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Investigation of downwash, sidewash, and Mach number distribution behind a rectangular wing at a Mach number of 2.41

Description: An investigation of the nature of the flow field behind a rectangular wing of circular arc cross section has been conducted in the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Pitot- and static-pressure surveys covering a region of flow behind the wing have been made together with detailed pitot surveys throughout the region of the wake. In addition, the flow direction has been measured by means of a weathercocking vane. Theoretical calculations have been made to obtain the variation of both downwash and sidewash with angle of attack by using the superposition method of Lagerstrom, Graham, and Grosslight. In addition, the effect of wing thickness on the sidewash with the wing at 0 degree angle of attack has been evaluated.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Adamson, David & Boatright, William B

Theoretical and experimental investigation of the subsonic-flow fields beneath swept and unswept wings with tables or vortex-induced velocities

Description: The flow-field characteristics beneath swept and unswept wings as determined by potential-flow theory are compared with the experimentally determined flow fields beneath swept and unswept wing-fuselage combinations. The potential-flow theory utilized considered both spanwise and chordwise distributions of vorticity as well as the wing-thickness effects. The perturbation velocities induced by a unit horseshoe vortex are included in tabular form. The theoretical predictions of the flow-field characteristics were qualitatively correct in all cases considered, although there were indications that the magnitudes of the downwash angles tended to be overpredicted as the tip of the swept wing was approached and that the sidewash angles ahead of the unswept wing were underpredicted. The calculated effects of compressibility indicated that significant increases in the chordwise variation of flow angles and dynamic-pressure ratios should be expected in going from low to high subsonic speeds.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alford, William J , Jr

Determination of vortex paths by series expansion technique with application to cruciform wings

Description: A series method of determining two-dimensional vortex paths is considered and applied to the computation of vortex positions behind a slender equal-span cruciform wing at any angle of bank as a function of the distance behind the trailing edge. Calculated paths are shown for four bank angles. For a bank angle of 45 degrees comparison is made with the results of a closed expression given in NACA-TN-2605. For other bank angles water-tank experiments provide qualitative comparison. Satisfactory agreement is found for a sufficient distance downstream to include most practical missile-tail positions. The interference forces on an equal-span cruciform wing are calculated for five angles of bank (including the trivial case of zero bank) from the vortex positions found by use of the series.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Alksne, Alberta Y

Basic considerations in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels with air

Description: Basic combustion research is collected, collated, and interpreted as it applies to flight propulsion. The following fundamental processes are treated in separate chapters: atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels, flow and mixing processes in combustion chambers, ignition and flammability of hydrocarbon fuels, laminar flame propagation, turbulent flames, flame stabilization, diffusion flames, oscillations in combustors, and smoke and coke formation in the combustion of hydrocarbon-air mixtures. Theoretical background, basic experimental data, and practical significance to flight propulsion are presented.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Barnett, Henry C & Hibbard, Robert R

Exploratory investigation of boundary-layer transition on a hollow cylinder at a Mach number of 6.9

Description: The Reynolds number for transition on the outside of a hollow cylinder with heat transfer from the boundary layer to the wall has been investigated at a Mach number of 6.9 in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel. The type of boundary layer was determined from impact-pressure surveys and optical viewing. From a correlation of results obtained from various sources at lower Mach numbers (in the range 2.0 to 4.5) and data from the present tests with variable Reynolds number per inch, leading-edge thickness and free-stream Reynolds number per inch appear to be important considerations in flat-plate transition results. At a given Mach number, it appears that the Reynolds number based on leading-edge thickness is an important parameter that must be considered in comparisons of flat-plate transition data from various installations.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Bertram, Mitchel H

Linearized lifting-surface and lifting-line evaluations of sidewash behind rolling triangular wings at supersonic speeds

