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A resume of the advances in theoretical aeronautics made by Max M. Munk

Description: In order to apply profitably the mathematical methods of hydrodynamics to aeronautical problems, it is necessary to make simplifications in the physical conditions of the latter. To begin with, it is allowable in many problems, as Prandtl has so successfully shown, to treat the air as having constant density and as free of viscosity. But this is not sufficient. It is also necessary to specify certain shapes for the solid bodies whose motion through the air is discussed, shapes suggested by the actual solids - airships or airfoils - it is true, but so chosen that they lead to solvable problems. In a valuable paper presented by Dr. Max M. Munk, of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, to the Delft Conference in April, 1924, these necessary simplifying assumptions are discussed in detail. It is the purpose of the present paper to present in as simple a manner as possible some of the interesting results obtained by Dr. Munk's methods.
Date: January 1, 1926
Creator: Ames, Joseph S

Determination of control-surface characteristics from NACA plain-flap and tab data

Description: The data from previous NACA pressure-distribution investigations of plain flaps and tabs with sealed gaps have been analyzed and are presented in this paper in a form readily applicable to the problems of control-surface design. The experimentally determined variation of aerodynamic parameters with flap chord and tab chord are given in chart form and comparisons are made with the theory. With the aid of these charts and the theoretical relationships for a thin airfoil, the aerodynamic characteristics for control surfaces of any plan form with plain flaps and tabs with sealed gaps may be determined. A discussion of the basic equations of the thin-airfoil theory and the development of a number of additional equations that will be helpful in tail design are presented in the appendixes. The procedure for applying the data is described and a sample problem of horizontal tail design is included. The data presented and the method of application set forth in this report should provide a reasonably accurate and satisfactory means of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of control surfaces.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Ames, Milton B & Sears, Richard I

Determination of the characteristics of tapered wings

Description: This report presents tables and charts for use in determining the characteristics of tapered wings. Theoretical factors are given from which the following characteristics of tapered wings may be found: the span lift distribution, the induced-angle-of attack distribution, the lift-curve slope, the angle of zero lift, the induced drag, the aerodynamic-center position, and the pitching moment about the aerodynamic center.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F

The experimental and calculated characteristics of 22 tapered wings

Description: The experimental and calculated aerodynamic characteristics of 22 tapered wings are compared, using tests made in the variable-density wind tunnel. The wings had aspect ratios from 6 to 12 and taper ratios from 1:6:1 and 5:1. The compared characteristics are the pitching moment, the aerodynamic-center position, the lift-curve slope, the maximum lift coefficient, and the curves of drag. The method of obtaining the calculated values is based on the use of wing theory and experimentally determined airfoil section data. In general, the experimental and calculated characteristics are in sufficiently good agreement that the method may be applied to many problems of airplane design.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F

Charts relating the compressive buckling stress of longitudinally supported plates to the effective deflectional and rotational stiffness of the supports

Description: A stability analysis is made of a long flat rectangular plate subjected to a uniform longitudinal compressive stress and supported along its longitudinal edges and along one or more longitudinal lines by elastic line supports. The elastic supports possess deflectional and rotational stiffness. Such configuration is an idealization of the compression cover skin and internal structure of a wing and tail surfaces. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of charts in which the buckling-stress coefficient is plotted against the buckle length of the plate for a wide range of support stiffnesses. The charts make possible the determination of the compressive buckling stress of plates supported by members whose stiffness may or may not be defined by elementary beam bending and twisting theory but yet whose effective restraint is amenable to evaluation. The deflectional and rotational stiffness provided by longitudinal stiffeners and full-depth webs is discussed and numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the charts to the design of wing structures.
Date: January 1, 1954
Creator: Anderson, Roger A & Semonian, Joseph W

A flight evaluation of the longitudinal stability characteristics associated with the pitch-up of a swept-wing airplane in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds

