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Analysis of heat and compressibility effects in internal flow systems and high-speed tests of a ram-jet system

Description: An analysis has been made by the NACA of the effects of heat and compressibility in the flow through the internal systems of aircraft. Equations and charts are developed whereby the flow characteristics at key stations in a typical internal system may be readily obtained.
Date: July 21, 1942
Creator: Becker, John V & Baals, Donald D

Bending of rectangular plates with large deflections

Description: The solution of Von Karman's fundamental equations for large deflections of plates is presented for the case of a simply supported rectangular plate under combined edge compression and lateral loading. Numerical solutions are given for square plates and for rectangular plates with a width-span ratio of 3:1. The effective widths under edge compression are compared with effective widths according to Von Karman, Bengston, Marguerre, and Cox and with experimental results by Ramberg, Mcpherson, and Levy. The deflections of a square plate under lateral pressure are compared with experimental and theoretical results by Kaiser. It is found that the effective widths agree closely with Marguerre's formula and with the experimentally observed values and that the deflections agree with the experimental results and with Kaiser's work.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Levy, Samuel

Critical Compressive Stress for Flat Rectangular Plates Supported Along All Edges and Elastically Restrained Against Rotation along the Unloaded Edges

Description: A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in flat rectangular plates supported along all edges and, in addition, elastically restrained against rotation along the unloaded edges. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required in the construction of the chart are given.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Elbridge Z.

Critical Compressive Stress for Outstanding Flanges

Description: A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in outstanding flanges. These flanges are flat rectangular plates supported along the loaded edges, supported and elastically restrained along one unloaded edge, and free along the other unloaded edge. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required for construction of the chart are given.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Elbridge Z.

Determination of optimum plan forms for control surfaces

Description: Solutions found for a range of airfoil plan forms indicate that, regardless of the characteristics of the tail surface, the chord of the rudder or of the elevator should be very nearly constant over its span. The optimum ailerons are also of a characteristic shape, varying little with the plan form of the wing.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Jones, Robert T & Cohen, Doris

Drag and Propulsive Characteristics of Air-Cooled Engine-Nacelle Installations for Large Airplane

Description: An investigation was conducted in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel to determine the drag and the propulsive efficiency of nacelle-propeller arrangements for a large range of nacelle sizes. In contrast with usual tests with a single nacelle, these tests were conducted with nacelle-propeller installations on a large model of a four-engine airplane. Data are presented on the first part of the investigation, covering seven nacelle arrangements with nacelle diameters from 0.53 to 1.5 times the wing thickness. These ratios are similar to those occurring on airplanes weighing from about 20 to 100 tons. The results show the drag, the propulsive efficiency, and the over-all efficiency of the various nacelle arrangements as functions of the nacelle size, the propeller position, and the airplane lift coefficient. The effect of the nacelles on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model is shown for both propeller-removed and propeller-operating conditions.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Wilson, Herbert A , Jr

Flutter calculations in three degrees of freedom

Description: The present paper is a continuation of the general study of flutter published in NACA reports nos. 496 and 685. The paper is mainly devoted to flutter in three degrees of freedom (bending, torsion, and aileron) for which a number of selected cases have been calculated and presented in graphical form. The results are analyzed and discussed with regard to the effects of structural damping, of fractional-span ailerons, and of mass-balancing. The analysis shows that more emphasis should be put on the effect of structural damping and less on mass-balancing. The conclusion is drawn that a definite minimum amount of structural damping, which is usually found to be present, is essential in the calculations for an adequate description of the flutter case. Theoretical flutter predictions are thus brought into closer agreement with the facts of experience. A brief discussion is included of a particular biplane that had experienced flutter at about 200 miles per hour. Some simplifications have been achieved in the method of calculation. (author).
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I E

Ground effect on downwash angles and wake location

Description: A theoretical study was made of the reduction in downwash and the upward displacement of the wake in the presence of the ground, and some verification of theory was obtained by means of air-flow measurements made with a ground-board and image-wing combination. Methods are given for estimating the effects and numerous examples are included to illustrate the nature of these effects and to show their order of magnitude.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Katzoff, S & Sweberg, Harold H

High-Speed Tests of a Model Twin-Engine Low-Wing Transport Airplane

Description: Report presents the results of force tests made of a 1/8-scale model of a twin-engine low-wing transport airplane in the NACA 8-foot high-speed tunnel to investigate compressibility and interference effects of speeds up to 450 miles per hour. In addition to tests of the standard arrangement of the model, tests were made with several modifications designed to reduce the drag and to increase the critical speed.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Becker, John V & LEONARD LLOYD H

