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open access

Accumulation and Distribution of Radioactive Strontium, Barium-Lanthanum, Fission Mixture and Sodium in Goldfish

Description: This report details an experiment undergone to determine the amount of radioactive strontium, barium-lanthanum, fission mixture, and sodium accumulated by and distributed within non-feeding goldfish. The report includes tables detailing the findings.
Date: February 15, 1945
Creator: Prosser, C. Ladd (Clifford Ladd), 1907-2002; Pervinsek, William; Arnold, Jane; Svihla, George & Tompkins, P. C.
open access

Acute Radiotoxicity of Injected Yttrium91

Description: Report describing results of experiments that involved injecting radioactive yttrium into animals: "The excretion, retention, and distribution of the yttrium was measured, and its effect on survival and growth was observed. The average total excretion of Y91 to the time of death (from 76 hours to 24 days) was a little less than 30 per cent of the injected dose" (p. 2).
Date: July 31, 1947
Creator: Anthony, David S.
open access

Analysis of X-ray Powder Diffraction Data on Crystalline Uranium Hexafluoride.

Description: From introduction: "The concluding remarks of the report on the electron diffraction study of UF6 suggest two alternate explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the structure proposed for this compound as deduced from X-ray diffraction work on single crystals and from the electron diffraction investigation of the vapor. The second explanation is based on the premise that the difference may be due to essentially unlike methods of treating the diffraction data. In this report we shall analyze X-ray powder photographs following a scheme parallel to that used in the analysis of the electron diffraction data, to check whether this particular explanation is tenable."
Date: March 5, 1946
Creator: Bauer, S. H. (Simon Harvey), 1911- & Palter, H.
open access

Argonne National Laboratory Biology Division Quarterly Report: August to October, 1946

Description: From introductory paragraph: "This is the first quarterly report of the Biology Division of the Argonne National Laboratory. During the three-month period covered by this report, a large share of the time of many investigators has been spent in collating work done under the Biology Section of the Metallurgical laboratory for publication in the Plutonium Project Record. The large amount of work done under wartime pressure has made this, as in other divisions and projects, an important part of the transition to the post-war period."
Date: November 21, 1946
Creator: Bruss, Austin M.
open access

Autoxidation of Uranous Salts in Water Solution

Description: From introduction: "The fact that tetravalent uranium either in the form of solutions of its salts or, in some cases, in the dry state is readily oxidized by gaseous oxygen, has been observed by various investigators. A quantitative study of this reaction appeared to be desirable as a means of learning more about the nature of the ionic species present in uranous solutions. It was also of potential value in determining the importance of autoxidation as an undesirable side reaction involved in the handling of uranous solutions, and, if necessary, in developing procedures for minimizing the reaction."
Date: April 20, 1946
Creator: Nichols, Ambrose R., Jr.
open access

The Beta-Gamma Hand and Foot Counters

Description: Abstract: This is basically a counting rate meter, with an alarm circuit, operating from four GM tubes as the detecting elements. The Hand Counter comprises four logarithmic counting rate meters working from four GM tubes mounted individually, with associated electronic circuits, in suitable shields with a metal mesh type of window. Both sides of both hands are sampled simultaneously. In the Foot Counter, two GM tubes are separately and mounted in a suitable mesh window shielded with the electronic circuit; the foot counter uses only two counting rate meters, and both feet are sampled simultaneously. Each circuit is built in two parts; two tubes are in the shield and the balance of the circuit is in the electronic unit which is a standard 17" x 13" chassis. Circuit diagrams are included.
Date: May 1946
Creator: Bradley, W. H.
open access

The Bragg Reflection of Neutrons by a Single Crystal

Description: From cover page: This document has been assigned the above MDDC (Manhattan District Declassification) number, as given in the List of Declassified Documents issued semi-monthly by the Research Division, Manhattan District. In the case of Los Alapnos reports, LADC (Los Alamos Declassification) numbers are listed on the title page if known. This declassified document may differ materially from the original classified document by reason of deletions necessary to accomplish declassification. Hence, this copy of a declassified document does not constitute authority for declassification of classified copies of a similar document which may bear the same title and authors. Reference is made to District Circular Letter (Research Control 47-3) dated 31 October 1946, subject: "Instructions for Use of List of Declassified Documents," which outlines the procedure by means of which declassification of classified copies may be effected. Every effort has been made to reproduce with accuracy of detail the declassified document as certified for declassification. No corrections or changes have been made in the content of the document.
Date: June 14, 1946
Creator: Zinn, Walter H.
open access

