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0-2 kv Flash Tube Supplies

Description: In order to perform the various experiments with a bubble chamber, a high intensity flash tube is used. This report briefly describes the power supplies designed and constructed to power these lamps.
Date: March 15, 1962
Creator: Miller, D. M.
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6 kv Capacitor Charging Supply

Description: The power supplies designed and constructed to power high intensity flash tubes used in bubble chamber experiments are briefly described and are accompanied by a schematic diagram of the layout. (D.C.W.)
Date: March 15, 1962
Creator: Miller, D. M.
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Abscopal Effects of Localized Irradiation by Accelerator Beams

Description: The aim of this series of experiments was to evaluate the existence of abscopal effects of irradiation. No attempt was made towards the elucidation of mechanisms. Very early in the history of radiological research it was noticed radiation produces both local and general effects involving the entire body. Gauss and Lembcke introduced the term "Roentgenkater" (radiation sickness). They ascribed these "General Effects" to the circulation of toxic substances released from cells that disintegrated following irradiation.
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Jansen, C. R.; Bond, V. P.; Rai, K. R. & Lippincott, S. W.
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Absorption and Turnover Rates of Iron Measured by the Whole Body Counter

Description: Human iron metabolism has been extensively studied in the past twenty-five years with the radioisotopes iron⁵⁵ and iron⁵⁹. Before the availability of the whole body counter, however, iron absorption studies were performed by the indirect methods of fecal assay of unabsorbed radioiron, and estimation of red cell incorporation of absorbed tracer. The few long-term excretion studies performed required numerous assumptions, since human iron excretion was less well understood. Whole body counting provides a simple and accurate method of measuring the total body retention of administrative tracer iron⁵⁹, thus making absorption and subsequent excretion determinations possible with a single radioiron study. The energetic gamma emissions of iron⁵⁹ permit ready external detection with small quantities of isotope, Normal radioiron distribution is uniform throughout the circulating red cell mass and thus minimize geometry influences on the counting efficiency, 0nly the 45.1 day half-life of iron⁵⁹ limits long term iron turnover studies. Measurements of iron⁵⁹ absorption and long-term body turnover have been under way at Brookhaven National Laboratory for over two years. The present paper outlines some of the results of these studies, and discusses some implications of the method.
Date: September 5, 1962
Creator: Price, D. C.; Cohn, S. H. & Cronkite, B. P.
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Acceleration Design Studies for Production of High Center-of-Mass Energies

Description: To aid in planning Brookhaven's future program in high-energy physics, we have just completed a summer study on possible experimentation with super-high-energy accelerators and with storage rings. I should like to review a few of our conclusions and to describe an experiment on coasting beams in progress at Brookhaven. First, however, to provide background for this review, I shall present a short history of the past year. During 1962, many proposals were submitted to the United States Government for design or construction of accelerators for energies above 700 Mev. In order to decide which of these proposals should receive support, an advisory panel was set up under the chairmanship of Professor Norman Ramsey of Harvard. Last April this panel submitted its report. During last April the Brookhaven Laboratory received an official authorization to proceed with studies aimed at the recommended storage rings and super-energy accelerator.
Date: unknown
Creator: Blewett, J. P.
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Acceleration of Deuterons or Alpha Particles in the AGS

Description: The magnetic field of the AGS ring can contain particles of magnetic rigidity about 34 Bv/c. This includes not only protons of kinetic energy 33 Bev, but also 32 Bev deuterons, 64 Bev alpha particles, and conceivably heavier nuclei such as 188 Bev carbon nuclei. It will be shown in this paper that such nuclei can be injected and accelerated in the AGS if some rather small modifications are made in the injection and acceleration systems. What physics could be done with such beams? Several types of experiments may be suggested. In the first place, since the deuteron is a rather loosely bound combination of a neutron and a proton, it is likely to break up when it hits a target nucleus (stripping reaction). In a considerable fraction of the collisions the neutron will go straight on with essentially unchanged energy (half the deuteron energy). Therefore, with an internal target bombarded by 30 Bev deuterons one should obtain an intense, rather well collimated and monochromatic beam of 15 Bev neutrons in the forward direction.
Date: December 28, 1962
Creator: Courant, E. D.
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Acceleration of Polarized Protons to Relativistic Energies

