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Test of single-stage axial-flow fan

Description: "A single-stage axial fan was built and tested in the shop of the propeller-research tunnel of the NACA. The fan comprised a simple 24-blade rotor having a diameter of 21 inches and a solidity of 0.86 and a set of 37 contravanes having a solidity of 1.33. The rotor was driven by a 25-horsepower motor capable of rotating at a speed of 3600 r.p.m. The fan was tested for volume, pressure, and efficiency over a range of delivery pressures and volumes for a wide range of contravane and blade-angle settings" (p. 49).
Date: September 22, 1941
Creator: Bell, E. Barton

Photographic investigation of combustion in a two-dimensional transparent rocket engine

Description: Motion pictures at camera speeds up to 3000 frames per second were taken of the combustion of liquid oxygen and gasoline in a 100-pound thrust rocket engine. The effect of seven methods of propellant injection on the uniformity of combustion was investigated. The flame front was generally found to extend to the injector faces and all the injection systems showed considerable nonuniformity of combustion. Pressure vibration records indicated combustion vibrations that corresponded to resonant-chamber frequencies.
Date: May 22, 1953
Creator: Bellman, Donald R.; Humphrey, Jack C. & Male, Theodore

Some theoretical low-speed span loading characteristics of swept wings in roll and sideslip

Description: The Weissinger method for determining additional span loading for incompressible flow is used to find the damping in roll, the lateral center of pressure of the rolling for wing plan forms of various aspect ratios, taper ratios, and sweep angles. In addition, the applicability of the method to the determination of certain other aerodynamic derivatives is investigated, and corrections for the first-order effects of compressibility are indicated. The agreement obtained between experimentally and theoretically determined values for the aerodynamic coefficients indicates that the method of Weissinger is well suited to the calculation of such resulting aerodynamic derivatives of wings as do not involve considerations of tip suction.
Date: December 22, 1948
Creator: Bird, John D.

The problem of cooling an air-cooled cylinder on an aircraft engine

Description: An analysis of the cooling problem has been to show by what means the cooling of an air-cooled aircraft engine may be improved. Each means of improving cooling is analyzed on the basis of effectiveness in cooling with respect to power for cooling. The altitude problem is analyzed for both supercharged and unsupercharged engines. The case of ground cooling is also discussed. The heat-transfer process from the hot gases to the cylinder wall is discussed on the basis of the fundamentals of heat transfer and thermodynamics. Adiabatic air-temperature rise at a stagnation point in compressible flow is shown to depend only on the velocity of flow.
Date: April 22, 1940
Creator: Brevoort, M. J. & Joyner, U. T.

Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane

Description: Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane.
Date: March 22, 1951
Creator: Campbell, John P.; Hunter, Paul A.; Hewes, Donald E. & Whitten, James B.

Aircraft Accidents: Methods of Analysis

Description: This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.
Date: June 22, 1936
Creator: Committee on Aircraft Accidents

Theoretical antisymmetric span loading for wings of arbitrary plan form at subsonic speeds

Description: A simplified lifting-surface theory that includes effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope is used to provide charts with which antisymmetric loading due to arbitrary antisymmetric angle of attack can be found for wings having symmetric plan forms with a constant spanwise sweep angle of the quarter-chord line. Consideration is given to the flexible wing in roll. Aerodynamic characteristics due to rolling, deflected ailerons, and sideslip of wings with dihedral are considered. Solutions are presented for straight-tapered wings for a range of swept plan forms.
Date: December 22, 1949
Creator: DeYoung, John

Theoretical symmetric span loading due to flap deflection for wings of arbitrary plan form at subsonic speeds

Description: From Summary: "A simplified lifting-surface theory is applied to the problem of evaluating span loading due to flap deflection for arbitrary wing plan forms. With the resulting procedure, the effects of flap deflection on the span loading and associated aerodynamic characteristics can be easily computed for any wing which is symmetrical about the root chord and which has a straight quarter-chord line over the wing semispan. The effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope are taken into account by the procedure. The method presented can also be used to calculate the downwash in the vertical center of the wake of a wing which has arbitrary spanwise loading."
Date: September 22, 1950
Creator: DeYoung, John

The Method of Characteristics for the Determination of Supersonic Flow Over Bodies of Revolution at Small Angles of Attack

Description: "The method of characteristics has been applied for the determination of the supersonic-flow properties around bodies of revolution at a small angle of attack. The system developed considers the effect of the variation of entropy due to the curved shock and determines a flow that exactly satisfies the boundary conditions in the limits of the simplifications assumed. Two practical methods for numerical calculations are given" (p. 1039).
Date: November 22, 1948
Creator: Ferri, Antonio

Axially Symmetric Shapes With Minimum Wave Drag

Description: "The external wave drag of bodies of revolution moving at supersonic speeds can be expressed either in terms of the geometry of the body, or in terms of the body-simulating axial source distribution. For purposes of deriving optimum bodies under various given conditions, it is found that the second of the methods mentioned is the more tractable. By use of a quasi-cylindrical theory, that is, the boundary conditions are applied on the surface of a cylinder rather than on the body itself, the variational problems of the optimum bodies having prescribed volume or caliber are solved" (p. 131).
Date: November 22, 1954
Creator: Heaslet, Max A. & Fuller, Franklyn B.

