UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 34 Matching Results

Search Results

The drag of two streamline bodies as affected by protuberances and appendages

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of two airship models conducted to determine the drag coefficients at zero pitch, and the effect of fins and cars and of flat and streamlined protuberances located at various positions along the hull. During the investigation the stern of one model was rounded off to produce a blunter shape. The extreme range of the Reynolds number based on the over-all length of the models was from 1,300,000 to 33,000,000. At large values of the Reynolds number the streamlined protuberance affected the drag very little, and the additional drag caused by the flat protuberance was less than the calculated drag by the protuberance alone. The fins and cars together increased the bare-hull drag about 20 per cent.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Abbott, Ira H

The interference between struts in various combinations

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests made to determine the interference drag arising from various arrangements of streamline struts and round struts, or cylinders. Determinations were made of the interference drag of struts spaced side by side, struts in tandem, tandem struts encased in a single fairing, a strut intersecting a plane, and struts intersecting to form a v. Three sizes of struts were used for most of the tests. These tests show that the interference drag arising from struts in close proximity may be of considerable magnitude, in some instances amounting to more than the drag of the struts themselves.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Biermann, David & Herrnstein, William H , Jr

The calculation of take-off run

Description: A comparatively simple method of calculating length of take-off run is developed from the assumption of a linear variation in net accelerating force with air speed and it is shown that the error involved is negligible.
Date: January 1934
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Relative loading on biplane wings

Description: Recent improvements in stress analysis methods have made it necessary to revise and to extend the loading curves to cover all conditions of flight. This report is concerned with a study of existing biplane data by combining the experimental and theoretical data to derive a series of curves from which the lift curves of the individual wings of a biplane may be obtained.
Date: January 1934
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Static thrust of airplane propellers

Description: Static thrust data from more than 100 airplane propeller tests are collected from various sources and combined in working charts, from which the static thrust coefficient may be readily determined. The available data cover practically all types of propellers and are in good agreement.
Date: January 1934
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Pressure-distribution measurements on the hull and fins of scale model of the U. S. Airship "Akron."

Description: This report presents the results of measurements of pressure distribution conducted in the propeller-research wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on a 1/40-scale model of the U. S. Airship "Akron" (ZRS-4). The pressures, which were measured simultaneously at nearly 400 orifices located at 26 stations along one side of the hull, were recorded by two photographic multiple manometers placed inside the model. The hull pressures were measured both with and without the tail surfaces and the control car for eight angles of pitch varying from 0 degree to 20 degrees and at air speeds of approximately 70 and 100 miles per hour. The pressures were also measured at approximately 160 orifices on one horizontal fin for the above speeds and pitch angles and for nine elevator angles.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B

Determination of the theoretical pressure distribution for twenty airfoils

Description: This report gives the theoretical distribution of pressure at lift coefficients of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 for 20 airfoils, calculated on the basis of a rigorous potential theory of arbitrary airfoils. It also provides tables from which the characteristics of the airfoils for any angle of attack in 2-dimensional potential flow are readily calculable. The theoretical values of the angles of zero lift, the lift and moment coefficients, and the ideal angles of attack are listed and some comparisons with experiment are indicated. The results presented may be of value in predicting structural loads and also in a correlation of theoretical pressure gradients with profile resistance.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Garrick, I E

Negative thrust and torque characteristics of an adjustable-pitch metal propeller

Description: This report presents the results of a series of negative thrust and torque measurements made with a 4 foot diameter model of a conventional aluminum-alloy propeller. The tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The results show that the negative thrust is considerably affected by the shape and size of the body behind the propeller, that the maximum negative thrust increases with decrease in blade-angle setting, and that the drag of a locked propeller may be greatly reduced by feathering it into the wind. Several examples of possible applications of the data are given.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P

Wing characteristics as affected by protuberances of short span

Description: The drag and interference caused by short-span protuberances from the surface of an airfoil have been investigated in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of approximately 3,100,000, based on the chord length of the airfoil. The effects of variations of protuberance span length, span position, and shape were measured by determining how the wing characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Sherman, Albert

Working charts for the determination of the lift distribution between biplane wings

Description: In this report are presented empirical working charts from which the distribution of lift between wings, that is the fraction of the total lift borne by each, can be determined in the positive lift range for any ordinary biplane cellule whose individual wings have the same profile. The variables taken directly into account include airfoil section, stagger, gap/chord ratio, decalage, chord ratio, and overhang. It is shown that the influence of unequal sweepback and unequal dihedral in upper and lower wings may be properly provided for by utilizing the concepts of average stagger and average gap/chord ratio, respectively. The effect of other variables is discussed, but they have not been included in the charts either because their influence was obviously small or because insufficient data existed to make possible a complete determination of their influence. All available pertinent biplane data were analyzed in establishing the charts, and in some cases theoretical relationships were utilized to establish qualitative tendencies.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays

