifest. Based on this and other studies, a method is developed to allow for viscous effects on the force and moment characteristics of bodies. The calculated force and moment characteristics of two bodies of high fineness ratio are shown to be in good agreement, for most engineering purposes, with experiment."
Date: 1951
Creator: Allen, H. Julian & Perkins, Edward W.

Method for studying helicopter longitudinal maneuver stability

Description: A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.
Date: October 1953
Creator: Amer, Kenneth B.

Charts for estimating tail-rotor contribution to helicopter directional stability and control in low-speed flight

Description: "Theoretically derived charts and equations are presented by which tail-rotor design studies of directional trim and control response at low forward speed can be conveniently made. The charts can also be used to obtain the main-rotor stability derivatives of thrust with respect to collective pitch and angle of attack at low forward speeds. The use of the charts and equations for tail-rotor design studies is illustrated. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are presented. The charts indicate, and flight tests confirm, that the region of vortex roughness which is familiar for the main rotor is also encountered by the tail rotor and that prolonged operation at the corresponding flight conditions would be difficult" (p. 1).
Date: October 27, 1953
Creator: Amer, Kenneth B. & Gessow, Alfred

Studies of the lateral-directional flying qualities of a tandem helicopter in forward flight

Description: An investigation of the lateral-directional flying qualities of a tandem-rotor helicopter in forward flight was undertaken to determine desirable goals for helicopter lateral-directional flying qualities and possible methods of achieving these goals in the tandem-rotor helicopter. Comparison between directional stability as measured in flight and rotor-off model tests in a wind tunnel shows qualitative agreement and, hence, indicates such wind-tunnel test, despite the absence of the rotors, to be one effective method of studying means of improving the directional stability of the tandem helicopter. Flight-test measurements of turns and oscillations, in conjunction with analytical studies, suggest possible practical methods of achieving the goals of satisfactory turn and oscillatory characteristics in the tandem helicopter.
Date: 1954
Creator: Amer, Kenneth B. & Tapscott, Robert J.

Charts relating the compressive buckling stress of longitudinally supported plates to the effective deflectional and rotational stiffness of the supports

Description: A stability analysis is made of a long flat rectangular plate subjected to a uniform longitudinal compressive stress and supported along its longitudinal edges and along one or more longitudinal lines by elastic line supports. The elastic supports possess deflectional and rotational stiffness. Such configuration is an idealization of the compression cover skin and internal structure of a wing and tail surfaces. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of charts in which the buckling-stress coefficient is plotted against the buckle length of the plate for a wide range of support stiffnesses. The charts make possible the determination of the compressive buckling stress of plates supported by members whose stiffness may or may not be defined by elementary beam bending and twisting theory but yet whose effective restraint is amenable to evaluation. The deflectional and rotational stiffness provided by longitudinal stiffeners and full-depth webs is discussed and numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the charts to the design of wing structures.
Date: 1954
Creator: Anderson, Roger A. & Semonian, Joseph W.

A flight evaluation of the longitudinal stability characteristics associated with the pitch-up of a swept-wing airplane in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds

Description: This report presents the results of flight measurements of longitudinal stability and control characteristics made on a swept-wing jet aircraft to determine the origin of the pitch-up encountered in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds. For this purpose measurements were made of elevator angle, tail angle of attack, and wing-fuselage pitching moments (obtained from measurements of the balancing tail loads).
Date: September 12, 1951
Creator: Anderson, Seth B. & Bray, Richard S.

Comparison of performance of experimental and conventional cage designs and materials for 75-millimeter-bore cylindrical roller bearings at high speed

Description: From Summary: "The results of two investigations, one to determine the relative merits of four experimental and two conventional design 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical roller bearings and one to determine the relative merits of nodular iron and bronze as cage materials for this size and type of bearing, are presented in this report. Nine test bearings were operated over a range of dn values (product of bearing bore in mm and shaft speed in r.p.m) from 0.3 x 10(6) to 2.3 x 20(6), radial loads for 7 to 1613 pounds, and oil flows from 2 to 8 pounds per minute with a single-jet circulatory oil feed. Of the six bearings used to evaluate designs, four were experimental types with outer-race-riding cages and inner-race-guided rollers, and two were conventional types, one with outer-race-guided rollers and cage and one with inner-race-guided rollers and cage."
Date: June 30, 1954
Creator: Anderson, William J.; Macks, E. Fred & Nemeth, Zolton N.

NACA investigation of fuel performance in piston-type engines

Description: This report is a compilation of many of the pertinent research data acquired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on fuel performance in piston engines. The original data for this compilation are contained in many separate NACA reports which have in the present report been assembled in logical chapters that summarize the main conclusions of the various investigations. Complete details of each investigation are not included in this summary; however, such details may be found, in the original reports cited at the end of each chapter.
Date: May 15, 1951
Creator: Barnett, Henry C.

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C. & Hibbard, Robert R.

A wind-tunnel test technique for measuring the dynamic rotary stability derivatives at subsonic and supersonic speeds

Description: "A method is described for measuring the dynamic stability derivatives of a model airplane in a wind tunnel. The characteristic features of this system are that single-degree-of-freedom oscillations were used to obtain combinations of rolling, yawing and pitching motions; that the oscillations were excited and controlled by velocity feedback which permitted operation under conditions unfavorable for more conventional types of oscillatory testing; and that data processing was greatly simplified by using analog computer elements in the strain-gage circuitry. A small number of experimental data are included to illustrate the general scope of results obtainable with this system" (p. 1).
Date: September 20, 1954
Creator: Beam, Benjamin H.