Description: The lifting-surface sidewash behind rolling triangular wings has been derived for a range of supersonic Mach numbers for which the wing leading edges remain swept behind the mark cone emanating from the wing apex. Variations of the sidewash with longitudinal distance in the vertical plane of symmetry are presented in graphical form. An approximate expression for the sidewash has been developed by means of an approach using a horseshoe-vortex approximate-lifting-line theory. By use of this approximate expression, sidewash may be computed for wings of arbitrary plan form and span loading. A comparison of the sidewash computed by lifting-surface and lifting-line expressions for the triangular wing showed good agreement except in the vicinity of the trailing edge when the leading edge approached the sonic condition. An illustrative calculation has been made of the force induced by the wing sidewash on a vertical tail located in various longitudinal positions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Bobbitt, Percy J

Cloud-droplet ingestion in engine inlets with inlet velocity ratios of 1.0 and 0.7

Description: The paths of cloud droplets into two engine inlets have been calculated for a wide range of meteorological and flight conditions. The amount of water in droplet form ingested by the inlets and the amount and distribution of water impinging on the inlet walls are obtained from these droplet-trajectory calculations. In both types of inlet, a prolate ellipsoid of revolution represents either part or all of the forebody at the center of an annular inlet to an engine. The configurations can also represent a fuselage of an airplane with side ram-scoop inlets. The studies were made at an angle of attack of 0 degree. The principal difference between the two inlets studied is that the inlet-air velocity of one is 0.7 that of the other. The studies of the two velocity ratios lead to some important general concepts of water ingestion in inlets.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J

Far Noise Field of Air Jets and Jet Engines

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to study and compare the acoustic radiation of air jets and jet engines. A number of different nozzle-exit shapes were studied with air jets to determine the effect of exit shape on noise generation. Circular, square, rectangular, and elliptical convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent and plug nozzles were investigated. The spectral distributions of the sound power for the engine and the air jet were in good agreement for the case where the engine data were not greatly affected by reflection or jet interference effects. Such power spectra for a subsonic or slightly choked engine or air jet show that the peaks of the spectra occur at a Strouhal number of 0.3.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Callaghan, Edmund E & Coles, Willard D

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Childs, J Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W & Graves, Charles C

Experimental and predicted longitudinal and lateral-directional response characteristics of a large flexible 35 degree swept-wing airplane at an altitude of 35,000 feet

Description: Measured and predicted dynamic response characteristics of a large flexible swept-wing airplane to control surface inputs are presented for flight conditions of 0.6 to 0.85 Mach number at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the response of the airplane to elevator control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the longitudinal short-period mode and several symmetrical structural modes. The second part deals with the response of the airplane to aileron and rudder control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the dutch roll mode, the rolling mode, and three antisymmetrical structural modes.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Cole, Henry A., Jr.; Brown, Stuart C. & Holleman, Euclid C.

Investigation of the laminar aerodynamic heat-transfer characteristics of a hemisphere-cylinder in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8

Description: A program to investigate the aerodynamic heat transfer of a nonisothermal hemisphere-cylinder has been conducted in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.8 and a Reynolds number from approximately 0.14 x 10(6) to 1.06 x 10(6) based on diameter and free-stream conditions. The experimental heat-transfer coefficients were slightly less over the whole body than those predicted by the theory of Stine and Wanlass (NACA technical note 3344) for an isothermal surface. For stations within 45 degrees of the stagnation point the heat-transfer coefficients could be correlated by a single relation between local Stanton number and local Reynolds number. Pitot pressure profiles taken at a Mach number of 6.8 on a hemisphere-cylinder have verified that the local Mach number or velocity outside the boundary layer required in the theories may be computed from the surface pressures by using isentropic flow relations and conditions immediately behind a normal shock. The experimental pressure distribution at Mach number of 6.8 is closely predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Crawford, Davis H & Mccauley, William D

Comparison of several methods for obtaining the time response of linear systems to either a unit impulse or arbitrary input from frequency-response data

Description: Several methods of obtaining the time response of Linear systems to either a unit impulse or an arbitrary input from frequency-response data are described and compared. Comparisons indicate that all the methods give good accuracy when applied to a second-order system; the main difference is the required computing time. The methods generally classified as inverse Laplace transform methods were found to be most effective in determining the response to a unit impulse from frequency-response data of higher order systems. Some discussion and examples are given of the use of such methods as flight-data-analysis techniques in predicting loads and motions of a flexible aircraft on the basis of simple calculations when the aircraft frequency response is known.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Donegan, James J & Huss, Carl R