Capture Cross Section of Pb208 for C Neutrons

Description: From abstract: "Using the method of induced radioactivity, the capture cross section of Pb[^]208 for C neutrons is found to be .00045 ± .00015 x 10[^]-24 cm[^]2. This is definitely lower than the value of .001 x 10[^]-24 reported by Maurer and Ramm."
Date: November 5, 1943
Creator: Levinger, Joseph S., 1921-; Compton, A. H.; Allison, Samuel King, 1900-1965; Watson, W. W. & Snell, A. H.
open access

Capture of Fast Neutrons by Pb208

Description: From abstract: "Comparison of the activity produced by fast neutrons on lead with other activations corroborates the assignment of the 3.2 hr. activity as Pb209, and the assignment of the reaction as capture of fast neutrons. Two different measurements show that the neutrons captured have energies greater than 100 KEV. This average capture cross section for primary neutrons from 7.5 MEV deuterons on a thick target of beryllium is measured as 10[^]-27 ca[^]2."
Date: April 17, 1944
Creator: Levinger, Joseph S., 1921-; Compton, A. H.; Allison, Samuel King, 1900-1965; Watson, W. W. & Snell, A. H.
open access

The Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transformations

Description: This technical report is divided into two sections addressing two different chemical effects of nuclear transformations. The first section discusses the beta decay of lanthanum to cerium. The second section discusses the beta decay of selenium to bromine.
Date: June 6, 1946
Creator: Coryell, Charles D. (Charles Du Bois), 1912-1971; Gest, H.; Edwards, R. R. & Davies, T. H.
open access

A Colorimetric Method

Description: From abstract: "This paper gives a method for determining Uranium using sodium cresotate as a colorimetric reagent. A precision is obtained of better than 2%. In carrying out analyses for Uranium in corrosion products by existing methods such as ignition to the oxide, silver reductor, or titration with ceric sulfate, it became apparent that a rapid, fairly accurate method for determining uranyl ion would be of great value. Such a method is described in this paper. The most logical color to use is that given by the ferrocyanide complex, but upon studying this, it proved to be unsatisfactory. Sodium salycilate also gives a color which has been used with some success, but its color appears to fade and is not very sensitive. A similar compound, sodium cresotate, was found to give an orange-red color and is the reagent used in the method to be described."
Date: June 30, 1943
Creator: Priest, H. F. & Priest, G. I.
open access

Comparative Effectiveness and Additivity of Fission Neutrons Gamma Rays and Beta Rays of Drosphila Eggs

Description: From abstract: "Some investigations have been made to ascertain the similarity of the mechanism of action of radiation which are different in their specific ionization. A suggested approach was to determine if the energies absorbed from the different types of radiation are additive in their lethal effects on biological objects. In an attempt to determine the additivity of ionizing radiation various dose combinations of fast neutrons, gamma rays and beta rays were administered to Drosophila eggs. These test objects were chosen because their dimensions are such that they tend to absorb these three radiations uniformly throughout their volume. Although the three radiations were found to vary in their biological effectiveness, per unit energy absorbed, all three were shown to be completely additive in their lethal effect on these organisms."
Date: February 1946
Creator: Stapleton, G. E. & Zirkle, Raymond E. (Raymond Elliot), 1902-1988
open access

Contributions to the Radiochemistry of 104 day Y88.

Description: From introductory paragraph: "The study of the counting techniques of gamma-emitting radioisotopes is of a great deal of interest to workers in the field of radiochemistry. Of particular interest to the long-lived gamma emitting isotope of yttrium which is commonly prepared by a deuteron bombardment of strontium and is reported to decay by K-capture. This isotope, which is of interest in the fields of biochemistry and metallurgy was tentatively assigned to mass 86. Since a 2.0 hour activity was observed from a neutron irradiation of yttrium, the assignment was considered fixed. Subsequent work indicated a possibility of a long-lived gamma emitting activity arising in the fast neutron irradiation of yttrium. The published data did not agree with theoretical calculations as to the possibility of these two activities being isomers. This work was undertaken to study the characteristics of the radiations from the isotopes; to have data available on the long-lived activity; and, to attempt to fix the mass assignment."
Date: September 20, 1946
Creator: Overman, Ralph T.
open access

