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The resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and in air

Description: To supplement the standardization tests now in progress at several laboratories, a broad investigation of the resistance of spheres in wind tunnels and free air has been carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The subject has been classed in aerodynamic research, and in consequence there is available a great mass of data from previous investigations. This material was given careful consideration in laying out the research, and explanation of practically all the disagreement between former experiments has resulted. A satisfactory confirmation of Reynolds law has been accomplished, the effect of means of support determined, the range of experiment greatly extended by work in the new variable density wind tunnel, and the effects of turbulence investigated by work in the tunnels and by towing and dropping tests in free air. It is concluded that the erratic nature of most of the previous work is due to support interference and differing turbulence conditions. While the question of support has been investigated thoroughly, a systematic and comprehensive study of the effects of scale and quality of turbulence will be necessary to complete the problem, as this phase was given only general treatment.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bacon, D L & Reid, E G

The distribution of lift over wing tips and ailerons

Description: This investigation was carried out in the 5-foot wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of obtaining more complete information on the distribution of lift between the ends of wing spars, the stresses in ailerons, and the general subject of airflow near the tip of a wing. It includes one series of tests on four models without ailerons, having square, elliptical, and raked tips respectively, and a second series of positively and negatively raked wings with ailerons adjusted to different settings. The results show that negatively raked tips give a more uniform distribution of air pressure than any of the other three arrangements, because the tip vortex does not disturb the flow at the trailing edge. Aileron loads are found to be less severe on wings with negative application to the calculation of aileron and wing stresses and also to facilitate the proper distribution of load in sand testing. Contour charts show in great detail the complex distribution lift over the wing.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bacon, David L

The Inertial Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

Description: This report deals with the investigation of the apparent inertia of an airship hull. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem has been studied for hulls of various shapes and special attention has been given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. In order that the results for this last case may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient K which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio 7. For rough purposes it is sufficient to employ the coefficients, originally found for ellipsoids, for hulls otherwise shaped. When more exact values of the inertia are needed, estimates may be based on a study of the way in which K varies with different characteristics and for such a study the new coefficient possesses some advantage over one which is defined with reference to the volume of fluid displaced. The case of rotation of an airship hull has been investigated also and a coefficient has been defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Bateman, H

Jet propulsion for airplanes

Description: This report is a description of a method of propelling airplanes by the reaction of jet propulsion. Air is compressed and mixed with fuel in a combustion chamber, where the mixture burns at constant pressure. The combustion products issue through a nozzle, and the reaction of that of the motor-driven air screw. The computations are outlined and the results given by tables and curves. The relative fuel consumption and weight of machinery for the jet, decrease as the flying speed increases; but at 250 miles per hour the jet would still take about four times as much fuel per thrust horsepower-hour as the air screw, and the power plant would be heavier and much more complicated. Propulsion by the reaction of a simple jet can not compete with air screw propulsion at such flying speeds as are now in prospect.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Buckingham, Edgar

Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

Description: This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.
Date: January 1924
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

The general efficiency curve for air propellers

Description: This report presents a formula which may be used to obtain a "general efficiency curve" in addition to the well-known maximum efficiency curve. These two curves, when modified somewhat by experimental data, enable performance calculations to be made without detailed knowledge of the propeller. The curves may also be used to estimate the improvement in efficiency due to reduction gearing, or to judge the performance of a new propeller design.
Date: January 1924
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Relative efficiency of direct and geared drive propellers

Description: This report is an extension of NACA-TR-168 and has been prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to show the relative values of various direct and geared drives. It is well known that in general a geared-down propeller has higher efficiency than a direct-drive propeller, but the literature on this subject does not present the data in such form that the aeronautical engineer can readily visualize the effect of gearing. This report has been prepared to show the actual net gain or loss in maximum efficiency due to the use of various modifications of the conventional two-bladed, direct-drive propeller. (author).
Date: January 1924
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Reliable formulae for estimating airplane performance and the effects of changes in weight, wing area, or power

Description: This report contains the derivation and the verification of formulae for predicting the speed range ratio, the initial rate of climb, and the absolute ceiling of an airplane. Curves used in the computation are given in NACA-TR-171. Standard formulae for service ceiling, time of climb, cruising range, and endurance are also given in the conventional forms.
Date: January 1924
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

Description: This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Hersey, M D