Description: This report presents the results of flight measurements of longitudinal stability and control characteristics made on a swept-wing jet aircraft to determine the origin of the pitch-up encountered in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds. For this purpose measurements were made of elevator angle, tail angle of attack, and wing-fuselage pitching moments (obtained from measurements of the balancing tail loads).
Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Anderson, Seth B & Bray, Richard S

Comparison of performance of experimental and conventional cage designs and materials for 75-millimeter-bore cylindrical roller bearings at high speed

Description: The results of two investigations, one to determine the relative merits of four experimental and two conventional design 75-millimeter-bore (size 215) cylindrical roller bearings and one to determine the relative merits of nodular iron and bronze as cage materials for this size and type of bearing, are presented in this report. Nine test bearings were operated over a range of dn values (product of bearing bore in mm and shaft speed in r.p.m) from 0.3 x 10(6) to 2.3 x 20(6), radial loads for 7 to 1613 pounds, and oil flows from 2 to 8 pounds per minute with a single-jet circulatory oil feed. Of the six bearings used to evaluate designs, four were experimental types with outer-race-riding cages and inner-race-guided rollers, and two were conventional types, one with outer-race-guided rollers and cage and one with inner-race-guided rollers and cage. Each of these six test bearings was equipped with a different design cage made of nodular iron. The experimental combination of an outer-race-riding cage with a straight-through outer race and inner-race-guided rollers was found to give the best over-all performance based on limiting dn values and bearing temperatures.
Date: January 1, 1954
Creator: Anderson, William J; Macks, E Fred & Nemeth, Zolton N

The development and application of high-critical-speed nose inlets

Description: An analysis of the nose-inlet shapes developed in previous investigations to represent the optimum from the standpoint of critical speed has shown that marked similarity exists between the nondimensional profiles of inlets which have widely different proportions and critical speeds. With the nondimensional similarity of such profiles established, the large differences in the critical speeds of these nose inlets must be a function of their proportions. An investigation was undertaken in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to establish the effects of nose-inlet proportions on critical Mach number to develop a rational method for the design of high-critical-speed nose inlets to meet desired requirements. The test results data have been arranged in the form of design charts from NACA 1-series nose-inlet proportions and can be selected for given values of critical Mach number and airflow quantity. Examples of nose-inlet selections are presented for a typical jet-propulsion installation (critical Mach number of 0.83) and for two conventional radial-engine installations (critical Mach number of 0.76).
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Baals, Donald D; Smith, Norman F & Wright, John B

Preliminary experiments to determine scale and slip-stream effects on a 1/24th size model of a JN4H biplane

Description: This work was undertaken to obtain results on a small model of a complete airplane which might be used for comparison with corresponding tests made in full flight. Somewhat similar tests have been previously made at various other laboratories; but as certain discrepancies exist between corresponding tests in different tunnels, it has been deemed advisable to obtain a direct comparison for this particular installation. The present work covers tests on a one-twenty-fourth scale model at speeds varying from 6.7 m/sec. (15 m.p.h.) to 40.2 m/sec, (90 m.p.h.). A slip stream correction has been obtained by the use of a small belt-driven propeller mounted in front of the model, and force coefficients thus obtained are compared with the measurements of the same forces made in full flight on a geometrically similar airplane. This report gives lift, drag, and longitudinal moment values obtained in tests of a particularly accurate model over a wide range of speeds. A measure of the slip stream corrections on lift and drag forces was obtained by the use of a power-driven model propeller. Measurements were also made of forces and longitudinal moments for all angles from 0 degree to 360 degrees.
Date: January 1, 1923
Creator: Bacon, D L

The resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and in air

Description: To supplement the standardization tests now in progress at several laboratories, a broad investigation of the resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and free air has been carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The subject has been classed in aerodynamic research, and in consequence there is available a great mass of data from previous investigations. This material was given careful consideration in laying out the research, and explanation of practically all the disagreement between former experiments has resulted. A satisfactory confirmation of Reynolds law has been accomplished, the effect of means of support determined, the range of experiment greatly extended by work in the new variable density wind tunnel, and the effects of turbulence investigated by work in the tunnels and by towing and dropping tests in free air. It is concluded that the erratic nature of most of the previous work is due to support interference and differing turbulence conditions. While the question of support has been investigated thoroughly, a systematic and comprehensive study of the effects of scale and quality of turbulence will be necessary to complete the problem, as this phase was given only general treatment.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bacon, D L & Reid, E G

