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The resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and in air

Description: To supplement the standardization tests now in progress at several laboratories, a broad investigation of the resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and free air has been carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The subject has been classed in aerodynamic research, and in consequence there is available a great mass of data from previous investigations. This material was given careful consideration in laying out the research, and explanation of practically all the disagreement between former experiments has resulted. A satisfactory confirmation of Reynolds law has been accomplished, the effect of means of support determined, the range of experiment greatly extended by work in the new variable density wind tunnel, and the effects of turbulence investigated by work in the tunnels and by towing and dropping tests in free air. It is concluded that the erratic nature of most of the previous work is due to support interference and differing turbulence conditions. While the question of support has been investigated thoroughly, a systematic and comprehensive study of the effects of scale and quality of turbulence will be necessary to complete the problem, as this phase was given only general treatment.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bacon, D L & Reid, E G

The distribution of lift over wing tips and ailerons

Description: This investigation was carried out in the 5-foot wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of obtaining more complete information on the distribution of lift between the ends of wing spars, the stresses in ailerons, and the general subject of airflow near the tip of a wing. It includes one series of tests on four models without ailerons, having square, elliptical, and raked tips respectively, and a second series of positively and negatively raked wings with ailerons adjusted to different settings. The results show that negatively raked tips give a more uniform distribution of air pressure than any of the other three arrangements, because the tip vortex does not disturb the flow at the trailing edge. Aileron loads are found to be less severe on wings with negative application to the calculation of aileron and wing stresses and also to facilitate the proper distribution of load in sand testing. Contour charts show in great detail the complex distribution lift over the wing.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bacon, David L

A simplified theoretical method of determining the characteristics of a lifting rotor in forward flight

Description: Theoretical derived expressions for the flapping, the thrust, the torque, and the profile drag-lift ratio of nonfeathering rotor with hinged, rectangular, linearly twisted blades are given as simple functions of the inflow velocity and the blade pitch. Representative values of the coefficients of each of the terms in these expressions are tabulated for a series of specified values of the tip-speed ratio. Analysis indicates that the tabulated values can be used to calculate, with reasonable accuracy, the characteristics of any rotor of conventional design.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr

A study of the torque equilibrium of an autogiro rotor

Description: Two improvements have been made in the method developed in NACA Reports nos. 487 and 591 for the estimation of the inflow velocity required to overcome a given decelerating torque in an autogiro rotor. At low tip-speed ratios, where the assumptions necessary for the analytical integrations of the earlier papers are valid, the expressions therein derived are greatly simplified by combining and eliminating terms with a view of minimizing the numerical computations required. At high tip-speed ratios, by means of charts based on graphical integrations, errors inherent in the assumptions associated with the analytical method are largely eliminated. The suggested method of estimating the inflow velocity presupposes a knowledge of the decelerating torque acting on the rotor; all available full-scale experimental information on this subject is included.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr

Spinning characteristics of the XN2Y-1 airplane obtained from the spinning balance and compared with results from the spinning tunnel and from flight tests

Description: Report presents the results of tests of a 1/10-scale model of the XN2Y-1 airplane tested in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel in which the six components of forces and moments were measured. The model was tested in 17 attitudes in which the full-scale airplane had been observed to spin, in order to determine the effects of scale, tunnel, and interference. In addition, a series of tests was made to cover the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, rates of rotation, and control setting likely to be encountered by a spinning airplane. The data were used to estimate the probable attitudes in steady spins of an airplane in flight and of a model in the free-spinning tunnel. The estimated attitudes of steady spin were compared with attitudes measured in flight and in the spinning tunnel. The results indicate that corrections for certain scale and tunnel effects are necessary to estimate full-scale spinning attitudes from model results.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Bamber, M J & House, R O

The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Description: From Summary: "A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the "NY-1" airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane."
Date: February 7, 1933
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerm, N, C h

Spinning characteristics of wings I : rectangular Clark Y monoplane wing

Description: A series of wind tunnel tests of a rectangular Clark Y wing was made with the NACA spinning balance as part of a general program of research on airplane spinning. All six components of the aerodynamic force and moment were measured throughout the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, and values omega b/2v likely to be attained by a spinning airplane; the results were reduced to coefficient form. It is concluded that a conventional monoplane with a rectangular Clark y wing can be made to attain spinning equilibrium throughout a wide range of angles of attack but that provision of a yawing moment coefficient of -0.02 (against the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interferences will insure against attainment of equilibrium in a steady spin.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerman, C H

