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Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings

Description: The cooling of a single-row radial air-cooled engine using several cowling arrangements has been studied in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The results show the effect of the propeller and several cowling arrangements on cooling for various values of the indicated horsepower in the climb condition. A table giving comparative performance of the various cowling arrangements is presented. The dependence of temperature on indicated horsepower and pressure drop across the baffles is shown by charts. Other charts show the limiting indicated horsepower against the pressure drop across the engine and the heat dissipated at various values of the indicated horsepower.
Date: August 20, 1936
Creator: Brevoort, M. J.; Stickle, George W. & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Pressure element of constant logarithmic stiffness for temperature compensated altimeter

Description: From Summary: "The usual type of altimeter contains a pressure element, the deflections of which are approximately proportional to pressure changes. An evenly divided altitude scale is secured by using a mechanism between the pressure element and pointer which gives the required motion of the pointer. A temperature-compensated altimeter was constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department which contained a manually operated device for controlling the multiplication of the mechanism to the extent necessary for temperature compensation. The introduction of this device made it difficult to adjust the multiplying mechanism to fit an evenly divided altitude scale. To meet this difficulty a pressure element was designed and constructed which gave deflections which were proportional to altitude; that is, to the logarithm of the pressure."
Date: August 7, 1928
Creator: Brombacher, W. G. & Cordero, F.

The Normal Component of the Induced Velocity in the Vicinity of a Lifting Rotor and Some Examples of Its Application

Description: "Paper presents a practical method for computing the approximate values of the normal component of the induced velocity at points in the flow field of a lifting rotor. Tables and graphs of the relative magnitudes of the normal component of the induced velocity are given for selected points in the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the rotor and on the lateral rotor axis. A method is also presented for utilizing the tables and graphs to determine the interference induced velocities arising from the second rotor of a tandem or side-by-side-rotor helicopter and the induced flow angle at a horizontal tail plane" (p. 1).
Date: August 11, 1952
Creator: Castles, Walter, Jr. & De Leeuw, Jacob Henri

Relation of Turbojet and Ramjet Combustion Efficiency to Second-Order Reaction Kinetics and Fundamental Flame Speed

Description: Theoretical studies of the turbojet and ramjet combustion process are summarized and the resulting equations are applied to experimental data obtained from various combustor tests. The theoretical treatment assumes that one step in the over-all chain of processes which constitute jet-engine combustion is sufficiently slow to be the rate-controlling step that determines combustion efficiency.
Date: August 5, 1957
Creator: Childs, J. Howard; Reynolds, Thaine W. & Graves, Charles C.

Theory of self-excited mechanical oscillations of helicopter rotors with hinged blades

Description: Vibrations of rotary-wing aircraft may derive their energy from the rotation of the rotor rather than from the air forces. A theoretical analysis of these vibrations is described and methods for its application are explained in Chapter one. Chapter two reports the results of an investigation of the mechanical stability of a rotor having two vertically hinged blades mounted upon symmetrical supports, that is, of equal stiffness and mass in all horizontal directions. Chapter three presents the theory of ground vibrations of a two-blade helicopter rotor on anisotropic flexible supports.
Date: August 24, 1956
Creator: Coleman, Robert P. & Feingold, Arnold M.

Further experiments on the flow and heat transfer in a heated turbulent air jet

Description: "Measurements have been made of the mean-total-head and mean-temperature fields in a round turbulent jet with various initial temperatures. The results show that the jet spreads more rapidly as its density becomes lower than that of the receiving medium, even when the difference is not sufficiently great to cause dynamic-pressure function. Rough analytical considerations have given the same relative spread. The effective "turbulent Prandtl number" for a section of the fully developed jet was found to be equal to the true (laminar) Prandtl number within the accuracy measurement" (p. 859).
Date: August 18, 1947
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S.

Spectra and diffusion in a round turbulent jet

Description: "In a round turbulent jet at room temperature, measurement of the shear correlation coefficient as a function of frequency (through band-pass filters) has given a rather direct verification of Kolmogoroff's local-isotropy hypothesis. One-dimensional power spectra of velocity and temperature fluctuations, measured in unheated and heated jets, respectively, have been contrasted. Under the same conditions, the two corresponding transverse correlation functions have been measured and compared" (p. 1).
Date: August 17, 1949
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Uberoi, Mahinder S.

Flight tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles Part 1: full scale pressure distribution investigation

Description: The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions.
Date: August 14, 1928
Creator: De France, S. J.

Boron and zirconium from crucible refractories in a complex heat-resistant alloy

Description: In a laboratory study of the factors involved in the influence of induction vacuum melting on 55ni-20cr-15co-4mo-3ti-3al heat resistant alloy, it was found that the major factor was the type of ceramic used as the crucible. The study concluded that trace amounts of boron or zirconium derived from reaction of the melt with the crucible refactories improved creep-rupture properties at 1,600 degrees F. Boron was most effective and, in addition, markedly improved hot-workability.
Date: August 5, 1958
Creator: Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P. & Freeman, J. W.

Effect of turbulence in wind-tunnel measurements

Description: This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made.
Date: August 20, 1929
Creator: Dryden, H. L. & Kuethe, A. M.