Bodies of revolution having minimum drag at high supersonic airspeeds

Description: Approximate shapes of nonlifting bodies having minimum pressure foredrag at high supersonic airspeeds are calculated. With the aid of Newton's law of resistance, the investigation is carried out for various combinations of the conditions of given body length, base diameter, surface area, and volume. In general, it is found that when body length is fixed, the body has a blunt nose; whereas, when the length is not fixed, the body has a sharp nose. The additional effect of curvature of the flow over the surface is investigated to determine its influence on the shapes for minimum drag. The effect is to increase the bluntness of the shapes in the region of the nose and the curvature in the region downstream of the nose. These shape modifications have, according to calculation, only a slight tendency to reduce drag. Several bodies of revolution of fineness ratios 3 and 5, including the calculated shapes of minimum drag for given length and base diameter and for given base diameter and surface area, were tested at Mach numbers from 2.73 to 6.28. A comparison of theoretical and experimental foredrag coefficients indicates that the calculated minimum-drag bodies are reasonable approximations to the correct shape.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Eggers, A J , Jr; Resnikoff, Meyer M & Dennis, David H

Theoretical calculation of the power spectra of the rolling and yawing moments on a wing in random turbulence

Description: The correlation functions and power spectra of the rolling and yawing moments on an airplane wing due to the three components of continuous random turbulence are calculated. The rolling moments to the longitudinal (horizontal) and normal (vertical) components depend on the spanwise distributions of instantaneous gust intensity, which are taken into account by using the inherent properties of symmetry of isotropic turbulence. The results consist of expressions for correlation functions or spectra of the rolling moment in terms of the point correlation functions of the two components of turbulence. Specific numerical calculations are made for a pair of correlation functions given by simple analytic expressions which fit available experimental data quite well. Calculations are made for four lift distributions. Comparison is made with the results of previous analyses which assumed random turbulence along the flight path and linear variations of gust velocity across the span.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Eggleston, John M & Diederich, Franklin W

Influence of Hot-Working Conditions on High-Temperature Properties of a Heat-Resistant Alloy

Description: The relationships between conditions of hot-working and properties at high temperatures and the influence of the hot-working on response to heat treatment were investigated for an alloy containing nominally 20 percent molybdenum, 2 percent tungsten, and 1 percent columbium. Commercially produced bar stock was solution-treated at 2,200 degrees F. to minimize prior-history effects and then rolled at temperatures of 2,200 degrees, 2,100 degrees, 2,000 degrees, 1,800 degrees, and 1,600 degrees F. Working was carried out at constant temperature and with incremental decreases in temperature simulating a falling temperature during hot-working. In addition, a few special repeated cyclic conditions involving a small reduction at high temperature followed by a small reduction at a low temperature were used to study the possibility of inducing very low strengths by the extensive precipitation accompanying such properties. Most of the rolling was done in open passes with a few check tests being made with closed passes. Heat treatments at both 2,050 degrees and 2,200 degrees F. subsequent to working were used to study the influence on response to heat treatment.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Ewing, John F & Freeman, J W

A summary and analysis of the low-speed longitudinal characteristics of swept wings at high Reynolds number

Description: An analysis of the longitudinal characteristics of swept wings which is based on available large-scale low-speed data and supplemented with low-scale data when feasible is presented. The emphasis has been placed on the differentiation of the characteristics by a differentiation between the basic flow phenomenon involved. Insofar as possible all large-scale data available as of August 15, 1951 have been summarized in tabular form for ready reference.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Furlong, G Chester & Mchugh, James G

Determination of longitudinal stability and control characteristics from free-flight model tests with results at transonic speeds for three airplane configurations

