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Wall interference in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel, with consideration of the effect of compressibility

Description: Theoretical tunnel-wall corrections are derived for an airfoil of finite thickness and camber in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake of the airfoil and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small in comparison with the height of the tunnel. Consideration is given to the phenomenon of choking at high speeds and its relation to the tunnel-wall corrections. The theoretical results are compared with the small amount of low-speed experimental data available and the agreement is seen to be satisfactory, even for relatively large values of the chord-height ratio.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Allen, H Julian & Vincenti, Walter G

The NACA impact basin and water landing tests of a float model at various velocities and weights

Description: The first data obtained in the United States under the controlled testing conditions necessary for establishing relationships among the numerous parameters involved when a float having both horizontal and vertical velocity contacts a water surface are presented. The data were obtained at the NACA impact basin. The report is confined to a presentation of the relationship between resultant velocity and impact normal acceleration for various float weights when all other parameters are constant. Analysis of the experimental results indicated that the maximum impact normal acceleration was proportional to the square of the resultant velocity, that increases in float weight resulted in decreases in the maximum impact normal acceleration, and that an increase in the flight-path angle caused increased impact normal acceleration.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Batterson, Sidney A

A Theoretical Investigation of the Rolling Oscillations of an Airplane with Ailerons Free

Description: An analysis is made of the stability of an airplane with ailerons free, with particular attention to the motions when the ailerons have a tendency to float against the wind. The present analysis supersedes the aileron investigation contained in NACA Report No. 709. The equations of motion are first written to include yawing and sideslipping, and it is demonstrated that the principal effects of freeing the ailerons can be determined without regard to these motions. If the ailerons tend to float against the wind and have a high degree of aerodynamic balance, rolling oscillations, in addition to the normal lateral oscillations, are likely to occur. On the basis of the equations including only the rolling motion and the aileron deflection, formulas are derived for the stability and damping of the rolling oscillations in terms of the hinge moment derivatives and other characteristics of the ailerons and airplane. Charts are also presented showing the oscillatory regions and stability boundaries for a fictitious airplane of conventional proportions. The effects of friction in the control system are investigated and discussed. If the ailerons tend to trail with the wind, the condition for stable variation of stick force with aileron deflection is found to determine the amount of aerodynamic balance that may be used. If the ailerons tend to float against the wind, the period and damping of the rolling oscillations are found to be satisfactory (in a mass-balanced system) so long as the restoring moment is not completely balanced out. Unbalanced mass behind the hinge, however, has an unfavorable effect on the damping of the oscillations and so shifts the boundary that close aerodynamic balance may not be attainable.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Cohen, Doris

A theoretical investigation of the rolling oscillations of an airplane with ailerons free

Description: An analysis is made of the stability of an airplane with ailerons free, with particular attention to the motions when the ailerons have a tendency to float against the wind. The present analysis supersedes the aileron investigation contained in NACA Technical Report no. 709. The equations of motion are first written to include yawing and sideslipping, and it is demonstrated that the principal effects of freeing the ailerons can be determined without regard to these motions. If the ailerons tend to float against the wind and have a high degree of aerodynamic balance, rolling oscillations, in addition to the normal lateral oscillations, are likely to occur. On the basis of the equations including only the rolling motion and the aileron deflection, formulas derived for the stability and damping of the rolling oscillations in terms of the hinge-moment derivatives are also presented showing the oscillatory regions and stability boundaries for a fictitious airplane of conventional proportion. The effects of friction in the control system are investigated and discussed.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Cohen, Doris

Wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of profile modification and tabs on the characteristics of ailerons on a low-drag airfoil

Description: An investigation has been made to determine the effect of control-surface profile modifications on the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA low-drag airfoil equipped with a 0.20-chord and a 0.15-chord aileron. Tab characteristics have been obtained for 0.20-aileron chord tabs on two of the 0.20-chord ailerons. Basic data are presented from which the effect of tabs can be calculated for specific cases. The data are sufficient for the solution of problems of fixed tabs with a differential linkage, as well as simple and spring-linked balancing tabs.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Crane, Robert M & Holtzclaw, Ralph W

NACA investigation of a jet-propulsion system applicable to flight

Description: Following a brief history of the NACA investigation of jet propulsion, a discussion is given of the general investigation and analysis leading to the construction of the jet-propulsion ground-test mock-up. The results of burning experiments and of test measurements designed to allow quantitative flight performance predictions of the system are presented and correlated with calculations. These calculations are then used to determine the performance of the system on the ground and in the air at various speeds and altitudes under various burning conditions. The application of the system to an experimental airplane is described and some performance predictions for this airplane are made.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Ellis, Macon C , Jr & Brown, Clinton E

On the plane potential flow past a lattice of arbitrary airfoils

Description: The two-dimensional, incompressible potential flow past a lattice of airfoils of arbitrary shape is investigated theoretically. The problem is treated by usual methods of conformal mapping in several stages, one stage corresponding to the mapping of the framework of the arbitrary line lattice and another significant stage corresponding to the Theodorsen method for the mapping of the arbitrary single wing profile into a circle. A particular feature in the theoretical treatment is the special handling of the regions at an infinite distance in front of and behind the lattice. Expressions are given for evaluation of the velocity and pressure distribution at the airfoil boundary. An illustrative numerical example is included.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Garrick, I E