High-Speed Tests of Conventional Radial-Engine Cowlings

Description: The drag characteristics of eight radial-engine cowlings have been determined over a wide speed range in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. The pressure distribution over all cowlings was measured, to and above the speed of the compressibility burble, as an aid in interpreting the force tests. One-fifth-scale models of radial-engine cowlings on a wing-nacelle combination were used in the tests.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Robinson, Russell G & Becker, John V

Investigation in the 7-by-10 Foot Wind Tunnel of Ducts for Cooling Radiators within an Airplane Wing

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord wing model with a duct to house a simulated radiator suitable for a liquid-cooled engine. The duct was expanded to reduce the radiator losses, and the installation of the duct and radiator was made entirely within the wing to reduce form and interference drag. The tests were made using a two-dimensional-flow setup with a full-span duct and radiator. Section aerodynamic characteristics of the basic airfoil are given and also curves showing the characteristics of the various duct-radiator combinations. An expression for efficiency, the primary criterion of merit of any duct, and the effect of the several design parameters of the duct-radiator arrangement are discussed. The problem of throttling is considered and a discussion of the power required for cooling is included.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Harris, Thomas A & Recant, Isidore G

An investigation of the drag of windshields in the 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel

Description: Report presents the results of tests made to determine the drag of closed-cockpit and transport-type windshields. The tests were made at speeds corresponding to a Mach number range of approximately 0.25 to 0.58 in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel. This speed range corresponds to a test Reynolds number range of 2,510,000 to 4,830,000 based on the mean aerodynamic chord of the full-span model (17.29 in.). The shapes of the windshield proper, the hood, and the tail fairing were systematically varied to include common types and refined design.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Robinson, Russell G & Delano, James B

The mean aerodynamic chord and the aerodynamic center of a tapered wing

Description: A preliminary study of pitching-moment data on tapered wings indicated that excellent agreement with test data was obtained by locating the quarter-chord point of the average chord on the average quarter-chord point of the semispan. The study was therefore extended to include most of the available data on tapered-wing models tested by the NACA.
Date: January 1942
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

Nonstationary flow about a wing-aileron-tab combination including aerodynamic balance

Description: This paper presents a continuation of the work published in Technical Report no. 496. The results of that paper have been extended to include the effect of aerodynamic balance and the effect of a tab added to the aileron. The aerodynamic coefficients are presented in a form convenient for application to the flutter problem.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I E

Normal-pressure tests of circular plates with clamped edges

Description: A fixture is described for making normal-pressure tests of flat plates 5 inches in diameter in which particular care was taken to obtain rigid clamping at the edges. Results are given for 19 plates, ranging in thickness form 0.015 to 0.072 inch. The center deflections and the extreme-fiber stresses at low pressures were found to agree with theoretical values; the center deflections at high pressures were 4 to 12 percent greater than the theoretical values. Empirical curves are derived of the pressure for the beginning of the permanent set as a function of the dimensions of the plate and the tensile properties of the material.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Mcpherson, Albert E; Ramberg, Walter & Levy, Samuel

Normal-pressure tests of rectangular plates

Description: Report presents the results of normal-pressure tests made of 56 rectangular plates with clamped edges and of 5 plates with freely supported edges. Pressure was applied and the center deflection and the permanent set at the center were measured. For some of the plates, in addition, strains and contours were measured.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Ramberg, Walter; Mcpherson, Albert E & Levy, Samuel

On the use of residue theory for treating the subsonic flow of a compressible fluid

Description: A new mathematical technique, due to Milne-Thomson, is used to obtain an improved form of the method of Poggi for calculating the effect of compressibility on the subsonic flow past an obstacle. By means of this new method, the difficult surface integrals of the original Poggi method can be replaced by line integrals. These line integrals are then solved by the use of residue theory. In this way an equation is obtained giving the second-order effect of compressibility on the velocity of the fluid. The method is practicable for obtaining the higher-order effects of compressibility on the velocity field. As an illustration of the general result, the flow past an elliptic cylinder is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Kaplan, Carl

Pressure distribution over an NACA 23012 airfoil with a fixed slot and a slotted flap

Description: Report presents the results of a pressure-distribution investigation conducted in the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the air loads on an NACA 23012 airfoil in combination with a fixed leading-edge slot and a slotted flap. Pressures were measured over the upper and lower surfaces of the component parts of the combination for several angles of attack and at several flap settings. The data, presented as pressure diagrams and graphs of section coefficients, are applicable to rib, slat, and flap designs for the combination.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Harris, Thomas A & Lowry, John G

