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Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

Description: The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.
Date: January 1, 1931

Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

Description: Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Markwardt, L J

Airfoil pressure distribution investigation in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: Report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of pressure distribution measurements over one section each of six airfoils. Pressure distribution diagrams, as well as the integrated characteristics of the airfoils, are given for both a high and a low dynamic scale or, Reynolds number VL/V, for comparison with flight and other wind-tunnel tests, respectively. It is concluded that the scale effect is very important only at angles of attack near the burble. The distribution of pressure over an airfoil having a Joukowski section is compared with the theoretically derived distribution. A further study of the distribution of pressure over all of the airfoils resulted in the development of an approximate method of predicting the pressure distribution along the chord of any normal airfoil for all attitudes within the working range if the distribution at one attitude is known.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.; Stack, John & Pinkerton, Robert M

Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airship models. Eight Goodyear-Zeppelin airship models were tested in the original closed-throat tunnel. After the tunnel was rebuilt with an open throat a new model was tested, and one of the Goodyear-Zeppelin models was retested. The results indicate that much may be done to determine the drag of airships from evaluations of the pressure and skin-frictional drags on models tested at large Reynolds number.
Date: January 27, 1931
Creator: Abbott, Ira H

Comparative flight performance with an NACA Roots supercharger and a turbocentrifugal supercharger

Description: This report presents the comparative flight results of a roots supercharger and a turbocentrifugal supercharger. The tests were conducted using a modified DH-4M2 airplane. The rate of climb and the high speed in level flight of the airplane were obtained for each supercharger from sea level to the ceiling. The unsupercharged performance with each supercharger mounted in place was also determined. The results of these tests show that the ceiling and rate of climb obtained were nearly the same for each supercharger, but that the high speed obtained with the turbocentrifugal was better than that obtained with the roots. The high-speed performance at 21,000 feet was 122 and 142 miles per hour for the roots and turbocentrifugal, respectively.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Young, Alfred W

The design and development of an automatic injection valve with an annular orifice of varying area

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to provide an automatic injection valve of simple construction which would produce a finely atomized oil spray of broad cone angle and would fulfill the requirements of fuel injection in aircraft oil engines. The injection valve designed has only six parts - i. e., two concentric nozzle tubes flared at one end, two body parts, and two nuts. Analysis and engine tests indicate that the fuel spray from this type of injection valve has characteristics which reduce the time lag of autoignition and promote efficient combustion in high-speed oil engines.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Joachim, William F; Hicks, Chester W & Foster, Hampton H

The design of airplane wing ribs

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information for use in the design of truss and plywood forms, particularly with reference to wing ribs. Tests were made on many designs of wing ribs, comparing different types in various sizes. Many tests were also made on parallel-chord specimens of truss and plywood forms in place of the actual ribs and on parts of wing ribs, such as truss diagonals and sections of cap strips. It was found that for ribs of any size or proportions, when they were designed to obtain a well-balanced construction and were carefully manufactured, distinct types are of various efficiencies; the efficiency is based on the strength per unit of weight. In all types of ribs the heavier are the stronger per unit of weight. Reductions in the weight of wing ribs are accompanied even in efficient designs by a much greater proportional reduction in strength.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, George W

The design of plywood webs for airplane wing beams

Description: This report deals with the design of plywood webs for wooden box beams to obtain maximum strength per unit weight. A method of arriving at the most efficient and economical web thickness, and hence the most suitable unit shear stress, is presented and working stresses in shear for various types of webs and species of plywood are given. The questions of diaphragm spacing and required glue area between the webs and flange are also discussed.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Trayer, George W

The effect of reduction gearing on propeller-body interference as shown by full-scale wind-tunnel tests

Description: This report presents the results of full-scale tests made on a 10-foot 5-inch propeller on a geared J-5 engine and also on a similar 8-foot 11-inch propeller on a direct-drive J-5 engine. Each propeller was tested at two different pitch settings, and with a large and a small fuselage. The investigation was made in such a manner that the propeller-body interference factors were isolated, and it was found that, considering this interference only, the geared propellers had an appreciable advantage in propulsive efficiency, partially due to the larger diameter of the propellers with respect to the bodies, and partially because the geared propellers were located farther ahead of the engines and bodies.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