A Critical Survey of Neutron Cross Sections

Description: From introductory paragraphs: "The central problems in neutron research are the understanding of nuclear structure and the study of the properties of nuclear particles, particularly the properties of the neutron. The most fruitful attack on these problems is the determination of the probability of interactions between neutrons and nuclei, i.e., the measurement of neutron cross sections. Ideally, this involves the study of all possible types of neutron interaction with all available nuclei at all neutron energies...The discussion in this paper will omit the interactions leading to neutron productions, and will be limited to the intersections of neutrons with stable nuclei."
Date: June 20, 1964
Creator: Goldsmith, H. H.
open access

Crystal Structure Studies of the System NaF-UF4, NaF-ThF4 and NaF-LaF3

Description: Abstract: In the NaF-UF4 system the following intermediate phases have been found: NaUF5, -Na2UF6, -Na2UF6 and NacUF7. NaLaF4 is the only intermediate phase observed in the system NaF-LaF3. In the course of an incomplete study of the system NaF-ThF4 the phases NaTh2F9, -Na2ThF6, -Na2ThF6 and Na4ThF8 have been observed. Crystal structure data are given for all the phases.
Date: August 1946
Creator: Zachariasen, William H. (William Houlder), 1906-1979
open access

Determination of Oxygen in Uranium by Vacuum Fusion

Description: From abstract: "An apparatus for analysis of metal samples for oxygen content is described. Vasuum [sic] fusion in a graphite crucible which is insulated by porous carbon in an all pyrex glass apparatus is used to remove the oxygen as carbon monoxide. Temperatures over 2000°C. are attainable with a 6 K.V.A. Ajax converter for induction heating. Successful operation depended upon a preliminary vacuum heating of the carbon parts at 2100°C. to remove hydrocarbon tars so that cracking of the pyrex glass will not occur due to deposit of tar. An operating temperature of 1750°C. - 1800°C. has been found satisfactory for uranium when using a platinum bath. The platinum bath is the most suitable bath because of its low volatility, its satisfactory carbon solubility, and because of the decrease of 'getting errors' due to volatility of reactive metals. Most metals form stable compounds with platinum and are therefore strongly held by the platinum bath and can not vaporize and thus react with the excaping [sic] CO gas..."
Date: 1946
Creator: Brewer, Leo, 1919-2005
open access

Drawings of an Electrolysis Assembly

Description: The document consists of two photographs and ten drawing of an electrolysis assembly for electroplating radioactive samples and one drawing of a thin-window Beta-counter. Included are a cell support, an electrolysis cell, electrolysis cell cathode, cell rack, Geiger counter absorber slide, carrier for electrolysis cell cathodes, and a cover for electrolysis cell cathode carrier.
Date: January 12, 1947
Creator: Loevinger, Robert
open access

The Effect of Age on the Radiosensitivity of Mice

Description: Abstract: Mice of different ages ranging from 1.5 to 12 months have been exposed to gamma rays in an effort to determine the change in radiosensitivity with age. The dose necessary to cause 50% killing was determined for each age group and sex. No change in sensitivity with age was observed with either sex, although the experimental error in the case of the males was quite large. The females were found to be more resistant than the males.
Date: April 8, 1946
Creator: Curtis, H. J.; Zirkle, Raymond E. (Raymond Elliot), 1902-1988; Anderson, Ernest C., 1920-2013 & Riley, E. F.
open access

The Effect of Clay on the Intestinal Absorption of Strontium

Description: From abstract: "Rats have been fed active strontium which was adsorbed on clay, while their controls were fed the same amount of active strontium in aqueous solution. There was no significant difference in the amount deposited in the skeleton between the two groups, and it is concluded that if ions are adsorbed on inert material, they will be eluted during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract."
Date: January 21, 1946
Creator: Curtis, Howard J. (Howard James), 1906-
open access

The Effects of Fast Neutrons on the Ability of Mice to Take Forced Exercise

Description: From abstract: "In an attempt to gain some insight into the physiological condition of mice surviving massive doses of radiation, a study of their vitality was undertaken. It was assured that the ability of these animals to do forced work would be a measure of their vitality, Stimulating exposed animals to run in exercise wheels to their fullest capacity, has resulted in a demonstration of a striking vitality less during a post-irradiative period, when no other effects are demonstrable by gross examination. Mice subjected to a medium-lethal dose of fast neutrons show a continuous vitality loss over a 300 day period following exposure. Control animals show no appreciable loss of vitality up to about 8 months of age, after which a gradual loss can be noted, probably due to a normal gereologic process."
Date: August 22, 1946
Creator: Stapleton, G. K. & Curtis, H. J.
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