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Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.
Date: 1935
Creator: Platt, Robert C
Item Type: Report

Aerodynamic characteristics of wings with cambered external airfoil flaps, including lateral control, with a full-span flap

Description: The results of a wind-tunnel investigation of the NACA 23012, the NACA 23021, and the Clark Y airfoils, each equipped with a cambered external-airfoil flap, are presented in this report. The purpose of the research was to determine the relative merit of the various airfoils in combination with the cambered flap and to investigate the use of the flap as a combined lateral-control and high-lift device.
Date: 1935
Creator: Platt, Robert C
Item Type: Report

Air flow around finned cylinders

Description: Report presents the results of a study made to determine the air-flow characteristics around finned cylinders. Air-flow distribution is given for a smooth cylinder, for a finned cylinder having several fin spacings and fin widths, and for a cylinder with several types of baffle with various entrance and exit shapes. The results of these tests show: that flow characteristics around a cylinder are not so critical to changes in fin width as they are to fin spacing; that the entrance of the baffle has a marked influence on its efficiency; that properly designed baffles increase the air flow over the rear of the cylinder; and that these tests check those of heat-transfer tests in the choice of the best baffle.
Date: November 7, 1935
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Rollin, Vern G
Item Type: Report

Combustion in a bomb with a fuel-injection system

Description: Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Cohn, Mildred & Spencer, Robert C
Item Type: Report

Computation of the two-dimensional flow in a laminar boundary layer

Description: A comparison is made of the boundary-layer flow computed by the approximate method developed by K. Pohlhausen with the exact solutions which have been published for several special cases. A modification of Pohlhausen's method has been developed which extends the range of application at the expense of some decrease in the accuracy of the approximations.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Dryden, Hugh L
Item Type: Report

A description and test results of a spark-ignition and a compression-ignition 2-stroke-cycle engine

Description: This report presents performance results of air cooled and water-cooled engines. The results obtained were sufficiently promising to warrant further investigation with fuel injection and spark ignition, with the same arrangement of inlet ports and exhaust valves at the bottom of the cylinder and the exhaust gases discharged through two poppet valves in the cylinder head. The displacement of the engine was 118 cubic inches. Optimum performance was obtained with the inlet air directed into the cylinder at an angle of 20 degrees to the radial.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Spanogle, J A & Whitney, E G
Item Type: Report

The drag of airplane wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears - I

Description: This report presents the results of tests made in the 7-by 10-foot wind tunnel and in the 20-foot tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the drag of a number of airplane wheels, wheel fairings, and landing gears designed or selected for an airplane of 3,000 pounds gross weight. All tests were made on full-size models; those in the 7-by 10-foot tunnel were made at air speeds up to 80 miles per hour and those in the 20-foot tunnel were made at air speeds up to 100 miles per hour. Although most of the landing-gear tests were made in conjunction with a fuselage and at 0 degree pitch angle, some of the tests were made in conjunction with fuselage plus wings and a radial air-cooled engine and at pitch angles from -5 degrees to 6 degrees to obtain an indication of the general effect of these various items on landing-gear drag. All tests were made in the absence of propeller slipstream.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Herrnstein, William H & Biermann, David
Item Type: Report

Effect of moderate air flow on the distribution of fuel sprays after injection cut-0ff

Description: High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Spencer, R. C.
Item Type: Report

The effect of spray strips on the take-off performance of a model of a flying-boat hull

Description: The effect on the take-off performance of a model of the hull of a typical flying boat, Navy PH-1, of fitting spray strips of four different widths, each at three different angles, was determined by model tests in the NACA Tank. Spray strips of widths up to 3 percent of the beam improve the general performance at speeds near the hump and reduce the spray thrown. A downward angle of 30 degrees to 45 degrees in the neighborhood of the step seems most favorable for the reduction of the spray. The spray strips have a large effect in reducing the trimming moments at speeds near the hump speed, but have little effect on them at high speeds.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Truscott, Starr
Item Type: Report

Effect of viscosity on fuel leakage between lapped plungers and sleeves and on the discharge from a pump-injection system