The effect of airfoil thickness and plan form on lateral control

Description: This investigation was carried out for the purpose of determining the effectiveness of ailerons and tests were made on six model airfoils in the no. 1 wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The method consisted in measuring the rolling moments and aileron moments in the ordinary way. In addition to this the wing was allowed to spin freely about an axis in the direction of the air flow and the angular velocity measured. The results show that the thickness of the airfoil has very little effect on either the rolling moment or the hinge moment, although the resulting efficiency is somewhat higher for the tapered wings. The airfoil tapered in plan form, however, shows practically no falling off in the rolling moment at the critical angle of attack, whereas the wings of rectangular plan form show a marked dropping off in the rolling moment at this point. This indicates that it is possible to obtain good lateral control with small ailerons at low speed if the plan form is tapered. The rotational speed of the different airfoils is practically the same for all of the sections tested.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Hoot, H I

The effect of slipstream obstructions on air propellers

Description: The screw propeller on airplanes is usually placed near other objects, and hence its performance may be modified by them. Results of tests on propellers free from slip stream obstructions, both fore and aft, are therefore subject to correction, for the effect of such obstructions and the purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect upon the thrust and torque coefficients and efficiency, for previously tested air propellers, of obstructions placed in the slip stream, it being realized that such previous tests had been conducted under somewhat ideal conditions that are impracticable of realization in flight. Simple geometrical forms were used for the initial investigation. Such forms offered the advantage of easy, exact reproduction at another time or in other laboratories, and it was believed that the effects of obstructions usually encountered might be deduced or surmise from those chosen.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Lesley, E P & Woods, B M

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

Description: This report describes the new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airship, which was used in the investigation of the navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose. It presents the general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned, and an attempt has been made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics without reference to some of the modern highly developed conceptions, which may not yet be thoroughly known to readers uninitiated into modern aerodynamics, and which may, perhaps, for all time remain restricted to a small number of specialists.
Date: 1924
Creator: Munk, Max M.

The influence of the form of a wooden beam on its stiffness and strength I : deflection of beams with special reference to shear deformations

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent ordinary deflection formulas, which neglect shear deformations, are in error when applied to beams of various sections, and to develop reasonably accurate yet comparatively simple formulas which take into account such deformations. A great many tests were made to determine the amount of shear deformation for beams of various sections tested over many different spans. As the span over which the beam is tested is increased the error introduced by neglecting shear deformations becomes less, and the values obtained by substituting measured deflections in the ordinary formulas approach more nearly the modulus of elasticity in tension and compression. For short spans the error is considerable and increases rapidly as the span is reduced. Two formulas were developed for estimating the magnitude of shear deformations, both of which have been verified by tests. The first assumes the parabolic distribution of shear on a cross section of a beam and, starting with a differential volume, the distortion due to shear is determined by the ordinary methods of summarizing the work. The second assumes that the deflections due to shear in any two beams of the same length, height, and moment of inertia, which are similarly loaded, are proportional to the summations of the shear stresses on their respective vertical sections. Both formulas check experimental results very closely when the calculations are made with great refinement.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, G W

The influence of the form of a wooden beam on its stiffness and strength II : form factors of beams subjected to transverse loading only

Description: The general aim of the investigation described in this report is the achievement of efficient design in wing beams. The purpose of the tests was to determine factors to apply to the usual beam formula in order that the properties of wood based on tests of rectangular sections might be used as a basis of design for beams of any sections and if practical to develop formulas for determining such factors and to verify them by experiment. Such factors for various sections have been determined from test by comparing properties of the beam in question to similar properties of matched beams 2 by 2 inches in section. Furthermore, formulas were worked out, more or less empirical in character, which check all of these test values remarkably well.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, G W

The measurement of the damping in roll on a JN4h in flight

Description: This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of measuring the value of L sub P in flight. The method consisted in flying with heavy weights on each wing tip, suddenly releasing one of them, and allowing the airplane to roll up to 90 degrees with controls held in neutral while a record was being taken of the airspeed, and angular velocity about the X axis. The results are of interest as they show that the damping found in the wind tunnel by the method of small oscillations is in general 40 per cent higher than the damping in flight. At 50 M. P. H. The flight curve of L sub P has a high peak, which is not indicated in the model results. It is also shown that at this speed the lateral maneuverability is low.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F. H.