Photographic investigation of combustion in a two-dimensional transparent rocket engine

Description: Motion pictures at camera speeds up to 3000 frames per second were taken of the combustion of liquid oxygen and gasoline in a 100-pound thrust rocket engine. The effect of seven methods of propellant injection on the uniformity of combustion was investigated. The flame front was generally found to extend to the injector faces and all the injection systems showed considerable nonuniformity of combustion. Pressure vibration records indicated combustion vibrations that corresponded to resonant-chamber frequencies.
Date: May 22, 1953
Creator: Bellman, Donald R.; Humphrey, Jack C. & Male, Theodore

An empirically derived basis for calculating the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils

Description: From Summary: "An empirically derived basis for predicting the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils of arbitrary section is presented. The concepts involved represent an initial step toward the development of a calculation technique which is generally applicable to the design of thermal ice-prevention equipment for airplane wing and tail surfaces. It is shown that sufficiently accurate estimates, for the purpose of heated-wing design, can be obtained by a few numerical computations once the velocity distribution over the airfoil has been determined. The calculation technique presented is based on results of extensive water-drop trajectory computations for five airfoil cases which consisted of 15-percent-thick airfoils encompassing a moderate lift-coefficient range."
Date: May 8, 1951
Creator: Bergrun, Norman R.

Exploratory investigation of boundary-layer transition on a hollow cylinder at a Mach number of 6.9

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the Reynolds number for transition on the outside of a hollow cylinder with heat transfer from the boundary layer to the wall at Mach number 6.9. At a given Mach number, it appears that the Reynolds number based on leading-edge thickness is an important parameter in comparisons of flat-plate transition data from various installations.
Date: February 9, 1956
Creator: Bertram, Mitchel H.

A study of the use of experimental stability derivatives in the calculation of the lateral disturbed motions of a swept-wing airplane and comparison with flight results

Description: An investigation was made to determine the accuracy with which the lateral flight motions of a swept-wing airplane could be predicted from experimental stability derivatives, determined in the 6-foot-diameter rolling-flow test section and 6 by 6-foot curved-flow test section of the Langley stability tunnel. In addition, determination of the significance of including the nonlinear aerodynamic effects of sideslip in the calculations of the motions was desired. All experimental aerodynamic data necessary for prediction of the lateral flight motions are presented along with a number of comparisons between flight and calculated motions caused by rudder and aileron disturbances.
Date: 1951
Creator: Bird, John D. & Jaquet, Byron M.

Some effects of frequency on the contribution of a vertical tail to the free aerodynamic damping of a model oscillating in yaw

Description: The damping in yaw and the directional stability of a model freely oscillating in yaw were measured tail-off and tail-on and compared with the values obtained by theoretical consideration of the unsteady lift associated with an oscillating vertical tail. A range of low frequencies comparable to those of the lateral motions of airplanes was covered. The analysis includes the effects of vertical-tail aspect ratio and the two-dimensional effects of compressibility.
Date: November 26, 1951
Creator: Bird, John D.; Fisher, Lewis R. & Hubbard, Sadie M.

Friction, wear, and surface damage of metals as affected by solid surface films

Description: "As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, NiO on nickel alloys, and FeO and Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4) on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as Fe(sub 2)O(sub 3) or MoO(sub 3) were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated" (p. 93).
Date: February 10, 1955
Creator: Bisson, Edmond E.; Johnson, Robert L.; Swikert, Max A. & Godfrey, Douglas

Growth of Disturbances in a Flame-Generated Shear Region

Description: Results are presented of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the growth of transverse velocity disturbances in the shear region caused by a flame in a duct. In the theoretical stability analysis, a flow field arising from a flame in a duct was analyzed. The flow was neutrally stable to symmetric disturbances and unstable to antisymmetric ones. In the experimental part of the program disturbances of various frequencies were imposed on a flame stabilized in a duct, and the effects were measured by shadow photography and photomultiplier-probe surveys.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Blackshear, Perry L., Jr.

An Analysis of Pressure Studies and Experimental and Theoretical Downwash and Sidewash Behind Five Pointed-Tip Wings at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Flow-angle and pressure surveys behind five, thin, pointed-tip wings of varying plan form have been made at Mach numbers 1.62 and 2.41. Schlieren studies at a Mach number 1.93 for the same five plan-form wings were made to illustrate the behavior of the vortex sheet. The surveys were conducted at 1.5, 3, and 4 root chords behind three triangular wings of 50 degree, 63 degree, and 72 degree leading-edge sweep angle, and behind the 50 degree triangular wing reversed. The flow behind a pointed-tip wing having a sweptback leading edge and a sweptforward trailing edge (both 50 degrees) was also surveyed. Experiment and one of the theoretical methods are compared for the reversed triangular wing and the pointed-tip wing with the 50 degree sweptback leading edge and sweptforward trailing edge.
Date: January 1, 1958
Creator: Boatright, William B.

Linearized Lifting-Surface and Lifting-Line Evaluations of Sidewash Behind Rolling Triangular Wings at Supersonic Speeds

Description: The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Bobbitt, Percy J.