Wind-tunnel tests on airfoil boundary layer control using a backward-opening slot

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of boundary layer control on the lift and drag of an airfoil. Boundary layer control was accomplished by means of a backward-opening slot in the upper surface of the hollow airfoil. Air was caused to flow through this slot by a pressure which was maintained inside the airfoil by a blower. Various slot locations, slot openings, and wing pressures were used. The tests were conducted in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Under the test conditions, the maximum lift coefficient was increased about 96 per cent for one slot arrangement, and the minimum drag coefficient was decreased about 27 per cent for another, both being compared with the results obtained with the unslotted airfoil. It is believed from this investigation that the above effects may be increased by the use of larger slot openings, better slot locations, multiple slots, improved airfoil profiles, and trailing edge flaps.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Bamber, Millard J

Flight investigation at high speeds of the drag of three airfoils and a circular cylinder representing full-scale propeller shanks

Description: Tests have been made at high speeds to determine the drag of models, simulating propeller shanks, in the form of a circular cylinder and three airfoils, the NACA 16-025, the NACA 16-040, and the NACA 16-040 with the rear 25 percent chord cut off. All the models had a maximum thickness of 4 1/2 inches to conform with average propeller-shank dimensions and a span of 20 1/4 inches. For the tests the models were supported perpendicular to the lower surface of the wing of an XP-51 airplane. A wake-survey rake mounted below the wing directly behind the models was used to determine profile drag of Mach numbers of 0.3 to 0.8 over a small range of angle of attack. The drag of the cylinder was also determined from pressure-distribution and force measurements.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Barlow, William H

Study of effects of sweep on the flutter of cantilever wings

Description: An experimental and analytical investigation of the flutter of sweptback cantilever wings is reported. The experiments employed groups of wings swept back by rotating and by shearing. The angle of sweep range from 0 degree to 60 degrees and Mach numbers extended to approximately 0.85. A theoretical analysis of the air forces on an oscillating swept wing of high length-chord ratio is developed, and the approximations inherent in the assumptions are discussed. Comparison with experiment indicates that the analysis developed in the present report is satisfactory for giving the main effects of sweep, at least for nearly uniform cantilever wings of high and moderate length-chord ratios.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Barmby, J G; Cunningham, H J & Garrick, I E

Estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for ternary and quaternary blends containing triptane or other high-antiknock aviation-fuel blending agents

Description: Charts are presented that permit the estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for certain ternary and quaternary fuel blends. Ratings for various ternary and quaternary blends estimated from these charts compare favorably with experimental F-3 and F-4 ratings. Because of the unusual behavior of some of the aromatic blends in the F-3 engine, the charts for aromatic-paraffinic blends are probably less accurate than the charts for purely paraffinic blends.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Barnett, Henry C

NACA investigation of fuel performance in piston-type engines

Description: This report is a compilation of many of the pertinent research data acquired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on fuel performance in piston engines. The original data for this compilation are contained in many separate NACA reports which have in the present report been assembled in logical chapters that summarize the main conclusions of the various investigations. Complete details of each investigation are not included in this summary; however, such details may be found, in the original reports cited at the end of each chapter.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Barnett, Henry C

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C & Hibbard, Robert R

A simplified method of elastic-stability analysis for thin cylindrical shells

Description: This paper develops a new method for determining the buckling stresses of cylindrical shells under various loading conditions. In part I, the equation for the equilibrium of cylindrical shells introduced by Donnell in NACA report no. 479 to find the critical stresses of cylinders in torsion is applied to find critical stresses for cylinders with simply supported edges under other loading conditions. In part II, a modified form of Donnell's equation for the equilibrium of thin cylindrical shells is derived which is equivalent to Donnell's equation but has certain advantages in physical interpretation and in ease of solution, particularly in the case of shells having clamped edges. The question of implicit boundary conditions is also considered.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Batdorf, S B

Critical combinations of shear and transverse direct stress for an infinitely long flat plate with edges elastically restrained against rotation

Description: An exact solution and a closely concurring approximate energy solution are given for the buckling of an infinitely long flat plate under combined shear and transverse direct stress with edges elastically restrained against rotation. It was found that an appreciable fraction of the critical stress in pure shear may be applied to the plate without any reduction in the transverse compressive stress necessary to produce buckling. An interaction formula in general use was shown to be decidedly conservative for the range in which it is supposed to apply.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Batdorf, S B & Houbolt, John C

