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Aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils VI : continuation of reports nos. 93, 124, 182, 244, and 286

Description: This collection of data on airfoils has been made from the published reports of a number of the leading aerodynamic laboratories of this country and Europe. The information which was originally expressed according to the different customs of the several laboratories is here presented in a uniform series of charts and tables suitable for use of designing engineers and for purposes of general reference. The authority for the results here presented is given as the name of the laboratory at which the experiments were conducted, with the size of the model, wind velocity, and year of test.
Date: 1930~

Aerodynamic characteristics of twenty-four airfoils at high speeds

Description: From Summary: "If a propeller is mounted directly on the of a modern high-speed airplane engine, the outer airfoil sections of the propeller travel at speeds approaching the speed of sound. It is possible by the use of gearing and a somewhat larger propeller to reduce the speed of the propeller sections, but only at the expense of additional weight and some frictional loss of power. This report presents the results of this work."
Date: 1930~
Creator: Brigg, L. J. & Dryden, H. L.

Collection of wind-tunnel data on commonly used wing sections

Description: This report groups in a uniform manner the aerodynamic properties of commonly used wing sections as determined from tests in various wind tunnels. The data have been collected from reports of a number of laboratories. Where necessary, transformation has been made to the absolute system of coefficients and tunnel wall interference corrections have been applied. Tables and graphs present the data in the various forms useful to the engineer in the selection of a wing section.
Date: January 1930
Creator: Louden, F. A.

Drag and cooling with various forms of cowling for a "whirlwind" radial air-cooled engine I

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation undertaken in the 20-foot Propeller Research Tunnel at Langley Field on the cowling of radial air-cooled engines. A portion of the investigation has been completed, in which several forms and degrees of cowling were tested on Wright "Whirlwind" J-5 engine mounted in the nose of a cabin fuselage. The cowlings varied from the one extreme of an entirely exposed engine to the other in which the engine was entirely inclosed. Cooling tests were made and each cowling modified, if necessary, until the engine cooled approximately as satisfactorily as when it was entirely exposed. Drag tests were then made with each form of cowling, and the effect of the cowling on the propulsive efficiency determined with a metal propeller. The propulsive efficiency was found to be practically the same with all forms of cowling. The drag of the cabin fuselage with uncowled engine was found to be more than three times as great as the drag of the fuselage with engine removed and nose rounded. The conventional forms of cowling, in which at least the tops of the cylinder heads and valve gear are exposed, reduce the drag somewhat, but the cowling entirely covering the engine reduces it 2.6 times as much as the best conventional one. The decrease in drag due to the use of spinners proved to be almost negligible. The use of the cowling completely covering the engine seems entirely practical as regards both cooling and maintenance under service conditions. It must be carefully designed, however, to cool properly. With cabin fuselages its use should result in a substantial increase in high speed over that obtained with present forms of cowling on engines similar in contour to the J-5. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

Drag and cooling with various forms of cowling for a "Whirlwind" radial air-cooled engine II

Description: This report gives the results of the second portion of an investigation in the twenty-foot Propeller Research Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, on the cowling and cooling of a "Whirlwind" J-5 radial air-cooled engine. The first portion pertains to tests with a cabin fuselage. This report covers tests with several forms of cowling, including conventional types, individual fairings behind the cylinders, individual hoods over the over the cylinders, and the new N. A. C. A. complete cowling, all on an open cockpit fuselage. Drag tests were also made with a conventional engine nacelle, and with a nacelle having the new complete cowling. In the second part of the investigation the results found in the first part were substantiated. It was also found that the reduction in drag with the complete cowling over that with conventional cowling is greater with the smaller bodies than with the cabin fuselage; in fact, the gain in the case of the completely cowled nacelle is over twice that with the cabin fuselage. The individual fairings and hoods did not prove effective in reducing the drag. The results of flight tests on AT-5A airplane has been analyzed and found to agree very well with the results of the wind tunnel tests. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Weick, Fred E.

