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The 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel at the Washington Navy Yard

Description: Report discussing the 6-foot-4-inch wind tunnel and its auxiliary equipment has proven itself capable of continuous and reliable output of data. The real value of the tunnel will increase as experience is gained in checking the observed tunnel performance against full-scale performance. Such has been the case of the 8- by 8-foot tunnel, and for that reason the comparison in the calibration tests have been presented.
Date: August 1935
Creator: Desmond, G L & Mccrary, J A

An accurate method of measuring the moments of inertia of airplanes

Description: From Summary: "This note contains a description of an improved apparatus and procedure used by the NACA for determining the moments of inertia of airplanes. The method used, based on the pendulum theory, is similar to that previously used, but a recent investigation of its accuracy has resulted in the improvements described herein. The error, when using the new apparatus and procedure, has been found to be of the order of 1 per cent."
Date: October 1930
Creator: Miller, M P

Adhesion of ice in its relation to the de-icing of airplanes

Description: The various possible means of preventing ice adhesion on airplane surfaces are critically reviewed. Results are presented of tests of the adhesives forces between ice and various solid and liquid forces. It is concluded that the de-icing of airplane wings by heat from engine exhaust shows sufficient promise to warrant full-scale tests. For propellers, at least, and possibly for certain small areas such as windshields, radio masts, etc. the use of de-icing or adhesion-preventing liquids will provide the best means of protection.
Date: August 1939
Creator: Rothrick, A M & Selden, R

Advantages of oxide films as bases for aluminum pigmented surface coatings for aluminum alloys

Description: Report discussing both laboratory and weather-exposure corrosion tests showed conclusively that the protection afforded by aluminum pigmented spar varnish coatings applied to previously anodized aluminum surfaces was greatly superior to that afforded by the same coatings applied to surfaces which had simply been cleaned free from grease and not anodized.
Date: November 1931
Creator: Buzzard, R W & Mutchler, W H

The aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system

Description: An aerodynamic analysis of the gyroplane rotating-wing system is presented herein. This system consists of a freely rotating rotor in which opposite blades are rigidly connected and allowed to rotate or feather freely about their span axis. Equations have been derived for the lift, the lift-drag ratio, the angle of attack, the feathering angles, and the rolling and pitching moments of a gyroplane rotor in terms of its basic parameters. Curves of lift-drag ratio against lift coefficient have been calculated for a typical case, showing the effect of varying the pitch angle, the solidarity, and the average blade-section drag coefficient. The analysis expresses satisfactorily the qualitative relations between the rotor characteristics and the rotor parameters. As disclosed by this investigation, the aerodynamic principles of the gyroplane are sound, and further research on this wing system is justified.
Date: March 1934
Creator: Wheatley, John B

The aerodynamic characteristics of a model wing having a split flap deflected downward and moved to the rear

Description: Tests were made on a model wing with three different sized split trailing-edged flaps, in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. The flaps were formed of the lower rear portion of the wing and were rotated downward about axes at their front edges. The lift, drag, and center of pressure were measured with the axis in its original position and also with it moved back in even steps to the trailing edge of the main wing, giving in effect an increase in area. The split flaps when deflected about their original axis locations gave slightly higher maximum lift coefficients than conventional trailing-edge flaps, and the lift coefficients were increased still further by moving the axes toward the rear. The highest value of C(sub L max), which was obtained with the largest flap hinged at 90 per cent of the chord from the leading edge, was 2.52 as compared with 1.27 for the basic wing.
Date: May 1932
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Harris, Thomas E.

The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils as affected by surface roughness

Description: The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.
Date: April 1933

The aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils at negative angles of attack

Description: A number of airfoils, including 14 commonly used airfoils and 10 NACA airfoils, were tested through the negative angle-of-attack range in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds Number of approximately 3,000,000. The tests were made to supply data to serve as a basis for the structural design of airplanes in the inverted flight condition. In order to make the results immediately available for this purpose they are presented herein in preliminary form, together with results of previous tests of the airfoils at positive angles of attack. An analysis of the results made to find the variation of the ratio of the maximum negative lift coefficient to the maximum positive lift coefficient led to the following conclusions: 1) For airfoils of a given thickness, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to decrease as the mean camber is increased. 2) For airfoils of a given mean camber, the ratio -C(sub L max) / +C(sub L max) tends to increase as the thickness increases.
Date: 1932~
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F

Aerodynamic characteristics of anemometer cups

Description: The static lift and drag forces on three hemispherical and two conical cups were measured over a range of angles of attack from 0 degrees to 180 degrees and a range of Reynolds Numbers from very small up to 400,000. The problems of supporting the cup for measurement and the effect of turbulence were also studied. The results were compared with those of other investigators.
Date: February 1934
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Joyner, U T