Propeller charts for the determination of the rotational speed for the maximum ratio of the propulsive efficiency to the specific fuel consumption

Description: A set of propeller operating efficiency charts, based on a coefficient from which the propeller rotational speed has been eliminated, is presented. These charts were prepared with data obtained from tests of full-size metal propellers in the NACA propeller-research tunnel. Working charts for nine propeller-body combinations are presented, including results from tests of dual-rotating propellers. These charts are to be used in the calculation of the range and the endurance of airplanes equipped with constant-speed propellers in which, for given flight conditions, it is desired to determine the propeller revolution speed that gives the maximum ratio of the propulsive efficiency to the specific fuel consumption. The coefficient on which the charts are based may be written in the form of a thrust coefficient or a thrust-power coefficient. A method of using the charts is outlined and sample computations for a typical airplane are included.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Biermann, David & Conway, Robert N

Restraint Provided a Flat Rectangular Plate by a Sturdy Stiffener Along an Edge of the Plate

Description: A sturdy stiffener is defined as a stiffener of such proportions that it does not suffer cross-sectional distortion when moments are applied to some part of the cross section. When such a stiffener is attached to one edge of a plate, it will resist rotation of that edge of the plate by means of its torsional properties. A formula is given for the restraint coefficient provided the plate by such a stiffener. This coefficient is required for the calculation of the critical compressive stress of the plate.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Lundquist, Eugene E. & Stowell, Elbridge Z.

Shear lag in box beams methods of analysis and experimental investigations

Description: The bending stresses in the covers of box beams or wide-flange beams differ appreciably from the stresses predicted by the ordinary bending theory on account of shear deformation of the flanges. The problem of predicting these differences has become known as the shear-lag problem. The first part of this paper deals with methods of shear-lag analysis suitable for practical use. The second part of the paper describes strain-gage tests made by the NACA to verify the theory. Three tests published by other investigators are also analyzed by the proposed method. The third part of the paper gives numerical examples illustrating the methods of analysis. An appendix gives comparisons with other methods, particularly with the method of Ebner and Koller.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Kuhn, Paul & Chiarito, Patrick T

Square plate with clamped edges under normal pressure producing large deflections

Description: A theoretical analysis is given for the stresses and deflections of a square plate with clamped edges under normal pressure producing large deflections. Values of the bending stress and membrane stress at the center of the plate and at the midpoint of the edge are given for center deflections up to 1.9 times the plate thickness. The shape of the deflected surface is given for low pressures and for the highest pressure considered. Convergence of solution is considered and it is estimated that the possible error is less than 2 percent. The results are compared with the only previous approximate analysis known to the author and agrees within 5 percent. They are also shown to compare favorably with the known exact solutions for the long rectangular plate and the circular plate.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Levy, Samuel

A study by high-speed photography of combustion and knock in a spark-ignition engine

Description: The study of combustion in a spark-ignition engine given in Technical Report no. 704 has been continued. The investigation was made with the NACA high-speed motion-picture camera and the NACA optical engine indicator. The camera operates at the rate of 40,000 photographs a second and makes possible the study of phenomena occurring in time intervals as short as 0.000025 second. Photographs are presented of combustion without knock and with both light and heavy knocks, the end zone of combustion being within the field of view. Time-pressure records covering the same conditions as the photographs are presented and their relations to the photographs are studied. Photographs with ignition at various advance angles are compared with a view to observing any possible relationship between pressure and flame depth. A tentative explanation of knock is suggested, which is designed to agree with the indications of the high-speed photographs and the time-pressure records.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Miller, Cearcy D

Test of single-stage axial-flow fan

Description: A single-stage axial fan was built and tested in the shop of the propeller-research tunnel of the NACA. The fan comprised a simple 24-blade rotor having a diameter of 21 inches and a solidity of 0.86 and a set of 37 contravanes having a solidity of 1.33. The rotor was driven by a 25-horsepower motor capable of rotating at a speed of 3600 r.p.m. The fan was tested for volume, pressure, and efficiency over a range of delivery pressures and volumes for a wide range of contravane and blade-angle settings. The test results are presented in chart form in terms of nondimensional units in order that similar fans may be accurately designed with a minimum effort. The maximum efficiency (88 percent) was obtained by the fan at a blade angle of 30 degrees and a contravane angle of 70 degrees. An efficiency of 80 percent was obtained by the fan with the contravanes removed.
Date: January 1, 1942
Creator: Bell, E Barton