Description: Test data and analysis show that the rate of fuel leakage between a lapped plunger and sleeve varies directly with the density of the fuel, the diameter of the plunger, the pressure producing the leakage, and the cube of the mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve. The rate varies inversely as the length of the lapped fit and the viscosity of the fuel. With a mean clearance between the plunger and sleeve of 0.0001 inch the leakage amounts to approximately 0.2 percent of the fuel injected with gasoline and as low as 0.01 percent with diesel fuel oils. With this mean clearance an effective seal is obtained when the length of the lap is three times the diameter of the lap. The deformation of the sleeve and plunger under pressure is sufficient to change the rate of leakage appreciably from that which would be obtained if the clearance was constant under pressure.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Marsh, E. T.
Item Type: Report

Experimental verification of the theory of wind-tunnel boundary interference

Description: The results of an experimental investigation on the boundary-correction factor are presented in this report. The values of the boundary-correction factor from the theory, which at the present time is virtually completed, are given in the report for all conventional types of tunnels. With the isolation of certain disturbing effects, the experimental boundary-correction factor was found to be in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically predicted values, thus verifying the soundness and sufficiency of the theoretical analysis. The establishment of a considerable velocity distortion, in the nature of a unique blocking effect, constitutes a principal result of the investigation.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Silverstein, Abe
Item Type: Report

A flight investigation of the effect of mass distribution and control setting on the spinning of the XN2Y-1 airplane

Description: The investigation of the effect of mass distribution on the spinning of airplanes initiated with tests on the NY-1 airplane has been continued by tests on another airplane in order to increase the scope of the information and to observe particularly the behavior of an airplane that shows considerable change in sideslip angle for its various conditions of spinning. The XN2Y-1 naval training biplane was used for the present tests in which changes of ballast along the longitudinal and lateral axes and changes of aileron, stabilizer, and elevator settings were made. The effects of these changes on the steady spin were measured in flight.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Scudder, N F
Item Type: Report

A flight investigation of the lateral control characteristics of short wide ailerons and various spoilers with different amounts of wing dihedral

Description: This report presents the results of flight tests made to determine the lateral control characteristics of short wide ailerons and spoilers, as a consequence of the promise shown in wind-tunnel tests by these devices as means of obtaining lateral control, particularly at angles of attack above the stall. Several forms of spoilers, front-hinge, rear-hinge, plain retractable, and saw-tooth retractable were tested alone and in combination with the ailerons. The tests were made with several different amounts of wing dihedral so that the effect of the yawing moments of the different lateral control combinations, which varied from large negative to large positive values, could be evaluated. In conjunction with the tests, observations were made to throw some light on the feasibility of operating the airplane with two controls instead of the present three.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Weick, Fred E.; Soule, Hartley A. & Gough, Melvin N.
Item Type: Report

Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of a PCA-2 autogiro rotor

Description: This report presents the results of force tests on and air-flow surveys near PCA-2 autogiro rotor in the NACA full-scale wind tunnel. The force tests were made at three pitch settings and several rotor speeds; the effect of fairing protuberances on the rotor blade was determined. Induced downwash and yaw angles were determined at low tip-speed ratios in a plane 1 1/2 feet above the path of the blade tips. The results show that the maximum l/d of the rotor cannot be appreciably increased by increasing the blade pitch angle above about 4.5 degrees at the blade tip; that the protuberances on the blades cause more than 5 percent of the total rotor drag; and that the rotor center-of-pressure travel is very small.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Wheatley, John B & Hood, Manley J
Item Type: Report

Heat transfer from finned metal cylinders in an air stream

Description: This report presents the results of tests made to supply design information for the construction of metal fins for the cooling of heated cylindrical surfaces by an air stream. A method is given for determining fin dimensions for a maximum heat transfer with the expenditure of a given amount of material for a variety of conditions of air flow and metals.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Biermann, Arnold, E & Pinkel, Benjamin
Item Type: Report

The influence of tip shape on the wing load distribution as determined by flight tests