Aerodynamic characteristics of several airfoils of low aspect ratio

Description: This paper presents the results of wind-tunnel tests of several airfoils of low aspect ratio. The airfoils included three circular Clark Y airfoils with different amounts of dihedral, two Clark Y airfoils with slots in their portions, and three flat-plate airfoils. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; pitching moment characteristics of one of the slotted airfoils with slots open and closed; and lift characteristics of the flat-plate airfoils are included. The results reveal a definite improvement of lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics with increase in dihedral of the circular Clark Y wing. Lift characteristics near the stall were found to depend markedly on the shape of the extreme tip but were not greatly affected by slots through the after portion of the airfoils. Changes in plan form of the flat-plate airfoils gave erroneous indications of the effect to be expected from changes in plan form of an airfoil of Clark Y section. The minimum drag characteristics of the circular Clark Y airfoils were found to be substantially the same as for a Clark Y airfoil of conventional aspect ratio.
Date: August 1935
Creator: Zimmerman, C H

The aerodynamic characteristics of six commonly used Airfoils over a large range of positive and negative angles of attack

Description: This paper presents the results of tests of six commonly used airfoils: the CYH, the N-22, the C-72, the Boeing 106, and the Gottingen 398. The lifts, drags, and pitching moments of the airfoils were measured through a large range of positive and negative angles of attack. The tests were made in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at a large Boeing 106, and the Gottingen 398 airfoils, the negative maximum lift coefficients were found to be approximately half the positive; but for the M-6 and the CYH, which have less effective values were, respectively, 0.8 and 0.6 of the positive values.
Date: November 1931
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F

The aerodynamic characteristics of three tapered airfoils tested in the variable density wind tunnel

Description: This report contains the lift, drag, and moment characteristics of tapered Clark Y, Gottingen 393, and USA 45 airfoils as obtained from tests made in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel of the NACA. The results are given at both low and high Reynolds Numbers to show scale effect and to provide data for use in airplane design.
Date: February 1931
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F

The aerodynamic drag of five models of side floats N.A.C.A. Models 51-E, 51-F, 51-G, 51-H, 51-J

Description: The drag of five models of side floats was measured in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The most promising method of reducing the drag of floats indicated by these tests is lowering the angle at which the floats are rigged. The addition of a step to a float does not always increase the drag in the flying range, floats with steps sometimes having lower drag than similar floats without steps. Making the bow chine no higher than necessary might result in a reduction in air drag because of the lower angle of pitch of the chines. Since side floats are used formally to obtain lateral stability when the seaplane is operating on the water at slow speeds or at rest, greater consideration can be given to factors affecting aerodynamic drag than is possible for other types of floats and hulls.
Date: December 1938
Creator: House, R O

The aerodynamic drag of flying-boat hull model as measured in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel I.

Description: Measurements of aerodynamic drag were made in the 20-foot wind tunnel on a representative group of 11 flying-boat hull models. Four of the models were modified to investigate the effect of variations in over-all height, contours of deck, depth of step, angle of afterbody keel, and the addition of spray strips and windshields. The results of these tests, which cover a pitch-angle range from -5 to 10 degrees, are presented in a form suitable for use in performance calculations and for design purposes.
Date: April 1935
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P

The aerodynamic effect of a retractable landing gear

Description: Tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full scale wind tunnel at the request of the Army Air Corps to determine the effect of retractable landing gear openings in the bottom surface of a wing upon the characteristics of a Lockheed Altair airplane. The tests were extended to include the determination of the lift and drag characteristics throughout the angle-of-attack range with the landing gear both retracted and extended. Covering the wheel openings in the wing with sheet metal when the wheels were extended reduced the drag only 2 percent at a lift coefficient of 1.0, which was assumed for the take-off condition. Therefore, the wheel openings in the bottom side of the wing have a negligible effect upon the take-off of the airplane. Retracting the landing gear reduced the minimum drag of the complete airplane 50 percent.
Date: March 1933
Creator: Defrance, Smith J

Aerodynamic effects of a split flap on the spinning characteristics of a monoplane model

Description: The investigation described in this report was made to determine the change in aerodynamic forces and moments produced by split flaps in a steady spin. The test were made with the spinning balance in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. A low-wing monoplane model was tested with and without the split flaps in 12 spinning attitudes chosen to cover the probable spinning range. The changes in coefficients produced by adding the split flaps are given for longitudinal force, normal force, and rolling and yawing moments about body axes. The results obtained indicate that the use of split flaps on an airplane is unlikely, in any case, to have much beneficial effect on a spin, and it might make the spin dangerous. The change in the spin will depend upon the aerodynamic and inertia characteristics of the particular airplane. A dangerous condition is most likely to be attained with airplanes which are statically stable in yaw in the spinning attitude and which have large weights distributed along wings.
Date: December 1934
Creator: Bamber, M J