The distribution of lift over wing tips and ailerons

Description: This investigation was carried out in the 5-foot wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of obtaining more complete information on the distribution of lift between the ends of wing spars, the stresses in ailerons, and the general subject of airflow near the tip of a wing. It includes one series of tests on four models without ailerons, having square, elliptical, and raked tips respectively, and a second series of positively and negatively raked wings with ailerons adjusted to different settings. The results show that negatively raked tips give a more uniform distribution of air pressure than any of the other three arrangements, because the tip vortex does not disturb the flow at the trailing edge. Aileron loads are found to be less severe on wings with negative application to the calculation of aileron and wing stresses and also to facilitate the proper distribution of load in sand testing. Contour charts show in great detail the complex distribution lift over the wing.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bacon, David L

A simplified theoretical method of determining the characteristics of a lifting rotor in forward flight

Description: Theoretical derived expressions for the flapping, the thrust, the torque, and the profile drag-lift ratio of nonfeathering rotor with hinged, rectangular, linearly twisted blades are given as simple functions of the inflow velocity and the blade pitch. Representative values of the coefficients of each of the terms in these expressions are tabulated for a series of specified values of the tip-speed ratio. Analysis indicates that the tabulated values can be used to calculate, with reasonable accuracy, the characteristics of any rotor of conventional design.
Date: January 1, 1941
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr

A study of the torque equilibrium of an autogiro rotor

Description: Two improvements have been made in the method developed in NACA Reports nos. 487 and 591 for the estimation of the inflow velocity required to overcome a given decelerating torque in an autogiro rotor. At low tip-speed ratios, where the assumptions necessary for the analytical integrations of the earlier papers are valid, the expressions therein derived are greatly simplified by combining and eliminating terms with a view of minimizing the numerical computations required. At high tip-speed ratios, by means of charts based on graphical integrations, errors inherent in the assumptions associated with the analytical method are largely eliminated. The suggested method of estimating the inflow velocity presupposes a knowledge of the decelerating torque acting on the rotor; all available full-scale experimental information on this subject is included.
Date: January 1, 1938
Creator: Bailey, F J , Jr

Spinning characteristics of the XN2Y-1 airplane obtained from the spinning balance and compared with results from the spinning tunnel and from flight tests

Description: Report presents the results of tests of a 1/10-scale model of the XN2Y-1 airplane tested in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel in which the six components of forces and moments were measured. The model was tested in 17 attitudes in which the full-scale airplane had been observed to spin, in order to determine the effects of scale, tunnel, and interference. In addition, a series of tests was made to cover the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, rates of rotation, and control setting likely to be encountered by a spinning airplane. The data were used to estimate the probable attitudes in steady spins of an airplane in flight and of a model in the free-spinning tunnel. The estimated attitudes of steady spin were compared with attitudes measured in flight and in the spinning tunnel. The results indicate that corrections for certain scale and tunnel effects are necessary to estimate full-scale spinning attitudes from model results.
Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Bamber, M J & House, R O

The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Description: From Summary: "A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the "NY-1" airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane."
Date: February 7, 1933
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerm, N, C h

Spinning characteristics of wings I : rectangular Clark Y monoplane wing

Description: A series of wind tunnel tests of a rectangular Clark Y wing was made with the NACA spinning balance as part of a general program of research on airplane spinning. All six components of the aerodynamic force and moment were measured throughout the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, and values omega b/2v likely to be attained by a spinning airplane; the results were reduced to coefficient form. It is concluded that a conventional monoplane with a rectangular Clark y wing can be made to attain spinning equilibrium throughout a wide range of angles of attack but that provision of a yawing moment coefficient of -0.02 (against the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interferences will insure against attainment of equilibrium in a steady spin.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerman, C H