Critical stress of thin-walled cylinders in axial compression

Description: Empirical design curves are presented for the critical stress of thin-wall cylinders loaded in axial compression. These curves are plotted in terms of the nondimensional parameters of small-deflection theory and are compared with theoretical curves derived for the buckling of cylinders with simply supported and clamped edges. An empirical equation is given for the buckling of cylinders having a length-radius ratio greater than about 0.75.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Batdorf, S B; Schildcrout, Murry & Stein, Manuel

The decay of a simple eddy

Description: The principal result obtained in this report is a generalization of Taylor's formula for a simple eddy. The discussion of the properties of the eddy indicates that there is a slight analogy between the theory of eddies in a viscous fluid and the quantum theory of radiation. Another exact solution of the equations of motion of viscous fluid yields a result which reminds one of the well-known condition for instability in the case of a horizontally stratified atmosphere.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Bateman, H

The Inertial Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

Description: This report deals with the investigation of the apparent inertia of an airship hull. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem has been studied for hulls of various shapes and special attention has been given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. In order that the results for this last case may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient K which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio 7. For rough purposes it is sufficient to employ the coefficients, originally found for ellipsoids, for hulls otherwise shaped. When more exact values of the inertia are needed, estimates may be based on a study of the way in which K varies with different characteristics and for such a study the new coefficient possesses some advantage over one which is defined with reference to the volume of fluid displaced. The case of rotation of an airship hull has been investigated also and a coefficient has been defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bateman, H

The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

Description: The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Bateman, H.

Diagrams of airplane stability

Description: In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Batemen, H

The NACA impact basin and water landing tests of a float model at various velocities and weights

Description: The first data obtained in the United States under the controlled testing conditions necessary for establishing relationships among the numerous parameters involved when a float having both horizontal and vertical velocity contacts a water surface are presented. The data were obtained at the NACA impact basin. The report is confined to a presentation of the relationship between resultant velocity and impact normal acceleration for various float weights when all other parameters are constant. Analysis of the experimental results indicated that the maximum impact normal acceleration was proportional to the square of the resultant velocity, that increases in float weight resulted in decreases in the maximum impact normal acceleration, and that an increase in the flight-path angle caused increased impact normal acceleration.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Batterson, Sidney A

A wind-tunnel test technique for measuring the dynamic rotary stability derivatives at subsonic and supersonic speeds

Description: A method is described for measuring the dynamic stability derivatives of a model airplane in a wind tunnel. The characteristic features of this system are that single-degree-of-freedom oscillations were used to obtain combinations of rolling, yawing and pitching motions; that the oscillations were excited and controlled by velocity feedback which permitted operation under conditions unfavorable for more conventional types of oscillatory testing; and that data processing was greatly simplified by using analog computer elements in the strain-gage circuitry. A small number of experimental data are included to illustrate the general scope of results obtainable with this system.
Date: January 1, 1956
Creator: Beam, Benjamin H

Differential pressures on a Pitot-Venturi and a Pitot-static nozzle over 360 degrees pitch and yaw

Description: Measurements of the differential pressures on two navy air-speed nozzles, consisting of a Zahm type Pitot-Venturi tube and a SQ-16 two-pronged Pitot-static tube, in a tunnel air stream of fixed speed at various angles of pitch and yaw between 0 degrees and plus or minus 180 degrees. This shows for a range over -20 degrees to +20 degrees pitch and yaw, indicated air speeds varying very slightly over 2 per cent for the Zahm type and a maximum of about 5 per cent for the SQ-16 type from the calibrated speed at 0 degree. For both types of air-speed nozzle the indicated air speed increases slightly as the tubes are pitched or yawed several degrees from their normal 0 degrees altitude, attains a maximum around plus or minus 15 degrees to 25 degrees, declines rapidly therefrom as plus or minus 40 degrees is passed, to zero in the vicinity of plus or minus 70 degrees to 100 degrees, and thence fluctuates irregular from thereabouts to plus or minus 180 degrees. The complete variation in indicated air speed for the two tubes over 360 degree pitch and yaw is graphically portrayed in figures 9 and 10. For the same air speed and 0 degree pitch and yaw the differential pressure of the Zahm type Pitot-Venturi nozzle is about seven times that of the SQ-16 type two-prolonged Pitot-static nozzle.
Date: January 1, 1928
Creator: Bear, R M