Effect of initial mixture temperature on flame speed of methane-air, propane-air, and ethylene-air mixtures

Description: "Flame speeds based on the outer edge of the shadow cast by the laminar Bunsen cone were determined as functions of composition for methane-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -132 degrees to 342 degrees c and for propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures at initial mixture temperatures ranging from -73 degrees to 344 degrees c. The data showed that maximum flame speed increased with temperature at an increasing rate. The percentage change in flame speed with change in initial temperature for the three fuels followed the decreasing order, methane, propane, and ethylene" (p. 105).
Date: August 20, 1951
Creator: Dugger, Gordon L.

A unified two-dimensional approach to the calculation of three-dimensional hypersonic flows, with application to bodies of revolution

Description: A procedure for calculating three-dimensional steady and nonsteady supersonic flows with the method of characteristics is developed and discussed. An approximate method is deduced from the characteristics method and shown to be of practical value at high supersonic speeds.
Date: August 15, 1952
Creator: Eggers, A. J., Jr. & Savin, Raymond C.

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases From Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: August 17, 1933
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Tessmann, Arthur M.

Investigation of Fretting by Microscopic Observation

Description: "An experimental investigation, using microscopic observation and color motion photomicrographs of the action, was conducted to determine the cause of fretting. Glass and other noncorrosive materials, as well as metals, were used as specimens. A very simple apparatus vibrated convex surfaces in contact with stationary flat surfaces at frequencies of 120 cycles or less than l cycle per second, an amplitude of 0.0001 inch, and load of 0.2 pound" (p. 135).
Date: August 31, 1949
Creator: Godfrey, Douglas

Stresses in a two-bay noncircular cylinder under transverse loads

Description: A method, taking into account the effects of flexibility and based on a general eighth-order differential equation, is presented for finding the stresses in a two-bay, noncircular cylinder the cross section of which can be composed of circular arcs. Numerical examples are given for two cases of ring flexibility for a cylinder of doubly symmetrical (essentially elliptic) cross section, subjected to concentrated radial, moment, and tangential loads. The results paralleled those already obtained for shells with circular rings.
Date: August 1, 1951
Creator: Griffith, George E.

Wind-tunnel investigation of effect of interference on lateral-stability characteristics of four NACA 23012 wings, an elliptical and a circular fuselage and vertical fins

Description: Report presents the results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of wing-fuselage interference on lateral-stability characteristics made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel on four fuselages and two fins, representing high-wing, low-wing, and midwing monoplanes. The fuselages are of circular and elliptical cross section. The wings have rounded tips and, in plan form, one is rectangular and the three are tapered 3:1 with various amounts of sweep. The rate of change in the coefficients of rolling moment, yawing moment, and lateral force with angle of yaw is given in a form to show the increment caused by wing-fuselage interference for the model with no fin and the effect of wing-fuselage interference on fin effectiveness. Results for the fuselage-fin combination and the wing tested alone are also given.
Date: August 8, 1940
Creator: House, Rufus O. & Wallace, Arthur R.

A study of the two-control operation of an airplane

Description: The two-control operation of a conventional airplane is treated by means of the theory of disturbed motions. The consequences of this method of control are studied with regard to the stability of the airplane in its unconstrained components of motion and the movements set up during turn maneuvers.
Date: August 12, 1936
Creator: Jones, Robert T.

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears

Description: "A theoretical study was made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called kinematic shimmy. Experimental checks, use being made of a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and the spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy are given. A new method of avoiding shimmy -- lateral freedom -- is introduced" (p. 147).
Date: August 11, 1937
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur

Longitudinal Stability and Control With Special Reference to Slipstream Effects

Description: Report presents the results of a study of data obtained in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel concerning the effects of interference and of propeller operation on longitudinal stability and control. The data include pitching moments for various power conditions for airplanes with tails removed and with tails set at various stabilizer and elevator angles. A number of surveys of the dynamic pressure and the flow direction in the region of the horizontal tail surface are also included.
Date: August 24, 1939
Creator: Katzoff, S.

An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight with application to a study of tolerable dihedral on a conventional fighter airplane

Description: From Summary: "An apparatus for varying effective dihedral in flight by means of servo actuation of the ailerons in response to sideslip angle is described. The results of brief flight tests of the apparatus on a conventional fighter airplane are presented and discussed. The results of an investigation employing the apparatus to determine the tolerable (safe for normal fighter operation) range of effective dihedral on the test airplane are presented."
Date: August 24, 1949
Creator: Kauffman, William M.; Liddell, Charles J., Jr.; Smith, Allan & Van Dyke, Rudolph D., Jr.

Comparison of wind-tunnel and flight measurements of stability and control characteristics of a Douglas A-26 airplane

Description: From Summary: "Stability and control characteristics determined from tests in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of a 0.2375-scale model of the Douglas XA-26 airplane are compared with those measured in flight tests of a Douglas A-26 airplane. Agreement regarding static longitudinal stability as indicated by the elevator-fixed neutral points and by the variation of elevator deflection in both straight and turning flight was found to be good except at speeds approaching the stall. At these low speeds the airplane possessed noticeably improved stability, which was attributed to pronounced stalling at the root of the production wing."
Date: August 11, 1945
Creator: Kayten, Gerald G. & Koven, William