Effect of turbulence in wind-tunnel measurements

Description: This paper gives some quantitative measurements of wind tunnel turbulence and its effect on the air resistance of spheres and airship models, measurements made possible by the hot wire anemometer and associated apparatus in its original form was described in Technical Report no. 320 and some modifications are presented in an appendix to the present paper. One important result of the investigation is a curve by means of which measurements of the air resistance of spheres can be interpreted to give the turbulence quantitatively. Another is the definite proof that the discrepancies in the results on the N. P. L. Standard airship models are due mainly to differences in the turbulences of the wind tunnels in which the tests were made. An attempt is made to interpret the observed results in terms of the boundary layer theory and for this purpose a brief account is given of the physical bases of this theory and of conceptions that have been obtained by analogy with the laws of flow in pipes.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Dryden, H L & Kuethe, A M

Effect of variation of chord and span of ailerons on rolling and yawing moments at several angles of pitch

Description: This report presents the results of an extension to higher angles of attack of the investigation of the rolling and yawing moments due to ailerons of various chords and spans on two airfoils having the Clark Y and U. S. A. 27 wings. The measurements were made at various angles of pitch but at zero angle of roll and yaw, the wing chord being set at an angle of +4 degrees to the fuselage axis. In the case of the Clark Y airfoil the measurements have been extended to a pitch angle of 40 degrees, using ailerons of span equal to 67 per cent of the wing semispan and chord equal to 20 and 30 per cent of the wing chord. The work was conducted on wing models of 60-inch span and 10-inch chord.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Heald, R H; Strother, D H & Monish, B H

Experimental determination of jet boundary corrections for airfoil tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes

Description: This experimental investigation was conducted primarily for the purpose of obtaining a method of correcting to free air conditions the results of airfoil force tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes. Tests were also made to determine whether the jet boundaries had any appreciable effect on the pitching moments of a complete airplane model. Satisfactory corrections for the effect of the boundaries of the various jets were obtained for all the airfoils tested, the span of the largest being 0.75 of the jet width. The corrections for angle of attack were, in general, larger than those for drag. The boundaries had no appreciable effect on the pitching moments of either the airfoils or the complete airplane model. Increasing turbulence appeared to increase the minimum drag and maximum lift and to decrease the pitching moment.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Harris, Thomas A

An extended theory of thin airfoils and its application to the biplane problem

Description: The report presents a new treatment, due essentially to von Karman, of the problem of the thin airfoil. The standard formulae for the angle of zero lift and zero moment are first developed and the analysis is then extended to give the effect of disturbing or interference velocities, corresponding to an arbitrary potential flow, which are superimposed on a normal rectilinear flow over the airfoil. An approximate method is presented for obtaining the velocities induced by a 2-dimensional airfoil at a point some distance away. In certain cases this method has considerable advantage over the simple "lifting line" procedure usually adopted. The interference effects for a 2-dimensional biplane are considered in the light of the previous analysis. The results of the earlier sections are then applied to the general problem of the interference effects for a 3-dimensional biplane, and formulae and charts are given which permit the characteristics of the individual wings of an arbitrary biplane without sweepback or dihedral to be calculated. In the final section the conclusions drawn from the application of the theory to a considerable number of special cases are discussed, and curves are given illustrating certain of these conclusions and serving as examples to indicate the nature of the agreement between the theory and experiment.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Millikan, Clark B

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a propeller with the diameter changed by cutting off the blade tips

Description: Tests were conducted in order to determine how the characteristics of a propeller are affected by cutting off the tips. The diameter of a standard 10-foot metal propeller was changed successively to 9 feet 6 inches, 9 feet 0 inches, 8 feet 6 inches, and 8 feet 0 inches. Each propeller thus formed was tested at four pitch settings using an open cockpit fuselage and a D-12 engine. A small loss in propulsive efficiency is indicated. Examples are given showing the application of the results to practical problems.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Wood, Donald H

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests on several metal propellers having different blade forms

Description: This report gives the full-scale aerodynamic characteristics of five different aluminum alloy propellers having four different blade forms. They were tested on an open cockpit fuselage with a radial air-cooled engine having conventional cowling. The results show that (1) the differences in propulsive efficiency due to the differences in blade form were small; (2) the form with the thinnest airfoil sections had the highest efficiency; (3) it is advantageous as regards propulsive efficiency for a propeller operating in front of a body, such as a radial engine, to have its pitch reduced toward the hub.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests with a series of propellers of different diameters on a single fuselage

Description: Aerodynamic tests were made with four geometrically similar metal propellers of different diameters, on a Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine in an open cockpit fuselage. The results show little difference in the characteristics of the various propellers, the only one of any importance being an increase of efficiency of the order of 1 per cent for a 5 per cent increase of diameter, within the range of the tests.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

