UNT Libraries Government Documents Department - 29 Matching Results

Search Results

Diagrams of airplane stability

Description: In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.
Date: 1921
Creator: Batemen, H.

Wind tunnel studies in aerodynamic phenomena at high speed

Description: A great amount of research and experimental work has been done and fair success obtained in an effort to place airplane and propeller design upon an empirical basis. However, one can not fail to be impressed by the apparent lack of data available toward establishing flow phenomena upon a rational basis, such that they may be interpreted in terms of the laws of physics. With this end in view it was the object of the authors to design a wind tunnel differing from the usual type especially in regard to large power and speed of flow. This report describes the wind tunnel at Mccook Field and gives the results of experiments conducted in testing the efficiency of the wind tunnel.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Caldwell, F W & Fales, E N

General Theory of the Steady Motion of an Airplane

Description: The writer points out briefly the history of the method proposed for the study of steady motion of an airplane, which is different from other methods now used. M. Paul Painleve has shown how convenient the drag-lift curve was for the study of airplane steady motion. The author later added to the drift-lift curve the curve called the "speed curve" which permits a direct checking of the speed of the airplane under all flying conditions. But the speed curve was plotted in the same quadrant as the drag-lift curve. Later, with the progressive development of aeronautical science, and with the continually increasing knowledge concerning engines and propellers, the author was brought to add the three other quadrants to the original quadrant, and thus was obtained the steady motion chart which is described in detail in this report. This charts permits one to read directly for a given airplane its horizontal speed at any altitude, its rate of climb at any altitude, its apparent inclination to the horizon at any moment, its ceiling, its propeller thrust, revolutions, efficiency, and power absorbed, that is the complete set of quantities involved in the subject, and to follow the variations of all these quantities both for variable altitude and for variable throttle. The chart also permits one to follow the variation of all of the above in flight as a function of the lift coefficient and of the speed. The author also discusses the interaction of the airplane and propeller through the slipstream and the question of the properties of the engine-propeller system and its dependence upon the properties of the engine considered alone and of the propeller considered alone. There is also a discussion of a standard atmosphere.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: De Bothezat, George

A high-speed engine pressure indicator of the balanced diaphragm type

Description: This report describes a pressure-measuring device especially adapted for use in mapping indicator diagrams of high-speed internal combustion engines. The cards are obtained by a point-to-point method giving the average of a large number of engine cycles. The principle involved is the balancing of the engine cylinder pressure against a measured pressure on the opposite side of the metal a diaphragm of negligible stiffness. In its application as an engine indicator the phase of the engine cycle to which a pressure measurement corresponds is selected by a timing device. The report discusses briefly the errors which must be avoided in the development of an indicator for light high-speed engines, where vibration is serious, and outlines the principles underlying the design of this instrument in order to be free of such errors. A detailed description of the instrument and accessories follows together with operating directions.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Dickinson, H C & Newell, F B

Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

Description: Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author).
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Dickinson, H C; Gage, V R & Sparrow, S W

Moisture resistant finishes for airplane woods

Description: This report describes briefly a series of experiments made at the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, to determine the comparative moisture resistance of linseed oil, impregnation treatments, condensation varnishes, oil varnishes, enamels, cellulose varnishes, rubber, electroplated and sprayed metal coatings, and metal-leaf coatings when applied to wood. All coatings except rubber and electroplated metal coatings, which were not developed sufficiently to make them practical, admitted moisture in varying degrees. The most effective and most practical coating was found to be that of aluminum leaf.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Dunlap, M E

Data on the design of plywood for aircraft

Description: This report makes available data which will aid the designer in determining the plywood that is best adapted to various aircraft parts. It gives the results of investigations made by the Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Forest Service at Madison, Wisconsin, for the Army and Navy Departments, and is one of a series of reports on the use of wood in aircraft prepared by the Forest Products Laboratory for publication by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The object of the study was to determine, through comprehensive tests, the mechanical and physical properties of plywood and how these properties vary with density, number, thickness, arrangement of the plies and direction of grain of the plies.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Elmendorf, Armin

Comparison of alcogas aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline

Description: Mixtures of gasoline and alcohol when used in internal combustion engines designed for gasoline have been found to possess the advantage of alcohol in withstanding high compression without "knock" while retaining advantages of gasoline with regard to starting characteristics. Test of such fuels for maximum power-producing ability and fuel economy at various rates of consumption are thus of practical importance, with especial reference to high-compression engine development. This report discusses the results of tests which compares the performance of alcogas with x gasoline (export grade) as a standard.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Gage, V R; Sparrow, S W & Harper, D R

Some factors of airplane engine performance

Description: This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.
Date: 1921
Creator: Gage, Victor R.

