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Investigation of downwash, sidewash, and Mach number distribution behind a rectangular wing at a Mach number of 2.41

Description: An investigation of the nature of the flow field behind a rectangular wing of circular arc cross section has been conducted in the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Pitot- and static-pressure surveys covering a region of flow behind the wing have been made together with detailed pitot surveys throughout the region of the wake. In addition, the flow direction has been measured by means of a weathercocking vane. Theoretical calculations have been made to obtain the variation of both downwash and sidewash with angle of attack by using the superposition method of Lagerstrom, Graham, and Grosslight. In addition, the effect of wing thickness on the sidewash with the wing at 0 degree angle of attack has been evaluated.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Adamson, David & Boatright, William B

Theoretical and experimental investigation of the subsonic-flow fields beneath swept and unswept wings with tables or vortex-induced velocities

Description: The flow-field characteristics beneath swept and unswept wings as determined by potential-flow theory are compared with the experimentally determined flow fields beneath swept and unswept wing-fuselage combinations. The potential-flow theory utilized considered both spanwise and chordwise distributions of vorticity as well as the wing-thickness effects. The perturbation velocities induced by a unit horseshoe vortex are included in tabular form. The theoretical predictions of the flow-field characteristics were qualitatively correct in all cases considered, although there were indications that the magnitudes of the downwash angles tended to be overpredicted as the tip of the swept wing was approached and that the sidewash angles ahead of the unswept wing were underpredicted. The calculated effects of compressibility indicated that significant increases in the chordwise variation of flow angles and dynamic-pressure ratios should be expected in going from low to high subsonic speeds.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alford, William J , Jr

Determination of vortex paths by series expansion technique with application to cruciform wings

Description: A series method of determining two-dimensional vortex paths is considered and applied to the computation of vortex positions behind a slender equal-span cruciform wing at any angle of bank as a function of the distance behind the trailing edge. Calculated paths are shown for four bank angles. For a bank angle of 45 degrees comparison is made with the results of a closed expression given in NACA-TN-2605. For other bank angles water-tank experiments provide qualitative comparison. Satisfactory agreement is found for a sufficient distance downstream to include most practical missile-tail positions. The interference forces on an equal-span cruciform wing are calculated for five angles of bank (including the trivial case of zero bank) from the vortex positions found by use of the series.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alksne, Alberta Y

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C & Hibbard, Robert R

Linearized lifting-surface and lifting-line evaluations of sidewash behind rolling triangular wings at supersonic speeds

Description: The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Bobbitt, Percy J

Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated. The spectral distributions of the sound power for the engine and the air jet were in good agreement for the case where the engine data were not greatly affected by reflection or jet interference effects. Such power spectra for a subsonic or slightly choked engine or air jet show that the peaks of the spectra occur at a Strouhal number of 0.3.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Callaghan, Edmund E & Coles, Willard D

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: August 5, 1957
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W. & Graves, Charles C.

Experimental and predicted longitudinal and lateral-directional response characteristics of a large flexible 35 degree swept-wing airplane at an altitude of 35,000 feet

Description: Measured and predicted dynamic response characteristics of a large flexible swept-wing airplane to control surface inputs are presented for flight conditions of 0.6 to 0.85 Mach number at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the response of the airplane to elevator control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the longitudinal short-period mode and several symmetrical structural modes. The second part deals with the response of the airplane to aileron and rudder control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the dutch roll mode, the rolling mode, and three antisymmetrical structural modes.
Date: 1957
Creator: Cole, Henry A., Jr.; Brown, Stuart C. & Holleman, Euclid C.

Investigation of the laminar aerodynamic heat-transfer characteristics of a hemisphere-cylinder in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8

Description: A program to investigate the aerodynamic heat transfer of a nonisothermal hemisphere-cylinder has been conducted in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8 and a Reynolds number from approximately 0.14 x 10(6) to 1.06 x 10(6) based on diameter and free-stream conditions. The experimental heat-transfer coefficients were slightly less over the whole body than those predicted by the theory of Stine and Wanlass (NACA technical note 3344) for an isothermal surface. For stations within 45 degrees of the stagnation point the heat-transfer coefficients could be correlated by a single relation between local Stanton number and local Reynolds number. Pitot pressure profiles taken at a Mach number of 6.8 on a hemisphere-cylinder have verified that the local Mach number or velocity outside the boundary layer required in the theories may be computed from the surface pressures by using isentropic flow relations and conditions immediately behind a normal shock. The experimental pressure distribution at Mach number of 6.8 is closely predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Crawford, Davis H & Mccauley, William D

Survey of hydrogen combustion properties

Description: This literature digest of hydrogen-air combustion fundamentals presents data on flame temperature, burning velocity, quenching distance, flammability limits, ignition energy, flame stability, detonation, spontaneous ignition, and explosion limits. The data are assessed, recommended values are given, and relations among various combustion properties are discussed. New material presented includes: theoretical treatment of variation in spontaneous ignition lag with temperature, pressure, and composition, based on reaction kinetics of hydrogen-air composition range for 0.01 to 100 atmospheres and initial temperatures of 0 degrees to 1400 degrees k.
Date: April 26, 1957
Creator: Drell, Isadore L. & Belles, Frank E.