Description: A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Lee, Dana W & Spencer, Robert C

Strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders in compression

Description: This report is the second of a series presenting the results of strength tests of thin-walled duralumin cylinders and truncated cones of circular and elliptic section. It contains the results obtained from compression tests on 45 thin-walled duralumin cylinders of circular section with ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. In addition to the tests on duralumin cylinders, there are included the results of numerous tests on rubber, celluloid, steel, and brass cylinders obtained from various sources.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E.

Improved apparatus for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Description: This report describes recent improvements in the design of the equipment associated with the hot-wire anemometer for the measurement of fluctuating air speeds in turbulent air flow, and presents the results of some experimental investigations dealing with the response of the hot wire to speed fluctuations of various frequencies. Attempts at measuring the frequency of the fluctuations encountered in the Bureau of Standards' 54-inch wind tunnel are also reported. In addition, the difficulties encountered in the use of such apparatus and the precautions found helpful in avoiding them are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Mock, W C , Jr & Dryden, H L

Penetration and duration of fuel sprays from a pump injection system

Description: High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Marsh, E. T.

Performance of a fuel-injection spark-ignition engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel

Description: This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Young, Alfred W

Air flow in a separating laminar boundary layer

Description: Report discussing the speed distribution in a laminar boundary layer on the surface of an elliptic cylinder, of major and minor axes 11.78 and 3.98 inches, respectively, has been determined by means of a hot-wire anemometer. The direction of the impinging air stream was parallel to the major axis. Special attention was given to the region of separation and to the exact location of the point of separation. An approximate method, developed by K. Pohlhausen for computing the speed distribution, the thickness of the layer, and the point of separation, is described in detail; and speed-distribution curves calculated by this method are presented for comparison with experiment.
Date: December 1, 1934
Creator: Schubauer, G. B.

A flight investigation of the spinning of the NY-1 airplane with varied mass distribution and other modifications, and an analysis based on wind-tunnel tests

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the spinning characteristics of NY-1 naval training biplane. The results of flight tests and an analysis based on wind-tunnel test data are given and compared. The primary purpose of the investigation was the determination in flight of the effect of changes in mass distribution along the longitudinal axis, without change of mass quantity or centroid. Other effects were also investigated, such as those due to wing loading, center-of-gravity position, dihedral of wings, control setting, and the removal of a large portion of the fabric from the fin and rudder. The wind tunnel test results used in the numerical analysis were obtained in the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel through an angle-of-attack.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Scudder, Nathan F

The aerodynamic effects of wing cut-outs

Description: From Introduction: "The information now available concerning wing cut-outs or applicable to the analysis of their effects is plentiful (references 1 to 7) but too disconnected and unorganized to be of the greatest possible usefulness. In connection with the interference program being conducted in the N.A.C.A. varible-density wind tunnel, an analysis was therefore made of existing material to determine the qualitative effects of the different features of wing cut-outs, and to obtain means of calculating wing characteristics as affected by them."
Date: 1934
Creator: Sherman, Albert

Aircraft power-plant instruments

Description: From Summary: "The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described."
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Sontag, Harcourt & Brombacher, W. G.

The experimental determination of the moments of inertia of airplanes

Description: The application of the pendulum method to the experimental determination of the moments of inertia of airplanes is discussed in this report. Particular reference is made to the effects of the air, in which the airplane is immersed, on the swinging tests and to the procedure by which these effects are taken into account. This procedure has been used for some time, and the data on several airplanes for which the moments of inertia have been found are included.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Soule, Hartley A & Miller, Marvel P

A comparison between the theoretical and measured longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane

Description: This report covers an investigation of the application of the theory of dynamic longitudinal stability, based on the assumption of small oscillations, to oscillations an airplane is likely to undergo in flight. The investigation was conducted with a small parasol monoplane for the fixed-stick condition. The period and damping of longitudinal oscillations were determined by direct measurements of oscillations in flight and also by calculation in which the factors that enter the theoretical stability equation were determined in flight. A comparison of the above-mentioned characteristics obtained by these two methods indicates that the theory is applicable to the conditions encountered in flight.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Soule, Hartley A & Wheatley, John B

Increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a compression-ignition engine

Description: The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.
Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W & Foster, H H