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Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings

Description: The cooling of a single-row radial air-cooled engine using several cowling arrangements has been studied in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The results show the effect of the propeller and several cowling arrangements on cooling for various values of the indicated horsepower in the climb condition. A table giving comparative performance of the various cowling arrangements is presented. The dependence of temperature on indicated horsepower and pressure drop across the baffles is shown by charts. Other charts show the limiting indicated horsepower against the pressure drop across the engine and the heat dissipated at various values of the indicated horsepower.
Date: August 20, 1936
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.; Stickle, George W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Pressure element of constant logarithmic stiffness for temperature compensated altimeter

Description: From Summary: "The usual type of altimeter contains a pressure element, the deflections of which are approximately proportional to pressure changes. An evenly divided altitude scale is secured by using a mechanism between the pressure element and pointer which gives the required motion of the pointer. A temperature-compensated altimeter was constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department which contained a manually operated device for controlling the multiplication of the mechanism to the extent necessary for temperature compensation. The introduction of this device made it difficult to adjust the multiplying mechanism to fit an evenly divided altitude scale. To meet this difficulty a pressure element was designed and constructed which gave deflections which were proportional to altitude; that is, to the logarithm of the pressure."
Date: August 7, 1928
Creator: Brombacher, W. G. & Cordero, F.

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: August 5, 1957
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W. & Graves, Charles C.

Theory of self-excited mechanical oscillations of helicopter rotors with hinged blades

Description: Vibrations of rotary-wing aircraft may derive their energy from the rotation of the rotor rather than from the air forces. A theoretical analysis of these vibrations is described and methods for its application are explained in Chapter one. Chapter two reports the results of an investigation of the mechanical stability of a rotor having two vertically hinged blades mounted upon symmetrical supports, that is, of equal stiffness and mass in all horizontal directions. Chapter three presents the theory of ground vibrations of a two-blade helicopter rotor on anisotropic flexible supports.
Date: August 24, 1956
Creator: Coleman, Robert P. & Feingold, Arnold M.

Flight tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles Part 1: full scale pressure distribution investigation

Description: The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions.
Date: August 14, 1928
Creator: De France, S. J.

Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy

Description: In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Date: August 5, 1958
Creator: Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P. & Freeman, J. W.

Effect of initial mixture temperature on flame speed of methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures

Description: "Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene" (p. 105).
Date: August 20, 1951
Creator: Dugger, Gordon L.

A unified two-dimensional approach to the calculation of three-dimensional hypersonic flows, with application to bodies of revolution

Description: A procedure for calculating three-dimensional steady and nonsteady supersonic flows with the method of characteristics is developed and discussed. An approximate method is deduced from the characteristics method and shown to be of practical value at high supersonic speeds.
Date: August 15, 1952
Creator: Eggers, A. J., Jr. & Savin, Raymond C.

Stresses in a two-bay noncircular cylinder under transverse loads

Description: A method, taking into account the effects of flexibility and based on a general eighth-order differential equation, is presented for finding the stresses in a two-bay, noncircular cylinder the cross section of which can be composed of circular arcs. Numerical examples are given for two cases of ring flexibility for a cylinder of doubly symmetrical (essentially elliptic) cross section, subjected to concentrated radial, moment, and tangential loads. The results paralleled those already obtained for shells with circular rings.
Date: August 1, 1951
Creator: Griffith, George E.

Wind-tunnel investigation of effect of interference on lateral-stability characteristics of four NACA 23012 wings, an elliptical and a circular fuselage and vertical fins

Description: Report presents the results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of wing-fuselage interference on lateral-stability characteristics made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel on four fuselages and two fins, representing high-wing, low-wing, and midwing monoplanes. The fuselages are of circular and elliptical cross section. The wings have rounded tips and, in plan form, one is rectangular and the three are tapered 3:1 with various amounts of sweep. The rate of change in the coefficients of rolling moment, yawing moment, and lateral force with angle of yaw is given in a form to show the increment caused by wing-fuselage interference for the model with no fin and the effect of wing-fuselage interference on fin effectiveness. Results for the fuselage-fin combination and the wing tested alone are also given.
Date: August 8, 1940
Creator: House, Rufus O. & Wallace, Arthur R.