On the flow of a compressible fluid by the hodograph method I : unification and extension of present-day results

Description: Elementary basic solutions of the equations of motion of a compressible fluid in the hodograph variables are developed and used to provide a basis for comparison, in the form of velocity correction formulas, of corresponding compressible and incompressible flows. The known approximate results of Chaplygin, Von Karman and Tsien, Temple and Yarwood, and Prandtl and Glauert are unified by means of the analysis of the present paper. Two new types of approximations, obtained from the basic solutions, are introduced; they possess certain desirable features of the other approximations and appear preferable as a basis for extrapolation into the range of high stream Mach numbers and large disturbances to the main stream. Tables and figures giving velocity and pressure-coefficient correction factors are included in order to facilitate the practical application of the results.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Garrick, I E & Kaplan, Carl

On the flow of a compressible fluid by the hodograph method II : fundamental set of particular flow solutions of the Chaplygin differential equation

Description: The differential equation of Chaplygin's jet problem is utilized to give a systematic development of particular solutions of the hodograph flow equations, which extends the treatment of Chaplygin into the supersonic range and completes the set of particular solutions. The particular solutions serve to place on a reasonable basis the use of velocity correction formulas for the comparison of incompressible and compressible flows. It is shown that the geometric-mean type of velocity correction formula introduced in part I has significance as an over-all type of approximation in the subsonic range. A brief review of general conditions limiting the potential flow of an adiabatic compressible fluid is given and application is made to the particular solutions, yielding conditions for the existence of singular loci in the supersonic range. The combining of particular solutions in accordance with prescribed boundary flow conditions is not treated in the present paper.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Garrick, I E & Kaplan, Carl

On the Flow of a Compressible Fluid by the Hodograph Method. II - Fundamental Set of Particular Flow Solutions of the Chaplygin Differential Equation

Description: The differential equation of Chaplygin's jet problem is utilized to give a systematic development of particular solutions of the hodograph flow equations, which extends the treatment of Chaplygin into the supersonic range and completes the set of particular solutions. The particular solutions serve to place on a reasonable basis the use of velocity correction formulas for the comparison of incompressible and compressible flows. It is shown that the geometric-mean type of velocity correction formula introduced in part I has significance as an over-all type of approximation in the subsonic range. A brief review of general conditions limiting the potential flow of an adiabatic compressible fluid is given and application is made to the particular solutions, yielding conditions for the existence of singular loci in the supersonic range. The combining of particular solutions in accordance with prescribed boundary flow conditions is not treated in the present paper.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Garrick, I. E. & Kaplan, Carl

Effect of tilt of the propeller axis on the longitudinal-stability characteristics of single-engine airplanes

Description: Report presents the results of tests of a model of a single-engine airplane with two different tilts of the propeller axis. The results indicate that on a typical design a 5 degree downward tilt of the propeller axis will considerably reduce the destabilization effects of power. A comparison of the experimental results with those computed by use of existing theory is included. A comparison of the experimental results with those computed by use of existing theory is included. It is shown that the results can be predicted with an accuracy acceptable for preliminary design purposes, particularly at the higher powers where the effects are of significant magnitude.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Goett, Harry J & Delaney, Noel K

Wind-Tunnel Procedure for Determination of Critical Stability and Control Characteristics of Airplanes

Description: This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Goett, Harry J.; Jackson, Roy P. & Belsley, Steven E.

Wind-tunnel procedure for determination of critical stability and control characteristics of airplanes

Description: This report outlines the flight conditions that are usually critical in determining the design of components of an airplane which affect its stability and control characteristics. The wind-tunnel tests necessary to determine the pertinent data for these conditions are indicated, and the methods of computation used to translate these data into characteristics which define the flying qualities of the airplane are illustrated.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Goett, Harry J; Jackson, Roy P & Belsley, Steven E

Compressibility and heating effects on pressure loss and cooling of a baffled cylinder barrel

Description: Theoretical investigations have shown that, because air is compressible, the pressure-drop requirements for cooling an air-cooled engine will be much greater at high altitudes and high speeds than at sea level and low speeds. Tests were conducted by the NACA to obtain some experimental confirmation of the effect of air compressibility on cooling and pressure loss of a baffled cylinder barrel and to evaluate various methods of analysis. The results reported in the present paper are regarded as preliminary to tests on single-cylinder and multicylinder engines. Tests were conducted over a wide range of air flows and density altitudes.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Goldstein, Arthur W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Compressibility and Heating Effects on Pressure Loss and Cooling of a Baffled Cylinder Barrel

