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Air flow in the boundary layer near a plate

Description: The published data on the distribution of speed near a thin flat plate with sharp leading edge placed parallel to the flow (skin friction plate) are reviewed and the results of some additional measurements are described. The purpose of the experiments was to study the basic phenomena of boundary-layer flow under simple conditions.
Date: March 1936
Creator: Dryden, Hugh L.

Analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings with special reference to torsion and load transference

Description: This report deals with the analysis of 2-spar cantilever wings in torsion, taking cognizance of the fact that the spars are not independent, but are interconnected by ribs and other structural members. The principles of interaction are briefly explained, showing that the mutual relief action occurring depends on the "pure torsional stiffness" of the wing cross section. Various practical methods of analysis are outlined. The "Friedrichs-Von Karman equations" are shown to require the least amount of labor. Numerical examples by the several methods of analysis are given and the agreement between the calculation and experiment is shown.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Characteristics of the NACA 23012 airfoil from tests in the full-scale and variable-density tunnels

Description: This report gives the results of tests in the NACA full-scale and variable-density tunnels of a new wing section, the NACA 23012, which is one of the more promising of an extended series of related airfoils recently developed. The tests were made at several values of the Reynolds number between 1,000,000 and 8,000,000. The new airfoil develops a reasonably high maximum lift and a low profile drag, which results in an unusually high value of the speed-range index. In addition, the pitching-moment coefficient is very small. The superiority of the new section over well-known and commonly used sections of small camber and moderate thickness is indicated by making a direct comparison with variable-density tests of the NACA 2212, the well-known NACA family airfoil that most nearly resembles it. The superiority is further indicated by comparing the characteristics with those obtained from full-scale-tunnel tests of the Clark y airfoil.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Clay, William C.

A comparison of fuel sprays from several types of injection nozzles

Description: This report presents the tests results of a series of tests made of the sprays from 14 fuel injection nozzles of 9 different types, the sprays being injected into air at atmospheric density and at 6 and 14 times atmospheric density. High-speed spark photographs of the sprays from each nozzle at each air density were taken at the rate of 2,000 per second, and from them were obtained the dimensions of the sprays and the rates of spray-tip penetration. The sprays were also injected against plasticine targets placed at different distances from the nozzles, and the impressions made in the plasticine were used as an indication of the distribution of the fuel within the spray. Cross-sectional sketches of the different types of sprays are given showing the relative sizes of the spray cores and envelopes. The characteristics of the sprays are compared and discussed with respect to their application to various types of engines.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Lee, Dana W

Distribution and regularity of injection from a multicylinder fuel-injection pump

Description: This report presents the results of performance test conducted on a six-cylinder commercial fuel-injection pump that was adjusted to give uniform fuel distribution among the cylinders at a throttle setting of 0.00038 pound per injection and a pump speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The throttle setting and pump speed were then varied through the operating range to determine the uniformity of distribution and regularity of injection.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Marsh, E. T.

The drag of airplane wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears II : nonretractable and partly retractable landing gears

Description: This is the second report giving the results obtained in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel on the drag due to landing gears. The present report gives the results of tests of nonretractable and partly retractable landing gears intended for heavier low-wing monoplanes of the transport and bomber type.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Biermann, David & Herrnstein, William H , Jr

The drag of airplane wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears - III

Description: The tests reported in this report conclude the investigation of landing-gear drag that has been carried out in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. They supplement earlier tests (reported in Technical Report No. 485) made with full-scale dummy wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears intended for airplanes of 3,000 pounds gross weight and include tests of tail wheels and tail skids.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Herrnstein, William H , Jr & Biermann, David

The effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and heat-transfer coefficients of finned cylinders

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Rollin, Vern G

The effect of water vapor on flame velocity in equivalent carbon monoxide and oxygen mixtures

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Fiock, Ernest F & King, H Kendall

Experimental investigation of the Robinson-type cup anemometer

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a Robinson-type anemometer. The investigation covered force measurements on individual cups, as well as static and dynamic torque measurements and calibrations on complete cup wheels. In the tests on individual cups 5 cup forms were used and in the measurements on complete cup wheels 4 cup wheels with 3 arm lengths for each cup wheel were tested. All the results are presented in graphical form.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Joyner, U T

Flight investigation of lateral control devices for use with full-span flaps

Description: This report presents the results of flight tests made on five different lateral control devices that appeared adaptable to wings fitted with full span flaps: controllable auxiliary airfoils (airfoils mounted above and forward of the leading edge of the wings), external ailerons (airfoils mounted above the wing and slightly forward of its maximum ordinate), upper-surface ailerons (similar to split trailing-edge flaps except that they constitute the upper surface of the wing), ailerons that retract into the wing when in neutral, and narrow-chord conventional ailerons in combination with a special type of split flap that retracts into the under surface of the wing forward of the ailerons. The devices were tested on a small parasol monoplane. Experienced gained in the use of flaps during these tests has indicated the desirability of a flap that can be operated quickly and easily.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Soule, H A & Mcavoy, W H