The effect of cowling on cylinder temperatures and performance of a Wright J-5 engine

Description: This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of different amounts and kinds of cowling on the performance and cylinder temperatures of a standard Wright J-5 engine. These tests were conducted in conjunction with drag and propeller tests in which the same cowlings were used. Four different cowlings were investigated varying from the one extreme of no cowling on the engine to the other extreme of the engine completely cowled and the cooling air flowing inside the cowling through an opening in the nose and out through an annular opening at the rear of the engine. Each cowling was tested at air speeds of approximately 60, 80, and 100 miles per hour.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Biermann, Arnold E

The effect of supercharger capacity on engine and airplane performance

Description: This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of different supercharger capacities on the performance of an airplane and its engine . The tests were conducted on a DH4-M2 airplane powered with a Liberty 12 engine. In this investigation four supercharger capacities, obtained by driving a roots type supercharger at 1.615, 1.957, 2.4, and 3 time engine speed, were used to maintain sea-level pressure at the carburetor to altitudes of 7,000, 11,500, 17,000, and 22,000 feet, respectively. The performance of the airplane in climb and in level flight was determined for each of the four supercharger drive ratios and for the unsupercharged condition. The engine power was measured during these tests by means of a calibrated propeller. It was found that very little sacrifice in sea-level performance was experienced with the larger supercharger drive ratios as compared with performance obtained when using the smaller drive ratios. The results indicate that further increase in supercharger capacity over that obtained when using 3:1 drive ratio would give a slight increase in ceiling and in high-altitude performance but would considerably impair the performance for an appreciable distance below the critical altitude. As the supercharger capacity was increased, the height at which sea-level high speeds could be equaled or improved became a larger percentage of the maximum height of operation of the airplane.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Schey, O W & Gove, W D

Experimental and analytical determination of the motion of hydraulically operated valve stems in oil engine injection systems

Description: This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Gelalles, A. G. & Rothrock, A. M.

Flight tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles. Part I : full scale pressure distribution investigation

Description: The primary purpose of this investigation was to obtain simultaneous data on the loads and stress experience in flight by the U. S. S. Los Angeles which could be used in rigid airship structure design. A secondary object of the investigation was to determine the turning and drag characteristics of the airship. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by measuring the pressure at 95 locations on the tail surfaces, 54 on the hull, and 5 on the passenger car. These measurements were made during a series of maneuvers consisting of turns and reversals in smooth air and during a cruise in rough air which was just short of squall proportions. The results of the pressure measurements on the hull indicate that the forces on the forebody of an airship are relatively small. The tail surface measurements show conclusively that the forces caused by gusts are much greater than those caused by horizontal maneuvers. In this investigation the tail surface loadings caused by gusts closely approached the designed loads of the tail structure. The turning and drag characteristics will be reported in separate reports.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: De France, S J

Flight tests on U.S.S. Los Angeles. Part II : stress and strength determination

Description: The tests described in this report furnished data on the actual aerodynamic forces, and the resulting stresses and bending moments in the hull of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" during as severe still-air maneuvers as the airship would normally be subjected to, and in straight flight during as rough air as is likely to occur in service, short of squall or storm conditions. The maximum stresses were found to be within the limits provided for in accepted practice in airship design. Normal flight in rough air was shown to produce forces and stresses about twice as great as the most severe still-air maneuvers. No light was thrown upon the forces which might occur in extreme or exceptional conditions, such as the storm which destroyed the "Shenandoah". The transverse aerodynamic forces on the hull proper were found to be small and irregular. Owing to the necessity of conserving helium, it was impossible to fly the airship in a condition of large excess of buoyancy or weight in order to determine the air pressure distribution at a fixed angle of pitch. However, there is every reason to believe that in that condition the forces on the actual airship are as close to the wind-tunnel results as can be determined by present type of pressure measuring apparatus. It is considered that most important data obtained are the coefficients of tail-surface forces and hull-bending moments. These are tabulated in this report.
Date: January 1930
Creator: Burgess, C. P.

Flow and Force Equations for a Body Revolving in a Fluid

Description: Part I gives a general method for finding the steady-flow velocity relative to a body in plane curvilinear motion, whence the pressure is found by Bernoulli's energy principle. Integration of the pressure supplies basic formulas for the zonal forces and moments on the revolving body. Part II, applying this steady-flow method, finds the velocity and pressure at all points of the flow inside and outside an ellipsoid and some of its limiting forms, and graphs those quantities for the latter forms. Part III finds the pressure, and thence the zonal force and moment, on hulls in plane curvilinear flight. Part IV derives general equations for the resultant fluid forces and moments on trisymmetrical bodies moving through a perfect fluid, and in some cases compares the moment values with those found for bodies moving in air. Part V furnishes ready formulas for potential coefficients and inertia coefficients for an ellipsoid and its limiting forms. Thence are derived tables giving numerical values of those coefficients for a comprehensive range of shapes.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Zahm, A F

Fuel vapor pressures and the relation of vapor pressure to the preparation of fuel for combustion in fuel injection engines

Description: This investigation on the vapor pressure of fuels was conducted in connection with the general research on combustion in fuel injection engines. The purpose of the investigation was to study the effects of high temperatures such as exist during the first stages of injection on the vapor pressures of several fuels and certain fuel mixtures, and the relation of these vapor pressures to the preparation of the fuel for combustion in high-speed fuel injection engines.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Joachim, William F. & Rothrock, A. M.