The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines

Description: In part one of this report are presented the theoretical performance curves of an airplane engine equipped with a supercharging compressor. In predicting the gross power of a supercharging engine, the writer uses temperature and pressure correction factors based on experiments made at the Bureau of Standards (NACA report nos. 45 and 46). Means for estimating the temperature rise in the compressor are outlined. Part two of this report presents an estimation of the performance curves of an airplane fitted with a supercharging engine. A supercharging installation suitable for commercial use is described, and it is shown that with the use of the compressor a great saving in fuel and a considerable increase in carrying capacity can be effected simultaneously. In an appendix the writer derives a theoretical formula for the correction of the thrust coefficient of an airscrew to offset the added resistance of the airplane due to the slip-stream effect.
Date: 1921
Creator: Kemble, E. C.

Torsion of wing trusses at diving speeds

Description: The purpose of this report is to indicate what effect the distortion of a typical loaded wing truss will have upon the load distribution. The case of high angle of incidence may be dismissed immediately from consideration as the loads on the front and rear trusses are balanced, and consequently there will be little angular distortion. A given angular distortion will have the maximum effect upon load distribution in the region of the angle of no-lift, because the slope of the lift curve is highest here, and it is here that the greatest angular distortion will occur, because the load on the front truss acts downward while the load on the rear truss acts upward.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Miller, Roy G

The efficiency of small bearings in instruments of the type used in aircraft

Description: This report deals with the construction and properties of bearings and pivots for use in instruments. The static and running friction for both thrust and radial loads was determined for a number of conical pivots and cylindrical and ball bearings. The static rocking friction was also measured for several conical and ball bearings under a heavy load, especially to determine their suitability for use in N. P. L. (National Physical Laboratory) type wind tunnel balance. In constructing conical pivots and sockets it was found that the pivots should be hardened and highly polished, preferably with a revolving lap, and that the sockets should be made by punching with a hardened and polished punch. It was found that for a light load the conical pivots give less friction than any other type, and their wearing qualities when hardened are excellent. Very small ball bearings are unsatisfactory because the proportional accuracy of the balls and races is not high enough to insure smooth running. For rocking pivots under heavy loads it was found that a ball-and-socket bearing, consisting of a hemispherical socket and a sphere of smaller diameter concentric with it, with a row of small balls resting between the two, was superior to a pivot resting in a socket. It was found that vibration such as occurs in an airplane will greatly reduce the static friction of a pivot or bearing, in some cases to as little as one-twentieth of its static value.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H.

Accelerations in flight

Description: This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.
Date: 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Allen, E. T.

The pressure distribution over the horizontal tail surfaces of an airplane II

Description: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the results obtained upon model tail surfaces can be used to accurately predict loads upon the full-sized tail; and also to find the distribution of load when large elevator angles are used, as the loads from such angles can not be obtained readily in free flight. The method consisted in using a metal horizontal tail surface inside of which small air passages, connecting with a series of holes in the surface, led the pressure off from the tail in rubber tubes. In this way the pressure at each of these holes was measured by a manometer at several angles of attack and several to the loading under similar conditions in the full-sized airplane and the manner of distribution is quite similar in the two cases when there is no slip stream.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Bacon, D. L.

Accelerometer design

Description: In connection with the development of an accelerometer for measuring the loads on airplanes in free flight a study of the theory of such instruments has been made, and the results of this study are summarized in this report. A portion of the analysis deals particularly with the sources of error and with the limitations placed on the location of the instrument in the airplane. The discussion of the dynamics of the accelerometer includes a study of its theoretical motions and of the way in which they are affected by the natural period of vibration and by the damping, together with a report of some experiments on the effect of forced vibrations on the record.
Date: 1921?~
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Warner, Edward P.

Design of wind tunnels and wind tunnel propellers II

Description: This report is a continuation of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics report no. 73. The variations in velocity and direction of the wind stream were studied by means of a recording air speed meter and a recording yawmeter. The work was carried on both in a 1-foot diameter model tunnel and in a 5-foot full-size tunnel, and wherever possible comparison was made between them. It was found that placing radial vanes directly before the propeller in the exit cone increased the efficiency of the tunnel to a considerable extent and also gave a steadier flow.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Norton, F. H. & Warner, Edward P.

