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Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: A general method for finding the steady flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle is described. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. The application of the steady flow method for calculating the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms is presented and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. In some useful cases experimental pressures are plotted for comparison with theoretical. The pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight are calculated. General equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid are derived. Formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms are presented.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics

Description: The pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid are calculated. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. Formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given. Pressure and pressure drag are discussed for a sphere, a round cylinder, the elliptic cylinder, the prolate and oblate spheroid, and the circular disk. The velocity and pressure in an oblique flow are examined.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Zahm, A. F.

The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

Description: The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Munk, M. M.

Blockage Corrections for Three-Dimensional-Flow Closed-Throat Wind Tunnels, with Consideration of the Effect of Compressibility

Description: Theoretical blockage corrections are presented for a body of revolution and for a three-dimensional, unswept wing in a circular or rectangular wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based on the assumption that the dimensions of the model are small in comparison with those of the tunnel throat. Formulas are given for correcting a number of the quantities, such as dynamic pressure and Mach number, measured in wind tunnel tests. The report presents a summary and unification of the existing literature on the subject.
Date: January 1, 1951
Creator: Herriot, J. G.

Determination of Stresses in Gas-turbine Disks Subjected to Plastic Flow and Creep

Description: From Summary: "A finite-difference method previously presented for computing elastic stresses in rotating disks is extended to include the computation of the disk stresses when plastic flow and creep are considered. A finite-difference method is employed to eliminate numerical integration and to permit nontechnical personnel to make the calculations with a minimum of engineering supervision. Illustrative examples are included to facilitated explanation of the procedure by carrying out the computations on a typical gas-turbine disk through a complete running cycle."
Date: 1948
Creator: Millenson, M. B. & Manson, S. S.

General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability and the Mechanism of Flutter

Description: The aerodynamic forces on an oscillating airfoil or airfoil-aileron combination of three independent degrees of freedom were determined. The problem resolves itself into the solution of certain definite integrals, which were identified as Bessel functions of the first and second kind, and of zero and first order. The theory, based on potential flow and the Kutta condition, is fundamentally equivalent to the conventional wing section theory relating to the steady case. The air forces being known, the mechanism of aerodynamic instability was analyzed. An exact solution, involving potential flow and the adoption of the Kutta condition, was derived. The solution is of a simple form and is expressed by means of an auxiliary parameter k. The flutter velocity, treated as the unknown quantity, was determined as a function of a certain ratio of the frequencies in the separate degrees of freedom for any magnitudes and combinations of the airfoil-aileron parameters.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore

General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Sections

Description: The problem of determining the two dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any shape is examined. The problem is condensed into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process. An attempt is made to analyze and coordinate the results of earlier studies relating to properties of wing sections. The existing approximate theory of thin wing sections and the Joukowski theory with its numerous generalizations are reduced to special cases of the general theory of arbitrary sections, permitting a clearer perspective of the entire field. The method which permits the determination of the velocity at any point of an arbitrary section and the associated lift and moments is described. The method is also discussed in terms for developing new shapes of preassigned aerodynamical properties.
Date: November 4, 1932
Creator: Theodorsen, T. & Garrick, I. E.

The Inertia Coefficients of an Airship in a Frictionless Fluid

Description: The apparent inertia of an airship hull is examined. The exact solution of the aerodynamical problem is studied for hulls of various shapes with special attention given to the case of an ellipsoidal hull. So that the results for the ellipsoidal hull may be readily adapted to other cases, they are expressed in terms of the area and perimeter of the largest cross section perpendicular to the direction of motion by means of a formula involving a coefficient kappa which varies only slowly when the shape of the hull is changed, being 0.637 for a circular or elliptic disk, 0.5 for a sphere, and about 0.25 for a spheroid of fineness ratio. The case of rotation of an airship hull is investigated and a coefficient is defined with the same advantages as the corresponding coefficient for rectilinear motion.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Bateman, H.

The Minimum Induced Drag of Aerofoils

Description: Equations are derived to demonstrate which distribution of lifting elements result in a minimum amount of aerodynamic drag. The lifting elements were arranged (1) in one line, (2) parallel lying in a transverse plane, and (3) in any direction in a transverse plane. It was shown that the distribution of lift which causes the least drag is reduced to the solution of the problem for systems of airfoils which are situated in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flight.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Munk, M. M.

Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. Part 1: Fundamental Concepts and the Most Important Theorems. Part 2: Applications

Description: A discussion of the principles of hydrodynamics of nonviscous fluids in the case of motion of solid bodies in a fluid is presented. Formulae are derived to demonstrate the transition from the fluid surface to a corresponding 'control surface'. The external forces are compounded of the fluid pressures on the control surface and the forces which are exercised on the fluid by any solid bodies which may be inside of the control surfaces. Illustrations of these formulae as applied to the acquisition of transformations from a known simple flow to new types of flow for other boundaries are given. Theoretical and experimental investigations of models of airship bodies are presented.
Date: 1979?~
Creator: Prandtl, L.

Investigation of frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine

Description: Experimental frequency-response characteristics of engine speed for a typical turbine-propeller engine are presented. These data were obtained by subjecting the engine to sinusoidal variations of fuel flow and propeller-blade-angle inputs. Correlation is made between these experimental data and analytical frequency-response characteristics obtained from a linear differential equation derived from steady-state torque-speed relations.
Date: March 24, 1950
Creator: Taylor, Burt L., III & Oppenheimer, Frank L.

Flight investigation at high speeds of the drag of three airfoils and a circular cylinder representing full-scale propeller shanks

Description: Tests have been made at high speeds to determine the drag of models, simulating propeller shanks, in the form of a circular cylinder and three airfoils, the NACA 16-025, the NACA 16-040, and the NACA 16-040 with the rear 25 percent chord cut off. All the models had a maximum thickness of 4 1/2 inches to conform with average propeller-shank dimensions and a span of 20 1/4 inches. For the tests the models were supported perpendicular to the lower surface of the wing of an XP-51 airplane. A wake-survey rake mounted below the wing directly behind the models was used to determine profile drag of Mach numbers of 0.3 to 0.8 over a small range of angle of attack. The drag of the cylinder was also determined from pressure-distribution and force measurements.
Date: January 1, 1946
Creator: Barlow, William H

A flight evaluation of the longitudinal stability characteristics associated with the pitch-up of a swept-wing airplane in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds

Description: This report presents the results of flight measurements of longitudinal stability and control characteristics made on a swept-wing jet aircraft to determine the origin of the pitch-up encountered in maneuvering flight at transonic speeds. For this purpose measurements were made of elevator angle, tail angle of attack, and wing-fuselage pitching moments (obtained from measurements of the balancing tail loads).
Date: January 1, 1955
Creator: Anderson, Seth B & Bray, Richard S

Flight and analytical methods for determining the coupled vibration response of tandem helicopters

Description: Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.
Date: January 1, 1957
Creator: Yeates, John E , Jr; Brooks, George W & Houbolt, John C

Flight studies of the horizontal-tail loads experienced by a fighter airplane in abrupt maneuvers

Description: Field measurements were made on a fighter airplane to determine the approximate magnitude of the horizontal tail loads in accelerated flight. In these flight measurements, pressures at a few points were used as an index of the tail loads by correlating these pressures with complete pressure-distribution data obtained in the NACA full-scale tunnel. In addition, strain gages and motion pictures of tail deflections were used to explore the general nature and order of magnitude of fluctuating tail loads in accelerated stalls.
Date: January 1, 1944

The flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface

Description: An iteration method is employed to obtain the flow of a compressible fluid past a curved surface. The first approximation which leads to the Prandtl-Glauert rule, is based on the assumption that the flow differs but little from a pure translation. The iteration process then consists in improving this first approximation in order that it will apply to a flow differing from pure translatory motion to a greater degree. The method fails when the Mach number of the undisturbed stream reaches unity but permits a transition from subsonic to supersonic conditions without the appearance of a compression shock. The limiting value at which potential flow no longer exits is indicated by the apparent divergence of the power series representing the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the solid boundary.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

Free-space oscillating pressures near the tips of rotating propellers

Description: The theory is given for calculating the free-space oscillating pressures associated with a rotating propeller, at any point in space. Because of its complexity this analysis is convenient only for use in the critical region near the propeller tips where the assumptions used by Gutin to simplify his final equations are not valid. Good agreement was found between analytical and experimental results in the tip Mach number range 0.45 to two, three, four, five, six, on eight-blade propellers and for a range of tip clearances from 0.04 to 0.30 times the propeller diameter. If the power coefficient, tip Mach number, and the tip clearance are known for a given propeller, the designer may determine from these charts the average maximum free-space oscillating pressure in the critical region near the plane of rotation. A section of the report is devoted to the fuselage response to these oscillating pressures and indicates some of the factors to be considered in solving the problems of fuselage vibration and noise.
Date: 1950
Creator: Hubbard, Harvey H. & Regier, Arthur A.

Free-stream boundaries of turbulent flows

Description: Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.
Date: 1955
Creator: Corrsin, Stanley & Kistler, Alan L.