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The aerodynamic characteristics of a slotted Clark y wing as affected by the auxiliary airfoil position

Description: Aerodynamic force tests on a slotted Clark Y wing were conducted in a vertical wind tunnel to determine the best position for a given auxiliary airfoil with respect to the main wing. A systematic series of 100 changes in location of the auxiliary airfoil were made to cover all the probable useful ranges of slot gap, slot width, and slot depth. The results of the investigation may be applied to the design of automatic or controlled slots on wings with geometric characteristics similar to the wing tested. The best positions of the auxiliary airfoil were covered by the range of the tests, and the position for desired aerodynamic characteristics may easily be obtained from charts prepared especially for the purpose.
Date: 1932~
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Shortal, Joseph A.

Aerodynamic characteristics of circular-arc airfoils at high speeds

Description: The aerodynamic characteristics of eight circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.5, 0.8, 0.95, and 1.08 times the speed of sound have been determined in an open-jet air stream 2 inches in diameter, using models of 1-inch chord. The lower surface of each airfoil was plane; the upper surface was cylindrical. As compared with the measurements described in NACA-TR-319, the circular-arc airfoils at speeds of 0.95 and 1.08 times the speed of sound are more efficient than airfoils of the R. A. F. or Clark Y families. At a speed of 0.5 times the speed of sound, the thick circular-arc sections are extremely inefficient, but thin sections compare favorably with those of the R. A. F. family. A moderate round of the sharp edges changes the characteristics very little and is in many instances beneficial. The results indicate that the section of the blades of propellers intended for use at high tip-speeds should be of the circular-arc form for the outer part of the blade and should be changed gradually to the R. A. F. or Clark Y form as the hub is approached.
Date: 1932~
Creator: Briggs, L. J. & Dryden, H. L.

The aerodynamic characteristics of eight very thick airfoils from tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests on a group of eight very thick airfoils having sections of the same thickness as those used near the roots of tapered airfoils. The tests were made to study certain discontinuities in the characteristic curves that have been obtained from previous tests of these airfoils, and to compare the characteristics of the different sections at values of the Reynolds number comparable with those attained in flight. The discontinuities were found to disappear as the Reynolds number was increased. The results obtained from the large-scale airfoil, a symmetrical airfoil having a thickness ratio of 21 per cent, has the best general characteristics.
Date: 1932~
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.

Airfoil section characteristics as affected by protuberances

Description: The drag and interference caused by protuberance from the surface of an airfoil have been determined in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number approximately 3,100,000. The effects of variations of the fore-and-aft position, height, and shape of the protuberance were measured by determining how the airfoil section characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances extending along the entire span of the airfoil. The results provide fundamental data on which to base the prediction of the effects of actual short-span protuberances. The data may also be applied to the design of air brakes and spoilers.
Date: July 11, 1932
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.

The automotive ignition coil

Description: This report gives the results of a series of measurements on the secondary voltage induced in an ignition coil of typical construction under a variety of operating conditions. These results show that the theoretical predictions hitherto made as to the behavior of this type of apparatus are in satisfactory agreement with the observed facts. The large mass of data obtained is here published both for the use of other investigators who may wish to compare them with other theoretical predictions and for the use of automotive engineers who will here find definite experimental results showing the effect of secondary capacity and resistance on the crest voltage produced by ignition apparatus.
Date: 1932?~
Creator: Darnell, T. H.

Coefficients of discharge of fuel-injection nozzles for compression-ignition engines

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the coefficients of discharge of nozzles with small, round orifices of the size used with high-speed compression-ignition engines. The injection pressures and chamber back pressures employed were comparable to those existing in compression-ignition engines during injection. The construction of the nozzles was varied to determine the effect of the nozzle design on the coefficient. Tests were also made with nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve, both with a plain and with a helically grooved stem. It was found that a smooth passage before the orifice is requisite for high flow efficiency. A beveled leading edge before the orifice gave a higher coefficient of discharge than a rounded edge. The results with the nozzles assembled in an automatic injection valve having a plain stem duplicated those with the nozzles assembled at the end of a straight tube of constant diameter. Lower coefficients were obtained with the nozzles assembled in an injection valve having a helically grooved stem. When the coefficients of nozzles of any one geometrical shape were plotted against values of corresponding Reynold's numbers for the orifice diameters and rates of flow tested, it was found that experimental points were distributed along a single curve.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Gelalles, A G

