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Aerodynamic characteristics of horizontal tail surfaces

Description: Collected data are presented on the aerodynamic characteristics of 17 horizontal tail surfaces including several with balanced elevators and two with end plates. Curves are given for coefficients of normal force, drag, and elevator hinge moment. A limited analysis of the results has been made. The normal-force coefficients are in better agreement with the lifting-surface theory of Prandtl and Blenk for airfoils of low aspect ratio than with the usual lifting-line theory. Only partial agreement exists between the elevator hinge-moment coefficients and those predicted by Glauert's thin-airfoil theory.
Date: 1940
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Katzoff, S

An analysis of the stability of an airplane with free controls

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made of the essentials to the stability of an airplane with free control surfaces. Calculations are based on typical airplane characteristics with certain factors varied to cover a range of current designs. Stability charts are included to show the limiting values of the aerodynamic hinge moments and the weight hinge moments of the control surfaces for various positions of the center of gravity of the airplane and for control systems with various moments of inertia. The effects of reducing the chord and of eliminating the floating tendency of the surface, of changing the wing loading, and of decreasing the radius of gyration of the airplane are also indicated. An investigation has also been made of the nature of the motion of the airplane with controls free and of the modes of instability that may occur.
Date: August 15, 1940
Creator: Jones, Robert T & Cohen, Doris

The application of basic data on planing surfaces to the design of flying-boat hulls

Description: Basic lift data on planing surfaces have been analyzed and the data applied to the design of flying-boat hulls. It is shown that a balance between air and water forces requires that the beam of the planing area bear a relation to the wing area that is determined by the lift coefficient of the wing and by the angle of dead rise in the planing surface. It is also shown that the fore-and-aft extent of the required planing area depends on the angle of dead rise. Failure to provide sufficient length of planing area appears to be the main reason for the poor water performance sometimes obtained when a large angle of dead rise is used.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.

The calculated effect of various hydrodynamic and aerodynamic factors on the take-off of a large flying boat

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made to determine the influence of various factors on the take-off performance of a hypothetical large flying boat by means of take-off calculations. The factors varied in the calculations were size of hull (load coefficient), wing setting, trim, deflection of flap, wing loading, aspect ratio, and parasite drag. The take-off times and distances were calculated to the stalling speeds and the performance above these speeds was separately studied to determine piloting technique for optimum take-off.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Olson, R E & Allison, J M

Correlation of cooling data from an air-cooled cylinder and several multicylinder engines

Description: The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr.

Design charts relating to the stalling of tapered wings

Description: An aid in airplane design, charts have been prepared to show the effects of wing taper, thickness ratio, and Reynolds number on the spanwise location of the initial stalling point. Means of improving poor stalling characteristics resulting from certain combinations of the variables have also been considered; additional figures illustrate the influence of camber increase to the wing tips, washout, central sharp leading edges, and wing-tip slots on the stalling characteristics. Data are included from which the drag increases resulting from the use of these means can be computed. The application of the data to a specific problem is illustrated by an example.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Soule, H A & Anderson, R F

Determination of ground effect from tests of a glider in towed flight

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made to find the effect of ground on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Franklin PS-2 glider. The lift, the drag, and the angle of attack of the glider in towed flight were determined at several heights from 0.14 to 1.19 span lengths and at various speeds for each height. Two wing arrangements were tested: the plain wing, and the wing with a nearly full-span 30-percent-chord split flap deflected 45 degrees. The experimental results for the plain wing were in good agreement with theoretical values calculated by the method of Wieselsberger for both the angle of attack and the drag coefficient at a height of 0.21 span length; Tani's refinements of the theory had a practically negligible effect on the computed values in this case.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Wetmore, J W & Turner, L I , Jr

Effect of exit-slot position and opening on the available cooling pressure for NACA nose-slot cowlings

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of full-scale nose-slot cowlings conducted in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel to furnish information on the pressure drop available for cooling. Engine conductances from 0 to 0.12 and exit-slot conductances from 0 to 0.30 were covered. Two basic nose shapes were tested to determine the effect of the radius of curvature of the nose contour; the nose shape with the smaller radius of curvature gave the higher pressure drop across the engine. The best axial location of the slot for low-speed operation was found to be in the region of maximum negative pressure for the basic shape for the particular operating condition. The effect of the pressure operating condition on the available cooling pressure is shown.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Stickle, George W; Naiman, Irven & Crigler, John L