The application of Green's theorem to the solution of boundary-value problems in linearized supersonic wing theory

Description: From Introduction: "The present paper is restricted to a discussion of wing theory subject to the assumptions of linearized compressible flow. It therefore employs solutions of Laplace's equation and the wave equation for cases where the boundary condition are specified in the plane of the wing."
Date: December 22, 1948
Creator: Heaslet, Max A. & Lomax, Harvard

The application of the statistical theory of extreme values to gust-load problems

Description: From Introduction: "Recent developments in the statistical theory of extreme values (references 4 to 10) have indicated a somewhat more rational approach to the problem of predicting the probability of occurrence The present report summarizes some of these findings, indicates the method of application, and evaluates their applicability to certain gust-load problems ."
Date: July 22, 1949
Creator: Press, Harry

Flight tests of the drag and torque of the propeller in terminal-velocity dives

Description: From Summary: "The drag and torque of a controllable propeller at various blade-angle settings, and under various diving conditions, were measured by indirect method on F6C-4 airplane in flight. The object of these tests were (1) to provide data on which calculations of the terminal velocity with a throttled engine and the accompanying engine speed could be based and (2) to determine the possibility of utilizing the propeller as an air brake to reduce the terminal velocity. The data obtained were used in the establishment of propeller charts, on the basis of which the terminal velocity and engine speed could be calculated for airplanes whose characteristics fall within the range of these tests."
Date: August 22, 1933
Creator: Rhode, Richard V. & Pearson, Henry A.

An investigation of the drag of windshields in the 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel

Description: Report presents the results of tests made to determine the drag of closed-cockpit and transport-type windshields. The tests were made at speeds corresponding to a Mach number range of approximately 0.25 to 0.58 in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. This speed range corresponds to a test Reynolds number range of 2,510,000 to 4,830,000 based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the full-span model (17.29 in.). The shapes of the windshield proper, the hood, and the tail fairing were systematically varied to include common types and refined design.
Date: May 22, 1939
Creator: Robinson, Russell G. & Delano, James B.

The effect of turbulence on the drag of flat plates

Description: "In determining the effect of turbulence on the forces exerted on bodies in the air stream of a wind tunnel, it is commonly assumed that the indications of the standard Pitot-static tube used to determine the air speed are not dependent on the turbulence. To investigate the truth of this assumption, the drag of a normally exposed flat plate, the difference in pressure between the front and rear of a thin circular disk, the rate of rotation of a vane anemometer, and the pressure developed by a standard Pitot-static tube were measured in an air stream for several conditions of turbulence. The results may be interpreted as indicating that there is no appreciable effect of turbulence on the vane anemometer and the standard pitot-static tube, but that there is small effect on the drag of a flat plate and the pressure difference between front and rear of a disk" (p. 129).
Date: June 22, 1935
Creator: Schubauer, G. B. & Dryden, H. L.

Investigation of the NACA 4-(3)(8)-045 Two-Blade Propellers at Forward Mach Numbers to 0.725 to Determine the Effects of Compressibility and Solidity on Performance

Description: From Summary: "As part of a general investigation of propellers at high forward speeds, tests of two 2-blade propellers having the NACA 4-(3)(8)-03 and NACA 4-(3)(8)-45 blade designs have been made in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel through a range of blade angle from 20 degrees to 60 degrees for forward Mach numbers from 0.165 to 0.725 to establish in detail the changes in propeller characteristics due to compressibility effects. These propellers differed primarily only in blade solidity, one propeller having 50 percent and more solidity than the other. Serious losses in propeller efficiency were found as the propeller tip Mach number exceeded 0.91, irrespective of forward speed or blade angle."
Date: January 22, 1944
Creator: Stack, John; Draley, Eugene C.; Delano, James B. & Feldman, Lewis

A Simplified Method for Approximating the Transient Motion in Angles of Attack and Sideslip During a Constant Rolling Maneuver

Description: "The transient motion in angles of attack and sideslip during a constant rolling maneuver has been analyzed. Simplified expressions are presented for the determination of the pertinent modes of motion as well as the modal coefficient corresponding to each mode. Calculations made with and without the derivatives for side force due to sideslip and lift-curve slope indicate that although these derivatives increase the total damping of the system they do not markedly affect the transient motion" (p. 131).
Date: May 22, 1956
Creator: Sternfield, Leonard

Mechanism of flutter: A theoretical and experimental investigation of the flutter problem

Description: From Summary: "The results of the basic flutter theory originally devised in 1934 and published as NACA Technical Report no. 496 are presented in a simpler and more complete form convenient for further studies. The paper attempts to facilitate the judgement of flutter problems by a systematic survey of the theoretical effects of the various parameters. A large number of experiments were conducted on cantilever wings, with and without ailerons, in the NACA high-speed wind tunnel for the purpose of verifying the theory and to study its adaptability to three-dimensional problems."
Date: September 22, 1938
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I. E.

Water-pressure distribution on seaplane float

Description: The investigation presented in this report was conducted for the purpose of determining the distribution and magnitude of water pressures likely to be experienced on seaplane hulls in service. It consisted of the development and construction of apparatus for recording water pressures lasting one one-hundredth second or longer and of flight tests to determine the water pressures on a UO-1 seaplane float under various conditions of taxiing, taking off, and landing. The apparatus developed was found to operate with satisfactory accuracy and is suitable for flight tests on other seaplanes. The tests on the UO-1 showed that maximum pressures of about 6.5 pounds per square inch occur at the step for the full width of the float bottom. Proceeding forward from the step the maximum pressures decrease in magnitude uniformly toward the bow, and the region of highest pressures narrows toward the keel. Immediately abaft the step the maximum pressures are very small, but increase in magnitude toward the stern and there once reached a value of about 5 pounds per square inch. (author).
Date: December 22, 1927
Creator: Thompson, F. L.

On the Theory of Laminar Boundary Layers Involving Separation

Description: "This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall" (p. 541).
Date: May 22, 1934
Creator: Von Karman, Theodore & Millikan, C. B.