Pressure drop in radiator air tubes

Description: This report describes a method for measuring the drop in static pressure of air flowing through a radiator and shows (1) a reason for the discrepancy noted by various observers between head resistance and drop in pressure; (2) a difference in degree of contraction of the jet in entering a circular cell and a square cell; (3) the ratio of internal frictional resistance to total head resistance for two representative types; (4) the effect of smoothness of surface on pressure gradient; and (5) the effects of supplying heat to the radiator on pressure gradient. The fact that the pressure gradients are found to be approximately proportional to the square of the rate of flow of air appears to indicate turbulent flow, even in the short tubes of the radiator. It was found that the drop in the static pressure in the air stream through a cellular radiator and the pressure gradient in the air tubes are practically proportional to the square of the air flow in a given air density; that the difference between the head resistance per unit area and the fall of static pressure through the air tubes in radiators is apparent rather than real; and that radiators of different types differ widely in the amount of contraction of the jet at entrance. The frictional resistance was found to vary considerably, and in one case to be two-thirds of the head resistance in the type using circular cells and one-half of the head resistance of the radiator type using square cells of approximately the same dimensions.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Parsons, S R

Properties of special types of radiators

Description: This report discusses the general performance characteristics of three special classes of radiators: those with flat plate water tubes, fin and tube types, and types that whistle in an air stream. Curves and tables show the performance of representative radiators of each class and compare the flat plate and whistling types. Empirical equations are given for estimating the performance of flat plate radiators of various dimensions. This report also contains a brief discussion, with curves, showing the effect of yawing on the properties of a radiator.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Parsons, S R

Effects of nature of cooling surface on radiator performance

Description: This report discusses the effects of roughness, smoothness, and cleanness of cooling surfaces on the performance of aeronautic radiators, as shown by experimental work, with different conditions of surface, on (1) heat transfer from a single brass tube and from a radiator; (2) pressure drop in an air stream in a single brass tube and in a radiator; (3) head resistance of a radiator; and (4) flow of air through a radiator. It is shown that while smooth surfaces are better than rough, the surfaces usually found in commercial radiators do not differ enough to show marked effect on performance, provided the surfaces are kept clean.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Parsons, S R & Kleinschmidt, R V

Performance of a 300-horsepower Hispano-Suiza airplane engine

Description: The National Bureau of Standards tested a 300-horsepower Hispano-Suiza engine to determine the characteristic performance of the engine at various altitudes. The engine was operated at the ground, at 25,000 feet, and at intermediate altitudes, both at full loads similar to those that would be imposed upon the engine at various speeds by a propeller whose normal full-load speed was 1,800 r.p.m. Friction horsepower also was determined in order that the mechanical efficiency of the engine might be calculated. From the test data there were computed the brake horsepower, brake mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption, mixture ratio, jacket loss, exhaust loss, and thermal, mechanical, and volumetric efficiencies. A record of jacket water temperatures, oil temperatures, manifold pressures, etc., shows the conditions under which the test was made.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Sparrow, S W & White, H S

Performance of a Liberty 12 airplane engine

Description: In cooperation with the Engineering Division of the Air Service of the United States Army, a Liberty-12 engine has been tested at the Bureau of Standards. The program of tests was planned to yield that information considered most important in determining the value of the engine for aviation. Full power runs were made at the ground, at 25,000 feet, and at several intermediate altitudes. To determine the mechanical efficiency of the engine, friction horsepower was measured at the ground and at 15,000 feet. As a basis for predicting engine performance with a propeller, a series of tests was made in which the dynamometer load and engine throttle were adjusted at each speed to simulate the engine load which would be imposed at that speed by a propeller operating under normal full load at 1,700 r.p.m. Among the quantities calculated from the test measurements are: brake horsepower; break mean effective pressure; fuel consumption; mixture ratio; mechanical, thermal, and volumetric efficiency; and the percentage of the heat in the fuel appearing in the jacket water and in the exhaust. Jacket water temperature, oil temperature, manifold pressure, etc., are recorded to show the conditions under which the test was made.
Date: January 1, 1921
Creator: Sparrow, S W & White, H S