Effect of fuel-air ratio, inlet temperature, and exhaust pressure on detonation

Description: An accurate determination of the end-gas condition was attempted by applying a refined method of analysis to experimental results. The results are compared with those obtained in Technical Report no. 655. The experimental technique employed afforded excellent control over the engine variables and unusual cyclic reproducibility. This, in conjunction with the new analysis, made possible the determination of the state of the end-gas at any instant to a fair degree of precision. Results showed that for any given maximum pressure the maximum permissible end-gas temperature increased as the fuel-air ratio was increased. The tendency to detonate was slightly reduced by an increase in residual gas content resulting from an increase in exhaust backpressure with inlet pressure constant.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Taylor, E S; Leary, W A & Diver, J R

Effective gust structure at low altitudes as determined from the reactions of an airplane

Description: Measurements of gust structure and gust intensity were made in the lower levels of the atmosphere (0 to 3,500 ft.). An Aeronca C-2 airplane was used as the measuring instrument, the gust structure being derived from the recorded motions of the airplane. Data were also obtained on wind velocities and temperatures as functions of altitude for use in attempting to correlate the gust-structure data with various meteorological quantities. The results indicated little or no correlation between the gust velocity and the gradient distance. The data, however, did indicate that an airplane the size of the Aeronca will respond most frequently to gusts having gradient distance of the order of 30 feet. The maximum true gust velocity measured during the investigation was 25 feet per second.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Donely, Philip

Flame speeds and energy considerations for explosions in a spherical bomb

Description: Simultaneous measurements were made of the speed of flame and the rise in pressure during explosions of mixtures of carbon monoxide, normal heptane, iso-octane, and benzene in a 10-inch spherical bomb with central ignition. From these records, fundamental properties of the explosive mixtures, which are independent of the apparatus, were computed. The transformation velocity, or speed at which flame advances into and transforms the explosive mixture, increases with both the temperature and the pressure of the unburned gas. The rise in pressure was correlated with the mass of charge inflamed to show the course of the energy developed.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Fiock, Ernest F; Marvin, Charles F , Jr; Caldwell, Frank R & Roeder, Carl H

Free-spinning wind-tunnel tests of a low-wing monoplane with systematic changes in wings and tails V : effect of airplane relative density

Description: The reported tests are a continuation of an NACA investigation being made in the free-spinning wind tunnel to determine the effects of independent variations in load distribution, wing and tail arrangement, and control disposition on the spin characteristics of airplanes. The standard series of tests was repeated to determine the effect of airplane relative density. Tests were made at values of the relative-density parameter of 6.8, 8.4 (basic), and 12.0; and the results were analyzed. The tested variations in the relative-density parameter may be considered either as variations in the wing loading of an airplane spun at a given altitude, with the radii of gyration kept constant, or as a variation of the altitude at which the spin takes place for a given airplane. The lower values of the relative-density parameter correspond to the lower wing loadings or to the lower altitudes of the spin.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Seidman, Oscar & Neihouse, A I

Investigations on the incompletely developed plane diagonal-tension field

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Kuhn, Paul

Longitudinal stability and control with special reference to slipstream effects

Description: Report presents the results of a study of data obtained in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel concerning the effects of interference and of propeller operation on longitudinal stability and control. The data include pitching moments for various power conditions for airplanes with tails removed and with tails set at various stabilizer and elevator angles. A number of surveys of the dynamic pressure and the flow direction in the region of the horizontal tail surface are also included. Results are given for eight airplanes, including a model of a four-engine airplane tested both as a tractor and as a pushed and a model of two-engine pusher. The effects are shown of propeller operation on the downwash angles and the dynamic pressures at the tail and on the pitching-moment contribution of the propeller and the wing.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Katzoff, S

Mechanical Properties of Flush-Riveted Joints

Description: The strength of representative types of flush-riveted joints has been determined by testing 865 single-shearing, double-shearing, and tensile specimens representing 7 types of rivet and 18 types of joint. The results, presented in graphic form, show the stress at failure, type of failure, and d/t ratio. In general, dimpled joints were appreciably stronger than countersunk or protruding-head joints, but their strength was greatly influenced by constructional details. The optimum d/t ratios have been determined for the several kinds of joints. Photomicrographs of each type show constructional details and, in several instances, cracks in the sheet.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Brueggeman, W C & Roop, Frederick C