The small angular oscillations of airplanes in steady flight

Description: This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the request of the Army Air Service to provide data concerning the small angular oscillations of several types of airplanes in steady flight under various atmospheric conditions. The data are of use in the design of bomb sights and other aircraft instruments. The method used consisted in flying the airplane steadily in one direction for at least one minute, while recording the angle of the airplane with the sun by means of a kymograph. The results show that the oscillations differ but little for airplanes of various types, but that the condition of the atmosphere is an important factor. The average angular excursion from the mean in smooth air is 0.8 degrees in pitch, 1.4 degrees in roll, and 0.9 degrees in yaw, without special instruments to aid the pilot in holding steady conditions. In bumpy air the values given above are increased about 50 per cent. (author).
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F. H.

A study of longitudinal dynamic stability in flight

Description: This investigation was carried out by the aerodynamic staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of studying experimentally the longitudinal dynamic stability of airplanes in flight. The airplanes selected for this purpose were a standard rigged VE-7 advanced-training airplane and a JN4H with special tail surfaces. The airplanes were caused to oscillate by means of the elevator, then the longitudinal control was either locked or kept free while the oscillation died out. The magnitude of the oscillation was recorded either by a kymograph or an airspeed meter. The results show that the engine speed has as much effect on the period and damping as the airspeed, and that, contrary to theory as developed for small oscillations, the damping decreased at the higher airspeeds with closed throttle.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F. H.

Complete study of longitudinal oscillation of a VE-7 airplane

Description: This investigation was carried out by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field in order to study as closely as possible the behavior of an airplane when it was making a longitudinal oscillation. The airspeed, the altitude, the angle with the horizon and the angle of attack were all recorded simultaneously and the resulting curves plotted to the same time scale. The results show that all the curves are very close to damped sine curves, with the curves for height and angle of attack in phase, that for angle with the horizon leading them by 18 per cent and that for path angle leading them by 25 per cent.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Brown, W. G.

The vertical, longitudinal, and lateral accelerations experienced by an S. E. 5a airplane while maneuvering

Description: This investigation was carried out by the Langley Field Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for the purpose of measuring the accelerations along the three principal axes of an airplane while it was maneuvering. The airplane selected for this purpose was the fairly maneuverable SE-5A and the instruments used were the NACA three component accelerometer and the NACA recording airspeed meter. The results showed that the normal accelerations did not exceed 4.000 G. While the lateral and longitudinal accelerations did not exceed 0.60 G.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Carroll, T.

The effect of electrode temperature on the sparking voltage of short spark gaps

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine what effect the temperature of spark plug electrodes might have on the voltage at which a spark occurred. A spark gap was set up so that one electrode could be heated to temperatures up to 700 degrees C., while the other electrode and the air in the gap were maintained at room temperature. The sparking voltages were measured both with direct voltage and with voltage impulse from ignition coil. It was found that the sparking voltage of the gap decreased materially with increase of temperature. This change was more marked when the hot electrode was of negative polarity. The phenomena observed can be explained by the ionic theory of gaseous conduction, and serve to account for certain hitherto unexplained actions in the operation of internal combustion engines. These results indicate that the ignition spark will pass more readily when the spark-plug design is such as to make the electrodes run hot. This possible gain is, however, very closely limited by the danger of producing preignition. These experiments also show that sparking is somewhat easier when the hot electrode (which is almost always the central electrode) is negative than when the polarity is reversed.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Silsbee, F B

A constant pressure bomb

Description: This report describes a new optical method of unusual simplicity and of good accuracy suitable to study the kinetics of gaseous reactions. The device is the complement of the spherical bomb of constant volume, and extends the applicability of the relationship, pv=rt for gaseous equilibrium conditions, to the use of both factors p and v. The method substitutes for the mechanical complications of a manometer placed at some distance from the seat of reaction the possibility of allowing the radiant effects of reaction to record themselves directly upon a sensitive film. It is possible the device may be of use in the study of the photoelectric effects of radiation. The method makes possible a greater precision in the measurement of normal flame velocities than was previously possible. An approximate analysis shows that the increase of pressure and density ahead of the flame is negligible until the velocity of the flame approaches that of sound.
Date: January 1, 1924
Creator: Stevens, F W

An airship slide rule

Description: From Introduction: "This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department."
Date: 1924?~
Creator: Weaver, E. R. & Pickering, S. F.