Description: Pressure measurements were made in flight on the right upper wing of an M-3 airplane. The effects of tip plan form, washout, and transverse camber were investigated with eight tip forms in unyawed conditions through the range of positive lift coefficients from zero lift to the stall. The conclusion is that the tip plan form does not influence the span distribution of the coefficients of normal force and moment. It is shown inferentially that temperature, humidity, and the aging of the wood and fabric wing structure used on the M-3 airplane have an appreciable influence on the load distribution.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Rhode, Richard V
Item Type: Report

Infrared radiation from explosions in a spark-ignition engine

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the variations in intensity and spectral distribution of the radiant energy emitted by the flames during normal and knocking explosions in an engine. Radiation extending into the infrared was transmitted by a window of fluorite, placed either near the spark plug or over the detonation zone at opposite ends of the combustion chamber. Concave, surface-silvered mirrors focused the beam, first at the slit of a stroboscope which opened for about 2 degrees of crank angle at any desired point in the engine cycle, and then upon the target of a sensitive thermocouple for measuring radiation intensity. Spectral distribution of the radiant energy was determined by placing over the window, one at a time, a series of five filters selected with a view to identifying, as far as possible without the use of a spectrograph, the characteristic emissions of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and incandescent carbon.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Marvin, Charles F , Jr; Caldwell, Frank R & Steele, Sydney
Item Type: Report

The physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber

Description: Detonation in the internal-combustion engine is studied as a physical process. It is shown that detonation is accompanied by pressure waves within the cylinder charge. Sound theory is applied to the calculation of resonant pressure-wave frequencies. Apparatus is described for direct measurement of pressure-wave frequencies. Frequencies determined from two engines of different cylinder sizes are shown to agree with the values calculated from sound theory. An outline of the theoretically possible modes of vibration in a right circular cylinder with flat ends is included. An appendix by John P. Elting gives a method of calculating pressure in the sound wave following detonation.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Draper, C S
Item Type: Report

Relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C & Tessmann, Arthur M
Item Type: Report

Relative loading on biplane wings of unequal chords

Description: It is shown that the lift distribution for a biplane with unequal chords may be calculated by the method developed in NACA Technical report no. 458 if corrections are made for the inequality in chord lengths. The method is applied to four cases in which the upper chord was greater than the lower and good agreement is obtained between observed and calculated lift coefficients.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Diehl, Walter S
Item Type: Report

Scale effect on Clark Y airfoil characteristics from NACA full-scale wind-tunnel tests

Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the Clark Y airfoil over a large range of Reynolds numbers. Three airfoils of aspect ratio 6 and with 4, 6, and 8 foot chords were tested at velocities between 25 and 118 miles per hour, and the characteristics were obtained for Reynolds numbers (based on the airfoil chord) in the range between 1,000,000 and 9,000,000 at the low angles of attack, and between 1,000,000 and 6,000,000 at maximum lift. With increasing Reynolds number the airfoil characteristics are affected in the following manner: the drag at zero lift decreases, the maximum lift increases, the slope of the lift curve increases, the angle of zero lift occurs at smaller negative angles, and the pitching moment at zero lift does not change appreciably.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Silverstein, Abe
Item Type: Report

Stability of thin-walled tubes under torsion

Description: In this report a theoretical solution is developed for the torsion on a round thin-walled tube for which the walls become unstable. The results of this theory are given by a few simple formulas and curves which cover all cases. The differential equations of equilibrium are derived in a simpler form than previously found, it being shown that many items can be neglected.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Donnell, L H
Item Type: Report

Tests of 16 related airfoils at high speed

Description: In order to provide information that might lead to the development of better propeller section, 13 related symmetrical airfoils were tested in the NACA high-speed wind tunnel for a study of the effect of thickness form on the aerodynamic characteristics. The thickness-form variables studies were the value of the maximum thickness, the position along the chord at which the maximum thickness occurs, and the value of the leading-edge radius. The tests were conducted through the low angle-of-attack range for speeds extending from 35 percent of that of sound to slightly in excess of the speed at which a compressibility burble, or breakdown of flow, occurs. The corresponding Reynolds number range is 350,000 to 750,000.
Date: January 1, 1935
Creator: Stack, John & Von Doenhoff, Albert E
Item Type: Report