Mechanism of flutter.a theoretical and experimental investigation of the flutter problem

Description: The results of the basic flutter theory originally devised in 1934 and published as NACA Technical Report no. 496 are presented in a simpler and more complete form convenient for further studies. The paper attempts to facilitate the judgement of flutter problems by a systematic survey of the theoretical effects of the various parameters. A large number of experiments were conducted on cantilever wings, with and without ailerons, in the NACA high-speed wind tunnel for the purpose of verifying the theory and to study its adaptability to three-dimensional problems. The experiments included studies on wing taper ratios, nacelles, attached floats, and external bracings. The essential effects in the transition to the three-dimensional problem have been established. Of particular interest is the existence of specific flutter modes as distinguished from ordinary vibration modes. It is shown that there exists a remarkable agreement between theoretical and experimental results.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Garrick, I E

Preliminary investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes

Description: The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is undertaking an investigation of the flying qualities of airplanes. The work consists in the determination of the significant qualities susceptible of measurement, the development of the instruments required to make the measurements, and the accumulation of data on the flying qualities of existing airplanes, which data are to serve as a basis for quantitative specifications for the flying qualities of future designs. A tentative schedule of measurable flying qualities has been prepared and the instruments needed for their measurements have been assembled. A trial of the schedule and the instruments has been made using the Stinson SR-8e airplane. The results showed that, although the original schedule and instruments are basically satisfactory some further development is required to eliminate nonessential items and to expedite flight testing. The report describes and discusses the work done with this airplane.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Soule, H A

Preliminary wind-tunnel investigation of an NACA 23012 airfoil with various arrangements of venetian-blind flaps

Description: Report presents the results of an investigation made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel of a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil with several arrangements of venetian-blind flaps to determine the aerodynamic section characteristics as affected by the over-all flap chord, the chords of the slats used to form the flap, the slat spacing, the number of slats and the position of the flap with respect to the wing. Complete section data are given in the form of graphs for all the combinations tested.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Wenzinger, Carl J. & Harris, Thomas A.

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears

Description: A theoretical study was made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called kinematic shimmy. Experimental checks, use being made of a model having low-pressure tires, are reported and the applicability of the results to full scale is discussed. Theoretical methods of estimating the spindle viscous damping and the spindle solid friction necessary to avoid shimmy are given. A new method of avoiding shimmy -- lateral freedom -- is introduced.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur

Static thrust and power characteristics of six full-scale propellers

Description: Static thrust and power measurements were made of six full-scale propellers. The propellers were mounted in front of a liquid-cooled-engine nacelle and were tested at 15 different blade angles in the range from -7 1/2 degrees to 35 degrees at 0.75r. The test rig was located outdoors and the tests were made under conditions of approximately zero wind velocity.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Hartman, Erwin P & Biermann, David

Tensile elastic properties of typical stainless steels and nonferrous metals as affected by plastic deformation and by heat treatment

Description: A general discussion is given of the relationships between stress, strain, and permanent set. From stress-set curves are derived proof stresses based on five different percentages of permanent set. The influence of prior plastic extension on these values is illustrated and discussed. A discussion is given of the influence of work-hardening, rest interval, and internal stress on the form of the proof stress-extension curve.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Mcadam, D J & Mebs, R W

A theoretical study of lateral stability with an automatic pilot

Description: The influence of automatic operation of the aileron and rudder controls on the lateral stability of an airplane is discussed. The control deflections are assumed to be proportional to the deviations and to the rates of deviation of the airplane from steady-flight conditions. The effects of changes in the types of deviation governing control application are considered. For one simple method of control in which the aileron deflection is proportional to the angle of bank and the rudder deflection is proportional to the angle of yaw, the effect of lag in control application is studied and regions of stability with and without lag are given. For the simple control with lag, curves are included that show the variations in the roots of the stability equation with changes in the amount of control applied. It is concluded that, although the simple control provides a satisfactory means of varying most of the lateral stability characteristics, the stability in azimuth will always be poor for such a control.
Date: January 1, 1940
Creator: Imlay, Frederick H