Full-scale turning characteristics of the U.S.S. Los Angeles

Description: This paper present a description of the method employed and results obtained in full-scale turning trials on the rigid airship U. S. S. "Los Angeles". The results of this investigation are not sufficiently comprehensive to permit definite conclusions as to the variation of turning characteristics with changes in speed and rudder angle. They indicate however, that the turning radius compares favorably with that for other large airships, that the radius is independent of the speed, that the position of the point of zero yaw is nearly independent of the rudder angle and air speed, and that a theoretical relation between radius and angle of yaw in a turn gives a close approximation to actuality.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Thompson, F L

Investigation of air flow in open-throat wind tunnels

Description: Tests were conducted on the 6-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to form a part of a research on open-throat wind tunnels. The primary object of this part of the research was to study a type of air pulsation which has been encountered in open-throat tunnels, and to find the most satisfactory means of eliminating such pulsations. In order to do this it was necessary to study the effects of different variable on all of the important characteristics of the tunnel. This paper gives not only the results of the study of air pulsations and methods of eliminating them, but also the effects of changing the exit-cone diameter and flare and the effects of air leakage from the return passage. It was found that the air pulsations in the 6-inch wind tunnel could be practically eliminated by using a moderately large flare on the exit cone in conjunction with leakage introduced by cutting holes in the exit cone somewhat aft of its minimum diameter.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N.

Joint report on standardization tests on N.P.L. R.A.F 15 airfoil model

Description: This report contains the wind-tunnel test data obtained in the United States on a 36 by 6 inch R.A.F. 15 airfoil model prepared by the British Aeronautical Research Committee for International Trials. Tests were made in cooperation with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Bureau of Standards, Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and McCook field. In addition to brief descriptions of the various wind tunnels and methods of testing, the report contains an analysis of the test data. It is shown that while in general the agreement is quite satisfactory there are two cases in which it is unsatisfactory. Since the lack of agreement in the latter is probably explained by errors known to be inherent in the methods of determining and applying corrections in these particular tests, it is concluded that the agreement obtained is more a matter of technique than a wind tunnel characteristic. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Diehl, Walter S

The measurement of fluctuations of air speed by the hot-wire anemometer

Description: The hot-wire anemometer suggests itself as a promising method for measuring the fluctuating air velocities found in turbulent flow. The only obstacle is the presence of a lag due to the limited energy input which makes even a fairly small wire incapable of following rapid fluctuations with accuracy. This paper gives the theory of the lag and describes an experimental arrangement for compensating for the lag for frequencies up to 100 or more per second when the amplitude of the fluctuation is not too great. An experimental test of the accuracy of compensation and some results obtained with the apparatus in a wind-tunnel air stream are described. While the apparatus is very bulky in its present form, it is believed possible to develop a more portable arrangement. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Dryden, H L & Kuethe, A M

The prediction of airfoil characteristics

Description: This report describes and develops methods by which the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil may be calculated with sufficient accuracy for use in airplane design. These methods for prediction are based on the present aerodynamic theory and on empirical formulas derived from data obtained in the N. A. C. A. variable density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number corresponding approximately to full scale. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Higgins, George J

Pressure element of constant logarithmic stiffness for temperature compensated altimeter

Description: The usual type of altimeter contains a pressure element, the deflections of which are approximately proportional to pressure changes. An evenly divided altitude scale is secured by using a mechanism between the pressure element and pointer which gives the required motion of the pointer. A temperature-compensated altimeter was constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department which contained a manually operated device for controlling the multiplication of the mechanism to the extent necessary for temperature compensation. The introduction of this device made it difficult to adjust the multiplying mechanism to fit an evenly divided altitude scale. To meet this difficulty a pressure element was designed and constructed which gave deflections which were proportional to altitude; that is, to the logarithm of the pressure. The element consisted of a metal bellows of the sylphon type coupled to an internal helical spring which was designed so as to have a variable number of active coils. This report presents a description of and laboratory data relating to the special pressure element for the altimeter. In addition equations which apply generally to springs and pressure elements of constant logarithmic stiffness are developed, including the deflection and the spacing between the coils in terms of the constants of the helical spring and pressure elements. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Brombacher, W G & Cordero, F