Description: A test technique and data analysis method has been developed for determining the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics from free-flight tests of rocket-propelled models. The technique makes use of accelerometers and an angle-of-attack indicator to permit instantaneous measurements of lift, drag, and pitching moments. The data, obtained during transient oscillations resulting from control-surface disturbances, are analyzed by essentially nonlinear direct methods (such as cross plots of the variation of lift coefficient with angle of attack) and by linear indirect methods by using the equations of motion for a transient oscillation. The analysis procedure has been set forth in some detail and the feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by data measured through the transonic speed range on several airplane configurations. It was shown that the flight conditions and dynamic similitude factors for the tests described were reasonably close to typical full-scale airplane conditions.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Gillis, Clarence L & Mitchell, Jesse L

Wind-tunnel investigation of a number of total-pressure tubes at high angles of attack -- subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

Description: The effect of inclination of the airstream on the measured pressures of 54 total-pressure tubes has been determined for angles of attack up to 60 degrees and over a Mach number range from 0.26 to 1.62. The investigation was conducted in five wind tunnels at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Gracey, William

On slender-body theory at transonic speeds

Description: The basic ideas of the slender-body approximation have been applied to the nonlinear transonic-flow equation for the velocity potential in order to obtain some of the essential features of slender-body theory at transonic speeds. The results of the investigation are presented from a unified point of view which demonstrates the similarity of slender-body solutions in the various Mach number ranges. The transonic area rule and some conditions concerning its validity follow from the analysis. (author).
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Harder, Keith C & Klunker, E B

Three-dimensional transonic flow theory applied to slender wings and bodies

Description: The present paper re-examines the derivation of the integral equations for transonic flow around slender wings and bodies of revolution, giving special attention to conditions resulting from the presence of shock waves and to the reduction of the relations to the special forms necessary for the discussion of sonic flow, that is, flow at free-stream Mach number 1.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Heaslet, Max A & Spreiter, John R

Approximate analysis of effects of large deflections and initial twist on torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to thermal stresses

Description: An approximate analysis of the nonlinear effects of initial twist and large deflections on the torsional stiffness of a cantilever plate subjected to a nonuniform temperature distribution is presented. The Von Karman large-deflection equations are satisfied through the use of a variational principle. The results show that initial twist and applied moments can have significant effects on the changes in stiffness produced by nonuniform heating, particularly in the region of the buckling temperature difference. Results calculated by this approximate analysis are in satisfactory agreement with measured torsional deformations and changes in natural frequency. (author).
Date: May 15, 1957
Creator: Heldenfels, Richard R & Vosteen, Louis F

Induced velocities near a lifting rotor with nonuniform disk loading

Description: A method is given for converting known uniformly loaded rotor induced velocities to correspond with arbitrary axisymmetric nonuniform disk load distributions. Numerical results for two specific distributions are given in chart form. Symmetry relations and relations between radial disk loading and wake velocities are developed. Experimental flow measurements are presented and compared with theory. Reasonable agreement is shown in the forward part of the flow when nonuniform loading is assumed, but far behind the rotor the flow is more like that of a wing.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Heyson, Harry H & Katzoff, S

Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

Description: Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit. With afterburning maximum sound pressure was increased by 50 percent. The sound pressures without afterburning were obtained on a constant percentage band width basis in the frequency range from 350 to 700 cps. Cross-correlation measurements with microphones were made for a range of jet velocities at locations along the jet and at a distance from the jet. In general, little change in the correlation curves was found as a function of jet velocity or frequency-band width.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Howes, Walton L; Callaghan, Edmund E; Coles, Willard D & Mull, Harold R

Minimum wave drag for arbitrary arrangements of wings and bodies

Description: Studies of various arrangements of wings and bodies designed to provide favorable wave interference at supersonic speeds lead to the problem of determining the minimum possible valve of the wave resistance obtainable by any disposition of the elements of an aircraft within a definitely prescribed region. Under the assumptions that the total lift and the total volume of the aircraft are given, conditions that must be satisfied if the drag is to be a minimum are found. The report concludes with a discussion of recent developments of the theory which lead to an improved understanding of the drag associated with the production of lift.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Jones, Robert T