The comparative performance of superchargers

Description: This report presents a comparison of superchargers on the basis of the power required to compress the air at a definite rate, and on the basis of the net engine power developed at altitudes from 0 to 40,000 feet. The investigation included geared centrifugal, turbine-driven centrifugal, roots, and vane-type superchargers. It also includes a brief discussion of the mechanical limitations of each supercharger and explains how the method of control affects the power requirements.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Schey, Oscar W

Comparison of full-scale propellers having R.A.F.-6 and Clark Y airfoil sections

Description: In this report the efficiencies of two series of propellers having two types of blade sections are compared. Six full-scale propellers were used, three having R. A. F.-6 and three Clark Y airfoil sections with thickness/chord ratios of 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10. The propellers were tested at five pitch setting, which covered the range ordinarily used in practice. The propellers having the Clark Y sections gave the highest peak efficiency at the low pitch settings. At the high pitch settings, the propellers with R. A. F.-6 sections gave about the same maximum efficiency as the Clark Y propellers and were more efficient for the conditions of climb and take-off.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B

The drag characteristics of several airships determined by deceleration tests

Description: This report presents the results of deceleration tests conducted for the purpose of determining the drag characteristics of six airships. The tests were made with airships of various shapes and sizes belonging to the Army, the Navy, and the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation. Drag coefficients for the following airships are shown: Army TC-6, TC-10, and TE-2; Navy Los Angeles and ZMC-2; Goodyear Puritan. The coefficients vary from about 0.045 for the small blunt airships to 0.023 for the relatively large slender Los Angeles. This variation may be due to a combination of effects, but the most important of these is probably the effect of length-diameter ratio.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Thompson, F L & Kirschbaum, H W

Dynamic and flight tests on rubber-cord and oleo-rubber-disk landing gears for an F6C-4 airplane

Description: The investigation described in this report was conducted for the purpose of comparing an oleo-rubber-disk and a rubber-cord landing gear, built for use on an F6C-4 airplane. The investigation consisted of drop tests under various loading conditions and flight tests on an F6C-4 airplane. In the drop tests the total work done on each gear and the work done on each of the shock-absorbing units were determined. For both drop tests and flight tests the maximum loads and accelerations were determined. The comparative results showed that the oleo gear was slightly superior in reducing the ordinary landing shocks, that it had a greater capacity for work, and that it was very superior in the reduction of the rebound. The results further showed that for drops comparable to very severe landings, the rubber-cord gear was potentially more effective as a shock-reducing mechanism. However, due to the construction of this chassis, which limited the maximum elongation of the cords, this gear was incapable of withstanding as severe tests as the oleo gear. The action of the oleo gear was greatly inferior to the action of an ideal gear. The maximum accelerations encountered during the flight tests for severe landings were 3.64g for the rubber-cord gear and 2.27g for the oleo gear. These were less than those experienced in free drops of 7 inches on either gear.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Peck, William C

The effect of small angles of yaw and pitch on the characteristics of airplane propellers

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effect on the characteristics of a propeller of inclining the propeller axis at small angles to the relative wind. Tests were made of a full-scale propeller and fuselage combination at four angles of yaw (0 degree, +5 degrees, +10 degrees, +15 degrees), and of a model propeller, nacelle, and wing combination of five angles of pitch (-5 degrees, 0 degree, +5 degrees, +10 degrees and +15 degrees). The results of the full-scale tests of a propeller and fuselage, without a wing, show that the effect on the propeller performance is small. Similar results are shown by the model test data except that where the propeller is directly in front of the wing there is an appreciable decrease in effective thrust and propulsive efficiency with increase of angle of pitch.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B

The effect of valve timing upon the performance of a supercharged engine at altitude and an unsupercharged engine at sea level