A study of the two-control operation of an airplane

Description: The two-control operation of a conventional airplane is treated by means of the theory of disturbed motions. The consequences of this method of control are studied with regard to the stability of the airplane in its unconstrained components of motion and the movements set up during turn maneuvers.
Date: August 12, 1936
Creator: Jones, Robert T.

An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight with application to a study of tolerable dihedral on a conventional fighter airplane

Description: From Summary: "An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented."
Date: August 24, 1949
Creator: Kauffman, William M.; Liddell, Charles J., Jr.; Smith, Allan & Van Dyke, Rudolph D., Jr.

Comparison of wind-tunnel and flight measurements of stability and control characteristics of a Douglas A-26 airplane

Description: From Summary: "Stability and control characteristics determined from tests in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of a 0.2375-scale model of the Douglas XA-26 airplane are compared with those measured in flight tests of a Douglas A-26 airplane. Agreement regarding static longitudinal stability as indicated by the elevator-fixed neutral points and by the variation of elevator deflection in both straight and turning flight was found to be good except at speeds approaching the stall. At these low speeds the airplane possessed noticeably improved stability, which was attributed to pronounced stalling at the root of the production wing."
Date: August 11, 1945
Creator: Kayten, Gerald G. & Koven, William

A note on secondary flow in rotating radial channels

Description: "A general vector differential equation for the vorticity component parallel to a streamline is derived for steady, nonviscous, and incompressible flow in a rotating system. This equation is then simplified by restricting it to rotating radial channels and by making further simplifying assumptions. The simplified equation is used to solve for the secondary vorticity, the vorticity component parallel to the streamline, in three special cases involving different streamtube geometries; the results are presented in a series of figures" (p. 1).
Date: August 31, 1953
Creator: Kramer, James J. & Stanitz, John D.

Correlation of cylinder-head temperatures and coolant heat rejections of a multicylinder, liquid-cooled engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement

Description: "Data obtained from an extensive investigation of the cooling characteristics of four multicylinder, liquid-cooled engines have been analyzed and a correlation of both the cylinder-head temperatures and the coolant heat rejections with the primary engine and coolant variables was obtained. The method of correlation was previously developed by the NACA from an analysis of the cooling processes involved in a liquid-cooled-engine cylinder and is based on the theory of nonboiling, forced-convection heat transfer. The data correlated included engine power outputs from 275 to 1860 brake horsepower; coolant flows from 50 to 320 gallons per minute; coolants varying in composition from 100 percent water to 97 percent ethylene glycol and 3 percent water; and ranges of engine speed, manifold pressure, carburetor-air temperature, fuel-air ratio, exhaust-gas pressure, ignition timing, and coolant temperature" (p. 207).
Date: August 31, 1948
Creator: Lundin, Bruce T.; Povolny, John H. & Chelko, Louis J.

General equations for the stress analysis of rings

Description: In this report it is shown that the shear, axial force, and moment at one point in a simple ring subjected to any loading condition can be given by three independent equations involving certain integrals that must be evaluated regardless of the method of analysis used. It is also shown how symmetry of the ring alone or of the ring and the loading about 1 or 2 axes makes it possible to simplify the three equations and greatly reduces the number of integrals that must be evaluated. Application of the general equations presented in this report to practical problems in the stress analysis of rings makes it possible to shorten, simplify, and systematize the calculations for both simple and braced rings. Three illustrative problems are included to demonstrate the application of the general equations to a simple ring with different loadings.
Date: August 10, 1934
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Burke, Walter F.