Description: Theoretical investigations have shown that, because air is compressible, the pressure-drop requirements for cooling an air-cooled engine will be much greater at high altitudes and high speeds than at sea level and low speeds. Tests were conducted by the NACA to obtain some experimental confirmation of the effect of air compressibility on cooling and pressure loss of a baffled cylinder barrel and to evaluate various methods of analysis. The results reported in the present paper are regarded as preliminary to tests on single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engines. Tests were conducted over a wide range of air flows and density altitudes.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Goldstein, Arthur W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

A Theoretical Investigation of Longitudinal Stability of Airplanes with Free Controls Including Effect of Friction in Control System

Description: The relation between the elevator hinge moment parameters and the control forces for changes in forward speed and in maneuvers is shown for several values of static stability and elevator mass balance. The stability of the short period oscillations is shown as a series of boundaries giving the limits of the stable regions in terms of the elevator hinge moment parameters. The effects of static stability, elevator moment of inertia, elevator mass unbalance, and airplane density are also considered. Dynamic instability is likely to occur if there is mass unbalance of the elevator control system combined with a small restoring tendency (high aerodynamic balance). This instability can be prevented by a rearrangement of the unbalancing weights which, however, involves an increase of the amount of weight necessary. It can also be prevented by the addition of viscous friction to the elevator control system provided the airplane center of gravity is not behind a certain critical position. For high values of the density parameter, which correspond to high altitudes of flight, the addition of moderate amounts of viscous friction may be destabilizing even when the airplane is statically stable. In this case, increasing the viscous friction makes the oscillation stable again. The condition in which viscous friction causes dynamic instability of a statically stable airplane is limited to a definite range of hinge moment parameters. It is shown that, when viscous friction causes increasing oscillations, solid friction will produce steady oscillations having an amplitude proportional to the amount of friction.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Greenberg, Harry & Sternfield, Leonard

Compressible potential flow with circulation about a circular cylinder

Description: The potential function for flow, with circulation, of a compressible fluid about a circular cylinder is obtained in series form including terms of the orders of m(4) where m is the Mach number of the free stream. The resulting equations are used to obtain pressure coefficients as a function of Mach number at a point on the surface of the cylinder for different values of circulation. The coefficients derived are compared with the Glauert-Prandtl and Karman-Tsien approximations which are functions of the pressure coefficients of an incompressible fluid. For the cases considered, the values of the pressure coefficients computed from the theory were found to be somewhere between the two approximations, the first underestimating and the second overestimating it.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Heaslet, Max A

A method for studying the hunting oscillations of an airplane with a simple type of automatic control

Description: A method is presented for predicting the amplitude and frequency, under certain simplifying conditions, of the hunting oscillations of an automatically controlled aircraft with lag in the control system or in the response of the aircraft to the controls. If the steering device is actuated by a simple right-left type of signal, the series of alternating fixed-amplified signals occurring during the hunting may ordinarily be represented by a "square wave." Formulas are given expressing the response to such a variations of signal in terms of the response to a unit signal. A more complex type of hunting, which may involve cyclic repetition of signals of varying duration, has not been treated and requires further analysis. Several examples of application of the method are included and the results discussed.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Jones, Robert T

Effect of hinge-moment parameters on elevator stick forces in rapid maneuvers

Description: The importance of the stick force per unit normal acceleration as a criterion of longitudinal stability and the critical dependence of this gradient on elevator hinge-moment parameters have been shown in previous reports. The present report continues the investigation with special reference to transient effects for maneuvers of short duration.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Jones, Robert T & Greenberg, Harry

The flow of a compressible fluid past a circular arc profile

Description: The Ackeret iteration process is utilized to obtain higher approximations than that of Prandtl and Glauert for the flow of a compressible fluid past a circular arc profile. The procedure is to expand the velocity potential in a power series of the camber coefficient. The first two terms of the development correspond to the Prandtl-Glauert approximation and yield the well-known correction to the circulation about the profile. The second approximation, involving the square of the camber coefficient, improves the velocity and pressure fields but yields no new results with regard to the circulation, since the circulation about the profile is an odd function of the camber coefficient. The third approximation, involving the cube of the camber coefficient, permits the use of higher values of the camber coefficient and furthermore yields an improvement to the Prandtl-Glauert rule with regard to the effect of compressibility on the circulation of the circular arc profile. Numerical examples with tables and graphs illustrate the results of the analysis.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

Preknock vibrations in a spark-ignition engine cylinder as revealed by high-speed photography

Description: The high-speed photographic investigation of the mechanics of spark-ignition engine knock recorded in three previous reports has been extended with use of the NACA high-speed camera and combustion apparatus with a piezoelectric pressure pickup in the combustion chamber. The motion pictures of knocking combustion were taken at the rate of 40,000 frames per second. Existence of the preknock vibrations in the engine cylinder suggested in Technical Report no.727 has been definitely proved and the vibrations have been analyzed both in the high-speed motion pictures and the pressure traces. Data are also included to show that the preknock vibrations do not progressively build up to cause knock. The effect of tetraethyl lead on the preknock vibrations has been studied and results of the tests are presented. Photographs are presented which in some cases clearly show evidence of autoignition in the end zone a considerable length of time before knock occurs.
Date: January 1, 1944
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D & Logan, Walter O , Jr