Speed and deceleration trials of U.S.S. Los Angeles

Description: The trials reported in this report were instigated by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department for the purpose of determining accurately the speed and resistance of the U. S. S. "Los Angeles" with and without water recovery apparatus, and to clear up the apparent discrepancies between the speed attained in service and in the original trials in Germany. The trials proved very conclusively that the water recovery apparatus increases the resistance about 20 per cent, which is serious, and shows the importance of developing a type of recovery having less resistance. Between the American and the German speed trials without water recovery there remains an unexplained discrepancy of nearly 6 per cent in speed at a given rate of engine revolutions. Warping of the propeller blades and small cumulative errors of observation seem the most probable causes of the discrepancy. It was found that the customary resistance coefficients C, are 0.0242 and 0.0293 without and with the water recovery apparatus, respectively. The corresponding values of the propulsive coefficient K, are 56.7 and 44.6. If there is an error in these figures, it is probably in a slight overestimate of C, and an underestimate of K. The maximum errors are almost certainly less than 5 per cent. No scale effect was detected indicating variation of C with respect to velocity (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: De France, S J & Burgess, C P

Tables for pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds

Description: In Technical Report no. 247 of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics theoretical formulas are given from which was computed a table for the pressure of air on coming to rest from various speeds, such as those of aircraft and propeller blades. In that report, the table gave incompressible and adiabatic stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour and for some even-speed intervals in knots per hour. Table II of the present report extends the above-mentioned table by including the stop pressures of air for even-speed intervals in miles per hour, feet per-second, knots per hour, kilometers per hour, and meters per second. The pressure values in table II are also more exact than values given in the previous table. To furnish the aeronautical engineer with ready numerical formulas for finding the pressure of air on coming to rest, table I has been derived for the standard values specified below it. This table first presents the theoretical pressure-speed formulas and their working forms in C. G. S. Units as given in NACA Technical Report No. 247, then furnishes additional working formulas for several special units of speed. (author).
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Zahm, A F & Louden, F A

Tests of five metal model propellers with various pitch distributions in a free wind stream and in combination with model VE-7 fuselage

Description: This report describes the tests of five adjustable blade metal model propellers both in a free wind stream and in combination with a model fuselage with stub wings. The propellers are of the same form and cross section but have variations in radial distributions of pitch. By making a survey of the radial distribution of air velocity through the propeller plane of the model fuselage it was found that this velocity varies from zero at the hub center to approximately free stream velocity at the blade tip. The tests show that the efficiency of a propeller when operating in the presence of the airplane is, over the working range, generally less than when operating in a free wind stream, but that a propeller with a radial distribution of pitch of the same nature as the radial distribution of air velocity through the propeller plane suffers the smallest loss in efficiency.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Lesley, E P & Reid, Elliott G

Tests of large airfoils in the propeller research tunnel, including two with corrugated surfaces

Description: This report gives the results of the tests of seven 2 by 12 foot airfoils (Clark Y, smooth and corrugated, Gottingen 398, N.A.C.A. M-6, and N.A.C.A. 84). The tests were made in the propeller research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Reynolds numbers up to 2,000,000. The Clark Y airfoil was tested with three degrees of surface smoothness. Corrugating the surface causes a flattening of the lift curve at the burble point and an increase in drag at small flying angles.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Wood, Donald H

The torsion of members having sections common in aircraft construction

Description: Within recent years a great variety of approximate torsion formulas and drafting-room processes have been advocated. In some of these, especially where mathematical considerations are involved, the results are extremely complex and are not generally intelligible to engineers. The principal object of this investigation was to determine by experiment and theoretical investigation how accurate the more common of these formulas are and on what assumptions they are founded and, if none of the proposed methods proved to be reasonable accurate in practice, to produce simple, practical formulas from reasonably correct assumptions, backed by experiment. A second object was to collect in readily accessible form the most useful of known results for the more common sections. Formulas for all the important solid sections that have yielded to mathematical treatment are listed. Then follows a discussion of the torsion of tubular rods with formulas both rigorous and approximate.
Date: January 1, 1930
Creator: Trayer, George W & March, H W

The torsional strength of wings

Description: This report describes a simple method for calculating the position of the elastic axis of a wing structure having any number of spars. It is shown that strong drag bracing near the top and bottom of a wing greatly increases the torsional strength. An analytical procedure for finding the contribution of the drag bracing to the torsional strength and stiffness is described, based upon the principle of least work, and involving only one unknown quantity. A coefficient for comparing the torsional rigidity of different wings is derived in this report.
Date: January 1930
Creator: Burgess, C. P.