The gaseous explosive reaction at constant pressure : the reaction order and reaction rate

Description: The data given in this report covers the explosive limits of hydrocarbon fuels. Incidental to the purpose of the investigation here reported, the explosive limits will be found to be expressed for the condition of constant pressure, in the fundamental terms of concentrations (partial pressures) of fuel and oxygen.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Stevens, F W

An investigation of the effectiveness of ignition sparks

Description: The effectiveness of ignition sparks was determined by measuring the volume (or mass) of hydrogen and of oxygen which combines at low pressures. The sparks were generated by a magneto and an ignition spark coil. It was found that with constant energy the amount of reaction increases as the capacitance component of the spark increases. The use of a series spark gap may decrease or increase the amount of reaction, the effect depending upon the amount and distribution of capacitance in the circuit. So far as the work has progressed, it has been found that sparks reported by other investigations as being most efficient for igniting lean mixtures cause the largest amount of reaction. Differences between the amount of reaction with a magneto spark and an ignition spark coil were noted. The method appears to offer a means of determining the most efficient spark generator for internal-combustion engines as well as determining a relation between the character of spark, energy, and effectiveness in igniting inflammable mixtures.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Peters, Melville F & Summerville, Wayne L

Large-scale aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as tested in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: In order to give the large-scale characteristics of a variety of airfoils in a form which will be of maximum value, both for airplane design and for the study of airfoil characteristics, a collection has been made of the results of airfoil tests made at full-scale values of the reynolds number in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They have been corrected for tunnel wall interference and are presented not only in the conventional form but also in a form which facilitates the comparison of airfoils and from which corrections may be easily made to any aspect ratio. An example showing the method of correcting the results to a desired aspect ratio has been given for the convenience of designers. In addition, the data have been analyzed with a view to finding the variation of the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils with their thickness and camber.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Anderson, Raymond F.

A method of calculating the ultimate strength of continuous beams

Description: The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of continuous beams after the elastic limit has been passed. As a result, a method of calculation, which is applicable to maximum load conditions, has been developed. The method is simpler than the methods now in use and it applies properly to conditions where the present methods fail to apply.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Newlin, J A & Trayer, George W

Pressure distribution over a symmetrical airfoil section with trailing edge flap

Description: Measurements were made to determine the distribution of pressure over one section of an R. A. F. 30 (symmetrical) airfoil with trailing edge flaps. In order to study the effect of scale measurements were made with air densities of approximately 1 and 20 atmospheres. Isometric diagrams of pressure distribution are given to show the effect of change in incidence, flap displacement, and scale upon the distribution. Plots of normal force coefficient versus angle of attack for different flap displacements are given to show the effect of a displaced flap. Plots are given of both the experimental and theoretical characteristic coefficients versus flap angle, in order to provide a comparison with the theory. It is concluded that for small flap displacements the agreement for the pitching and hinge moments is such that it warrants the use of the theoretical parameters. However, the agreement for the lift is not as good, particularly for the smaller flaps. In an appendix, an example is given of the calculation of the load and moments on an airfoil with hinged flap from these parameters.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N. & Pinkerton, Robert M.

The pressure distribution over the wings and tail surfaces of a PW-9 pursuit airplane in flight

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine (1) the magnitude and distribution of aerodynamic loads over the wings and tail surfaces of a pursuit-type airplane in the maneuvers likely to impose critical loads on the various subassemblies of the airplane structure. (2) To study the phenomenon of center of pressure movement and normal force coefficient variation in accelerated flight, and (3) to measure the normal accelerations at the center of gravity, wing-tip, and tail, in order to determine the nature of the inertia forces acting simultaneously with the critical aerodynamic loads. The results obtained throw light on a number of important questions involving structural design. Some of the more interesting results are discussed in some detail, but in general the report is for the purpose of making this collection of airplane-load data obtained in flight available to those interested in airplane structures.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Rhode, Richard

Pressure fluctuations in a common-rail fuel injection system

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Rothrock, A. M.

A proof of the theorem regarding the distribution of lift over the span for minimum induced drag

Description: The proof of the theorem that the elliptical distribution of lift over the span is that which will give rise to the minimum induced drag has been given in a variety of ways, generally speaking too difficult to be readily followed by the graduate of the average good technical school of the present day. In the form of proof this report makes an effort to bring the matter more readily within the grasp of this class of readers.
Date: January 1, 1931
Creator: Durand, W F