Wind-tunnel tests on airfoil boundary layer control using a backward-opening slot

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of boundary layer control on the lift and drag of an airfoil. Boundary layer control was accomplished by means of a backward-opening slot in the upper surface of the hollow airfoil. Air was caused to flow through this slot by a pressure which was maintained inside the airfoil by a blower. Various slot locations, slot openings, and wing pressures were used. The tests were conducted in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Under the test conditions, the maximum lift coefficient was increased about 96 per cent for one slot arrangement, and the minimum drag coefficient was decreased about 27 per cent for another, both being compared with the results obtained with the unslotted airfoil. It is believed from this investigation that the above effects may be increased by the use of larger slot openings, better slot locations, multiple slots, improved airfoil profiles, and trailing edge flaps.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Bamber, Millard J

Flight investigation at high speeds of the drag of three airfoils and a circular cylinder representing full-scale propeller shanks

Description: Tests have been made at high speeds to determine the drag of models, simulating propeller shanks, in the form of a circular cylinder and three airfoils, the NACA 16-025, the NACA 16-040, and the NACA 16-040 with the rear 25 percent chord cut off. All the models had a maximum thickness of 4 1/2 inches to conform with average propeller-shank dimensions and a span of 20 1/4 inches. For the tests the models were supported perpendicular to the lower surface of the wing of an XP-51 airplane. A wake-survey rake mounted below the wing directly behind the models was used to determine profile drag of Mach numbers of 0.3 to 0.8 over a small range of angle of attack. The drag of the cylinder was also determined from pressure-distribution and force measurements.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Barlow, William H

Study of effects of sweep on the flutter of cantilever wings

Description: An experimental and analytical investigation of the flutter of sweptback cantilever wings is reported. The experiments employed groups of wings swept back by rotating and by shearing. The angle of sweep range from 0 degree to 60 degrees and Mach numbers extended to approximately 0.85. A theoretical analysis of the air forces on an oscillating swept wing of high length-chord ratio is developed, and the approximations inherent in the assumptions are discussed. Comparison with experiment indicates that the analysis developed in the present report is satisfactory for giving the main effects of sweep, at least for nearly uniform cantilever wings of high and moderate length-chord ratios.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Barmby, J G; Cunningham, H J & Garrick, I E

Estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for ternary and quaternary blends containing triptane or other high-antiknock aviation-fuel blending agents

Description: Charts are presented that permit the estimation of F-3 and F-4 knock-limited performance ratings for certain ternary and quaternary fuel blends. Ratings for various ternary and quaternary blends estimated from these charts compare favorably with experimental F-3 and F-4 ratings. Because of the unusual behavior of some of the aromatic blends in the F-3 engine, the charts for aromatic-paraffinic blends are probably less accurate than the charts for purely paraffinic blends.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Barnett, Henry C

NACA investigation of fuel performance in piston-type engines

Description: This report is a compilation of many of the pertinent research data acquired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on fuel performance in piston engines. The original data for this compilation are contained in many separate NACA reports which have in the present report been assembled in logical chapters that summarize the main conclusions of the various investigations. Complete details of each investigation are not included in this summary; however, such details may be found, in the original reports cited at the end of each chapter.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Barnett, Henry C

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C & Hibbard, Robert R

A simplified method of elastic-stability analysis for thin cylindrical shells

Description: This paper develops a new method for determining the buckling stresses of cylindrical shells under various loading conditions. In part I, the equation for the equilibrium of cylindrical shells introduced by Donnell in NACA report no. 479 to find the critical stresses of cylinders in torsion is applied to find critical stresses for cylinders with simply supported edges under other loading conditions. In part II, a modified form of Donnell's equation for the equilibrium of thin cylindrical shells is derived which is equivalent to Donnell's equation but has certain advantages in physical interpretation and in ease of solution, particularly in the case of shells having clamped edges. The question of implicit boundary conditions is also considered.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Batdorf, S B