Influence of Hot-Working Conditions on High-Temperature Properties of a Heat-Resistant Alloy

Description: The relationships between conditions of hot-working and properties at high temperatures and the influence of the hot-working on response to heat treatment were investigated for an alloy containing nominally 20 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, and 1 percent columbium. Commercially produced bar stock was solution-treated at 2,200 degrees F. to minimize prior-history effects and then rolled at temperatures of 2,200 degrees, 2,100 degrees, 2,000 degrees, 1,800 degrees, and 1,600 degrees F. Working was carried out at constant temperature and with incremental decreases in temperature simulating a falling temperature during hot-working. In addition, a few special repeated cyclic conditions involving a small reduction at high temperature followed by a small reduction at a low temperature were used to study the possibility of inducing very low strengths by the extensive precipitation accompanying such properties. Most of the rolling was done in open passes with a few check tests being made with closed passes. Heat treatments at both 2,050 degrees and 2,200 degrees F. subsequent to working were used to study the influence on response to heat treatment.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Ewing, John F & Freeman, J W

Investigation of a nonlinear control system

Description: A discontinuous variation of coefficients of the differential equation describing the linear control system before nonlinear elements are added is studied in detail. The nonlinear feedback is applied to a second-order system. Simulation techniques are used to study performance of the nonlinear control system and to compare it with the linear system for a wide variety of inputs. A detailed quantitative study of the influence of relay delays and of a transport delay is presented.
Date: October 18, 1957
Creator: Fl├╝gge-Lotz, I.; Taylor, C. F. & Lindberg, H. E.

Determination of longitudinal stability and control characteristics from free-flight model tests with results at transonic speeds for three airplane configurations

Description: From Summary: "A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation."
Date: 1957
Creator: Gillis, Clarence L. & Mitchell, Jesse L.

Wind-tunnel investigation of a number of total-pressure tubes at high angles of attack -- subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

Description: The effect of inclination of the airstream on the measured pressures of 54 total-pressure tubes has been determined for angles of attack up to 60 degrees and over a Mach number range from 0.26 to 1.62. The investigation was conducted in five wind tunnels at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Gracey, William

Three-dimensional transonic flow theory applied to slender wings and bodies

Description: The present paper re-examines the derivation of the integral equations for transonic flow around slender wings and bodies of revolution, giving special attention to conditions resulting from the presence of shock waves and to the reduction of the relations to the special forms necessary for the discussion of sonic flow, that is, flow at free-stream Mach number 1.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Heaslet, Max A & Spreiter, John R

Approximate analysis of effects of large deflections and initial twist on torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to thermal stresses

Description: From Summary: "An approximate analysis of the nonlinear effects of initial twist and large deflections on the torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to a nonuniform temperature distribution is presented. The Von Karman large-deflection equations are satisfied through the use of a variational principle. The results show that initial twist and applied moments can have significant effects on the changes in stiffness produced by nonuniform heating, particularly in the region of the buckling temperature difference. Results calculated by this approximate analysis are in satisfactory agreement with measured torsional deformations and changes in natural frequency."
Date: May 15, 1957
Creator: Heldenfels, Richard R. & Vosteen, Louis F.

A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

Description: A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.
Date: June 18, 1957
Creator: Hill, P. R.

Differential equations of motion for combined flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades

Description: The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.
Date: February 1957
Creator: Houbolt, John C. & Brooks, George W.

Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

Description: From Summary: "Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit."
Date: 1957
Creator: Howes, Walton L.; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Coles, Willard D. & Mull, Harold R.

Effect of fuel variables on carbon formation in turbojet-engine combustors

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of fuel properties and of a number of fuel additives on combustion-chamber carbon deposition and exhaust-gas smoke formation in a single tubular turbojet-engine combustor. Limited tests were conducted with a number of the fuels in several full-scale turbojet engines to verify single-combustor data.
Date: October 23, 1957
Creator: Jonash, Edmund R.; Wear, Jerrold D. & Cook, William P.

On panel flutter and divergence of infinitely long unstiffened and ring-stiffened thin-walled circular cylinders

Description: A preliminary theoretical investigation of the panel flutter and divergence of infinitely long, unstiffened and ring-stiffened thin-walled circular cylinders is described. Linearized unsteady potential-flow theory is utilized in conjunction with Donnell's cylinder theory to obtain equilibrium equations for panel flutter. Where necessary, a simplified version of Flugge's cylinder theory is used to obtain greater accuracy. By applying Nyquist diagram techniques, analytical criteria for the location of stability boundaries are derived. A limited number of computed results are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Leonard, Robert W & Hedgepeth, John M

Nonlifting wing-body combinations with certain geometric restraints having minimum wave drag at low supersonic speeds

Description: Several variational problems involving optimum wing and body combinations having minimum wave drag for different kinds of geometrical restraints are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the wave drag of shortening the fuselage and, for slender axially symmetric bodies, the effect of fixing the fuselage diameter at several points or even of fixing whole portions of its shape.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Lomax, Harvard

Torsional stiffness of thin-walled shells having reinforcing cores and rectangular, triangular, or diamond cross section

Description: A theoretical investigation has been made of the Saint-Venant torsion of certain composite bars. These bars are composed of two materials -- one material in the form of a thin-walled cylindrical shell and the other material in the form of a core which fills the interior of the shell and is bonded to it. An approximate boundary-value problem is formulated on assumptions similar to those of the theory of torsion of hollow thin-walled shells (Bredt theory). This boundary-value problem is solved exactly for a rectangular cross section and approximately for slender triangular and diamond cross sections. Results for the torsional stiffness constants are presented graphically.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Mccomb, Harvey G , Jr

Attenuation in a shock tube due to unsteady-boundary-layer action

Description: A method is presented for obtaining the attenuation of a shock wave in a shock tube due to the unsteady boundary layer along the shock-tube walls. It is assumed that the boundary layer is thin relative to the tube diameter and induces one-dimensional longitudinal pressure waves whose strength is proportional to the vertical velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. The contributions of the various regions in a shock tube to shock attenuation are indicated. The method is shown to be in reasonably good agreement with existing experimental data.
Date: 1957
Creator: Mirels, Harold