The aerodynamic forces and moments on a spinning model of the F4B-2 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Description: The aerodynamic forces and moments on a 1/12-scale model of the F4B-2 airplane were measured with the spinning balance in nine spinning attitudes with three sets of tail surfaces, namely, F4B-2 surfaces; F4B-4 fin and rudder with rectangular stabilizer; and with all tail surfaces removed. In one of these attitudes measurements were made to determine the effect upon the forces and moments of independent and of simultaneous displacement of the rudder and elevator for two of the sets of tail surfaces. Additional measurements were made for a comparison of model and full-scale data for six attitudes that were determined from flight tests with various control settings. The characteristics were found to vary in the usual manner with angle of attack and sideslip. The F4B-2 surfaces were quite ineffective as a source of yawing moments. The F4B-4 fin and F4B-2 stabilizer gave a greater damping yawing moment when controls were against the spin than did the F4B-2 surfaces but otherwise there was little difference. Substitution of a rectangular stabilizer for the F4B-2 stabilizer made no appreciable difference in the coefficient. Further comparisons with other airplane types are necessary before final conclusions can be drawn as to the relations between model and full-scale spin measurements.
Date: February 1935
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerman, C H

Aerodynamic rolling and yawing moments produced by floating wing-tip ailerons, as measured by spinning balance

Description: The investigation described in this report was made to determine the effectiveness of floating wing-tip ailerons as an airplane control in the spin. In these tests the ailerons, not being balanced, were set parallel to the axis of rotation, which is probably very nearly the attitude that balanced floating ailerons would assume in a spin. The tests were made with the spinning balance in the N.A.C.A. 5-foot vertical tunnel. The model was tested with and without the ailerons in 12 spinning attitudes chosen to cover the probable spinning range. Rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients are given as measured for the model with and without the ailerons, and computed values are given for the ailerons alone. The addition of floating wing-tip ailerons to the model doubled the rolling-moment coefficient and increased the yawing-moment coefficient by 0.05 and more. Both moments were in a sense to oppose the spin.
Date: March 1934
Creator: Bamber, Millard J

Aerodynamic tests of a low aspect ratio tapered wing with various flaps, for use on tailless airplanes

Description: Wind tunnel tests were made of a model wing having an aspect ratio of 3 and a tapered plan form with a straight trailing edge. The model had the Clark Y airfoil section throughout it's entire span and had no washout, depending on a trailing-edge flap for longitudinal balance and control. The flap had a constant chord and was divided into four equal portions along the span. The tests were made with the entire flap deflected to obtain longitudinal control and balance, and also with the inner portions deflected alone, and with the outer portions deflected alone. It was found that the simple wing with no washout or change of basic section along the span has aerodynamic characteristics well suited for use on tailless airplanes. A higher lift coefficient was obtained with the full-span flap deflected as a unit to give longitudinal balance than was obtained with either the inner or the outer portions of the flap deflected.
Date: June 1933
Creator: Weick, Fred E. & Sanders, Robert

Alterations and tests of the "Farnboro" engine indicator

Description: The 'Farnboro' electric indicator was tested as received from the manufacturers, and modifications made to the instrument to improve its operation. The original design of disk valve was altered so as to reduce the mass, travel, and seat area. Changes were made to the recording mechanism, which included a new method of locating the top center position on the record. The effect of friction on the motion of the pointer while taking motoring and power cards was eliminated by providing a means of putting pressure lines on the record. The modified indicator gives a complete record of the average cyclic variation in pressure per crank degree for any set of engine operating conditions which can be held constant for the period of time required to build up the composite card. The value of the record for accurate quantitative measurement is still questioned, although the maximum indicated pressure recorded on the motoring and power cards checks the readings of the balanced diaphragm type of maximum cylinder pressure indicator.
Date: September 1930
Creator: Collins, John H , Jr

Analysis and model tests of autogiro jump take-off

Description: An analysis is made of the autogiro jump take-off, in which the kinetic energy of the rotor turning at excess speed is used to effect a vertical take-off. By the use of suitable approximations, the differential equation of motion of the rotor during this maneuver is reduced to a form that can be solved. Only the vertical jump was studied; the effect of a forward motion during the jump is discussed briefly. The results of model tests of the jump take-off have been incorporated in the paper and used to establish the relative accuracy of the results predicted from the analysis. Good agreement between calculation and experiment was obtained by making justifiable allowances.
Date: October 1, 1936
Creator: Wheatley, John B & Bioletti, Carlton