A flight investigation of the spinning of the F4B-2 biplane with various loads and tail surfaces

Description: A flight investigation of the spinning of the F4B-2 single-seat fighter airplane was made for the purpose of finding modifications that would eliminate dangerous spin tendencies exhibited by this type of airplane in service. The effects on steady spins and on recoveries of changing the loading, enlarging the fin areas, changing the elevator plan form, and raising the horizontal surfaces, were determined.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Scudder, N F & Seidman, Oscar

General equations for the stress analysis of rings

Description: In this report it is shown that the shear, axial force, and moment at one point in a simple ring subjected to any loading condition can be given by three independent equations involving certain integrals that must be evaluated regardless of the method of analysis used. It is also shown how symmetry of the ring alone or of the ring and the loading about 1 or 2 axes makes it possible to simplify the three equations and greatly reduces the number of integrals that must be evaluated. Application of the general equations presented in this report to practical problems in the stress analysis of rings makes it possible to shorten, simplify, and systematize the calculations for both simple and braced rings. Three illustrative problems are included to demonstrate the application of the general equations to a simple ring with different loadings.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Burke, Walter F.

Hydrogen as an auxiliary fuel in compression-ignition engines

Description: An investigation was made to determine whether a sufficient amount of hydrogen could be efficiently burned in a compression-ignition engine to compensate for the increase of lift of an airship due to the consumption of the fuel oil. The performance of a single-cylinder four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine operating on fuel oil alone was compared with its performance when various quantities of hydrogen were inducted with the inlet air. Engine-performance data, indicator cards, and exhaust-gas samples were obtained for each change in engine-operating conditions.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Foster, H

The influence of wing setting on the wing load and rotor speed of a PCA-2 autogiro as determined in flight

Description: Flight tests were made on PCA-2 autogiro with wing settings of 2.2 degrees, 0.9 degrees, and -0.5 degrees. The wing load and rotor speed were measured in steady glides. The results obtained show that a wide variation in rotor speed as a function of air speed can be obtained by a suitable adjustment of the wing setting; that by decreasing the wing setting the upper safe flying speed, determined by the decrease is rotor speed, is greatly increased; and that the interference of the wing on the rotor thrust and lift coefficients is negligible.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Wheatley, John B

Investigation of full-scale split trailing-edge wing flaps with various chords and hinge locations

Description: This report gives the results of an investigation conducted in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel on a small parasol monoplane equipped with three different split trailing-edge wing flaps. The object of the investigation was to determine and correlate data on the characteristics of the airplane and flaps as affected by variation in flap chord, flap deflection, and flap location along the wing chord. The results give the lift, the drag, and the pitching moment characteristics of the airplane, and the flap forces and moments, the pressure distribution over the flaps and wing at one section, and the downwash characteristics of the flap and wing combinations.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Wallace, Rudolf

The measurement of the field of view from airplane cockpits

Description: A method has been devised for the angular measurement and graphic portrayal of the view obtained from the pilot's cockpit of an airplane. The assumption upon which the method is based and a description of the instrument, designated a "visiometer", used in the measurement are given. Account is taken of the fact that the pilot has two eyes and two separate sources of vision. The view is represented on charts using an equal-area polar projection, a description and proof of which are given. The use of this chart, aside from its simplicity, may make possible the establishment of simple criterions of the field of view. Charts of five representative airplanes with various cockpit arrangements are included.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Gough, Melvin N

Noise from two-blade propellers

Description: The two-blade propeller, one of the most powerful sources of sound known, has been studied with the view of obtaining fundamental information concerning the noise emission. In order to eliminate engine noise, the propeller was mounted on an electric motor. A microphone was used to pick up the sound whose characteristics were studied electrically. The distribution of noise throughout the frequency range, as well as the spatial distribution about the propeller, was studied. The results are given in the form of polar diagrams. An appendix of common acoustical terms is included.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Stowell, E Z & Deming, A F

Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

Description: This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

Reduction of hinge moments of airplane control surfaces by tabs

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of control surfaces equipped with tabs for reducing the control forces or trimming the aircraft. Two sizes of ordinary ailerons with several sizes of attached and inset tabs were tested on a Clark y wing. Tabs were also tested in combination with auxiliary balances of the horn and paddle types, and with a frise balance aileron. A tail-surface model of symmetrical section, equipped with tabs, was tested with 40 percent of the area movable (elevator) when used as a horizontal tail and 60 percent of the area movable (rudder) when used as a vertical tail. The half-span tail-surface model was tested with and without a reflection plane. The results of the tests indicated that inset tabs were superior to attached tabs for the same ratio of tab/control surface deflection.
Date: January 1, 1936
Creator: Harris, Thomas A