Comparative drag measurements at transonic speeds of rectangular sweptback NACA 65-009 airfoils mounted on a freely falling body

Description: From Summary: "Directly comparable drag measurements have been made of an airfoil with a conventional rectangular plan form and an airfoil with a sweptback plan form mounted on freely falling bodies. Both airfoils had NACA 65-009 sections and were identical in span, frontal area, and chord perpendicular to the leading edge. The sweptback plan form incorporated a sweepback angle of 45 degrees. The data obtained have been used to establish the relation between the airfoil drag coefficients and the free-stream Mach number over a range of Mach numbers from 0.90 to 1.27. The results of the measurements indicate that the drag of the sweptback plan form is less than 0.3 that of the rectangular plan form at a Mach number of 1.00 and is less than 0.4 that at a Mach number of 1.20."
Date: August 9, 1945
Creator: Mathews, Charles W. & Thompson, Jim Rogers

Analysis and modification of theory for impact of seaplanes on water

Description: From Summary: "An analysis of available theory on seaplane impact and a proposed modification thereto are presented. In previous methods the overall momentum of the float and virtual mass has been assumed to remain constant during the impact but the present analysis shows that this assumption is rigorously correct only when the resultant velocity of the float is normal to the keel."
Date: August 20, 1945
Creator: Mayo, Wilbur L.

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on hinge moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the hinge moments of ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and USA-27 wing sections, supplementing the investigations described in NACA-TR-298 and NACA-TR-343, of the rolling and yawing moments due to similar ailerons on these two airfoil sections. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch, but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis.
Date: August 11, 1930
Creator: Monish, B. H.

Error in airspeed measurement due to the static-pressure field ahead of an airplane at transonic speeds

Description: The magnitude and variation of the static-pressure error for various distances ahead of sharp-nose bodies and open-nose air inlets and for a distance of 1 chord ahead of the wing tip of a swept wing are defined by a combination of experiment and theory. The mechanism of the error is discussed in some detail to show the contributing factors that make up the error. The information presented provides a useful means for choosing a proper location for measurement of static pressure for most purposes.
Date: August 3, 1955
Creator: O'Bryan, Thomas C.; Danforth, Edward C. B. & Johnston, J. Ford

A method of analysis of V-G records from transport operations

Description: A method has been developed for interpreting v-g records taken during the course of commercial transport operation. This method involves the utilization of fairly simple statistical procedures to obtain "flight envelopes," which predict that, on the average, in a stated number of flight hours, one value of airspeed will exceed the envelope, and one positive and one negative acceleration increment will exceed the envelope with equal probability of being experienced at any airspeed. Comparison with the actual data obtained from various airplanes and from various airlines indicates that these envelopes predict the occurrences of large values of acceleration and airspeed with a high degree of accuracy.
Date: August 31, 1945
Creator: Peiser, A. M. & Wilkerson, M.

A Method of Analysis of V-G Records from Transport Operations

Description: A method has been developed for interpreting V-G records taken during the course of commercial transport operation. This method involves the utilization of fairly simple statistical procedures to obtain "flight envelopes," which predict that, on the average, in a stated number of flight hours, one value of airspeed will exceed the envelope, and one positive and one negative acceleration increment will exceed the envelope with equal probability of being experienced at any airspeed. Comparison with the actual data obtained from various airplanes and from various airlines indicates that these envelopes predict the occurrences of large values of acceleration and airspeed with a high degree of accuracy.
Date: August 31, 1945
Creator: Peiser, A. M. & Wilkerson, M.

Investigation of the drag of various axially symmetric nose shapes of fineness ratio 3 for Mach numbers from 1.24 to 7.4

Description: Experimental drag measurements at zero angle of attack for various theoretical minimum drag nose shapes, hemispherically blunted cones, and other more common profiles of fineness ratios of about 3 are compared with theoretical results for a Mach number and Reynolds number range of 1.24 to 7.4 and 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 7.5 x 10 to the 6th power (based on body length), respectively. The results of experimental pressure-distribution measurements are used for the development of an empirical expression for predicting the pressure drag of hemispherically blunted cones.
Date: August 28, 1952
Creator: Perkins, Edward W.; Jorgensen, Leland H. & Sommer, Simon C.