Description: This investigation was conducted to determine the comparative effects of valve timing on the performance of an unsupercharged engine at sea level and a supercharged engine at altitude. The tests were conducted on the NACA universal test engine. The timing of the four valve events was varied over a wide range; the engine speeds were varied between 1,050 and 1,500 r.p.m.; the compression ratios were varied between 4.35:1 and 7.35:1. The conditions of exhaust pressure and carburetor pressure of a supercharged engine were simulated for altitudes between 0 and 18,000 feet. The results show that optimum valve timing for a supercharged engine at an altitude of 18,000 feet differs slightly from that for an unsupercharged engine at sea level. A small increase in power is obtained by using the optimum timing for 18,000 feet for altitudes above 5,000 feet. The timing of the intake opening and exhaust closing becomes more critical as the compression ratio is increased.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Biermann, Arnold E

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on hinge moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the hinge moments of ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and USA-27 wing sections, supplementing the investigations described in NACA-TR-298 and NACA-TR-343, of the rolling and yawing moments due to similar ailerons on these two airfoil sections. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch, but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis. In the case of the Clark Y airfoil the measurements have been extended to a pitch angle of 40 degrees, using ailerons of span equal to 67 per cent of the wing semispan and chord equal to 20 and 30 per cent of the wing chord. The investigation was conducted on models of 60-inch span and 10-inch chord, having square tips, no taper in plan form or thickness, zero dihedral, and zero sweepback.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Monish, B H

Elastic instability of members having sections common in aircraft construction

Description: Two fundamental problems of elastic stability are discussed in this report. In part one formulas are given for calculating the critical stress at which a thin, outstanding flange of a compression member will either wrinkle into several waves or form into a single half wave and twist the member about its longitudinal axis. A mathematical study of the problem, which together with experimental work has led to these formulas, is given in an appendix. Results of test substantiating the recommended formulas are also presented. In part two the lateral buckling of beams is discussed. The results of a number of mathematical studies of this phenomenon have been published prior to this writing, but very little experimentally determined information relating to the problem has been available heretofore. Experimental verification of the mathematical deductions is supplied.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Trayer, George W & March, H W

Flame movement and pressure development in an engine cylinder

Description: This investigation describes a visual method for making stroboscopic observations, through a large number of small windows, of the spread of flame throughout the combustion chamber of a gasoline engine. Data, secured by this method on a small engine burning gaseous fuels, are given to show the effects of mixture ratio, spark advance, engine speed, charge density, degree of dilution, compression ratio, and fuel composition on flame movement in the cylinder. Partial indicator diagrams showing pressure development during the combustion period are included. Although present knowledge is not sufficient to permit qualitative evaluation of the separate effects on flame movement of chemical reaction velocity, thermal expansion of burned gases, resonance, turbulence, and piston movement, the qualitative influence of certain of these factors on some of the diagrams is indicated.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Marvin, Charles F , Jr & Best, Robert D

Full-scale tests of metal propellers at high tip speeds

Description: This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Wood, Donald H

The gaseous explosive reaction : the effect of pressure on the rate of propagation of the reaction zone and upon the rate of molecular transformation

Description: This study of gaseous explosive reaction has brought out a number of important fundamental characteristics of the explosive reaction indicating that the basal processes of the transformation are much simpler and corresponds more closely to the general laws and principles of ordinary transformations than is usually supposed. The report calls attention to the point that the rate of molecular transformation within the zone was found in all cases to be proportional to pressure, that the transformation within the zone is the result of binary impacts. This result is of unusual interest in the case of the reaction of heavy hydrocarbon fuels and the reaction mechanism proposed by the recent kinetic theory of chain reactions.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Stevens, F W

Hydraulics of fuel-injection pumps for compression-ignition engines

Description: Formulas are derived for computing the instantaneous pressures delivered by a fuel pump. The first derivation considers the compressibility of the fuel and the second, the compressibility, elasticity, and inertia of the fuel. The second derivation follows that given by Sass; it is shown to be the more accurate of the two. Additional formulas are given for determining the resistance losses in the injection tube. Experimental data are presented in support of the analyses. The report is concluded with an application of the theory to the design of fuel pump injection systems for which sample calculations are included.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.

Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments : II

Description: Data are presented on the kinematic viscosity, in the temperature range -50 degrees to +30 degrees C. of pure liquids and of solutions of animal oils, vegetable oils, mineral oils, glycerine, and ethylene glycol in various low freezing point solvents. It is shown that the thermal coefficient of kinematic viscosity as a function of the kinematic viscosity of the solutions of glycerine and ethylene glycol in alcohols is practically independent of the temperature and the chemical composition of the individual liquids. This is similarly true for the mineral oil group and, for a limited temperature interval, for the pure animal and vegetable oils. The efficiency of naphthol, hydroquinone, and diphenylamine to inhibit the change of viscosity of poppyseed and linseed oils was also investigated.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Houseman, M R & Keulegan, G H

Investigation of the diaphragm-type pressure cell

Description: This report relates to various improvements in the process of manufacture of the NACA standard pressure cell. Like most pressure recording devices employing thin diaphragms, they would in general show considerable change in calibration with temperature and also some change of calibration with time or aging effect. The required diaphragm thickness and the desirable rate of mechanical magnification have been determined on the basis of several hundred tests.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore

Maneuverability investigation of an F6C-4 fighting airplane

Description: In order to compare the relative maneuverability of two fighting airplanes and to accumulate additional data to assist in establishing a satisfactory criterion for the maneuverability of any airplane, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted maneuverability investigations on the F6C-3 (water-cooled engine) and the F6C-4 (air-cooled engine) airplanes. The investigation made on the F6C-3 airplane was reported in NACA-TR-369. This report contains the results of the investigation made on the F6C-4 airplane. A comparison of the results with those obtained in the investigation conducted on the F6C-3 airplane shows that: with practically the same speed and control movement, the F6C-4 completed a loop in 10 per cent less time than did F6C-3; in dives, the F6C-3 increased its speed more rapidly than did the F6C-4; and the minimum radius of turn was found to be 135 feet at 61.5 miles per hour for the F6C-4, and 155 feet at 76 miles per hour for the F6C-3.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Dearborn, C H & Kirschbaum, H W

Maneuverability investigation of the F6C-3 airplane with special flight instruments

Description: This investigation was made for the purpose of obtaining information on the maneuverability of the F6C-3 airplane. It is the first of a series of similar investigations to be conducted on a number of military airplanes for the purpose of comparing the abilities of these airplanes to maneuver, and also to establish a fund of quantitative data which may be used in formulating standards of comparison for rating the maneuverability of any airplane. A large part of this initial investigation was necessarily devoted to the development and trial of methods suitable for use in subsequent investigations of this nature. Air speed, angular velocity, linear acceleration, and position of the control surfaces were measured by instruments in the airplane during loops, push-downs, pull-outs from dives, pull-ups from level flight, barrel rolls, and spins. The coordinates of flight paths were deduced from the data whenever possible, and were checked in some cases by the use of a camera obscura. The results are given in curves showing the variation of the measured quantities with respect to time, and maximum values are tabulated.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Dearborn, C H & Kirschbaum, H W

A method of flight measurement of spins

Description: A method is described involving the use of recording turn meters and accelerometers and a sensitive altimeter, by means of which all of the physical quantities necessary for the complete determination of the flight path, motion, attitude, forces, and couples of a fully developed spin can be obtained in flight. Data are given for several spins of two training type airplanes which indicate that the accuracy of the results obtained with the method is satisfactory.
Date: January 1, 1932
Creator: Soule, Hartley A & Scudder, Nathan F

A new chart for estimating the absolute ceiling of an airplane

Description: This report is concerned with the derivation of a chart for estimating the absolute ceiling of an airplane. This chart may be used in conjunction with the usual curves of power required and power available as an accurate substitute for extended calculation, or it may be used in the estimation of absolute ceiling when power curves are not available.
Date: January 1932
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.