Description: Maintenance of polarization of polarized protons in a linear accelerator is known to be feasible. Circular accelerators present a different problem, and the investigation of the interaction of orbit dynamics and particle polarization in general is undertaken. The equation of motion of the spin vector of a charged particle in a magnetic field as formulated by Bargmann, Michel, and Telegdi is utilized in the study of depolarization for several accelerators. High values of depolarization are obtained, and means for avoiding such depolarization are suggested. (D.C.W.)
Date: January 22, 1962
Creator: Courant, E.D.
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Accelerator Development Department Internal Report

Description: In this report we present solutions of the design problem in which a system of quadruple lenses is required to carry a particle beam from given focal lines in the x and y planes to other given focal lines. Particular attention will be given to the case of the anastigmatic lens system which takes a beam from one focal point to another focal point. Since the general problem is almost impossibly complicated a simplification is introduced by breaking the lens system into two parts. The first part of the lens system is required to bring the initial beam to the state where it is parallel to the z axis in both planes. The second part carries the initially parallel beam to the required final condition. Each part will involve two quadrupoles so that the complete system will consist of four quadruples; usually, however, the field gradients in the second and third quadrupoles can be made identical so that those quadrupoles can be combined into one and the system becomes a three quadrupole system. The configuration of the lens element will be as shown in the figures below. These figures indicate also the general character of the beam path in the two planes.
Date: October 2, 1958
Creator: Blewett, J. P.
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Acute Intravenous and Intraperitoneal Toxicity Studies on Sodium Pentaborate Decahydrate and Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate

Description: This technical report describes the toxicity observations on mice of varying borate-glucose molar ratios and relative potencies (p) (4) for the pentaborate and tetraborate drug. This report outlines the methods and results of this experiment and provides a discussion of the results.
Date: 1962
Creator: Easterday, Otho D. & Hamel, Helen
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Adaptation of a Commercial Counter X-Ray Diffractometer for Investigations to 3000°C

Description: The rapid advances in many technologically important areas have not only served to accentuate the increased demands for high temperature metals and ceramics but have necessitated a more through knowledge of their physical properties when exposed to high temperature service. Toward this latter end, the use of X-ray diffraction has proved an invaluable tool in providing data of regions of thermal stability, expansion coefficients, solid solubility limits, and phase transformations by direct examination at temperature. Since this Laboratory has for some time now been engaged in the study of refractory nuclear materials, it was thought desirable to employ and possibly extend this technique to temperatures ranging up to 3000°C. This communication will describe the equipment developed for this purpose, with experimental results to be described in subsequent publications.
Date: March 12, 1963
Creator: LaPalca, Samuel; Farber, Gerald & Adler, George
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Adenosinetriphosphate Cleavage During the G-Actin to F-Actin Transformation and the Binding of Adenosinetriphosphate to F-Actin

Description: Since the discovery of the Straub and Feuer as well as Laki et al. that ATP bound to G-actin is transformed to ADP and inorganic phosphate during polymerization of actin (1, 2), it has become increasingly clear that the chemical changes in the nucleotide are related to the change in the physical state of the protein. Barany, Biro, Molnar and Straub have shown that highly purified actin preparation free of any enzyme which would use ATP, ADP or AMP as a substrate still catalyze the breakdown of ATP (3) thus supporting the original idea that the ATP to ADP transformation is related to the globular to fibrous transformation of the actin protein itself. Mommaerts was the first to show that the ADP formed during polymerization remains bound to F-actin and Ulbrecht et al. while extending Mommaert's finding on exhaustively purified actin preparations have shown that the P1 formed during polymerization is not bound to F-actin. The stoichiometry of the splitting and the tightness of binding of the ADP lead inevitably to questions in regard to the position of bond breaking during the hydrolysis and to the nature of the forces involved in the tight binding of ADP to F-actin. To aid in the clarification of these problems, this study using O18 isotope was initiated.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Barany, M.; Koshland, D. E., Jr.; Springhorn, S. S.; Finkleman, F. & Theratil-Anthony, T.
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"Ages" of the Sikhote Alin Meteorite

Description: The potassium-argon age of the Sikhote Alin iron meteorite has been determined. The value is 1.7 + 0.2 x 10⁹ years. Previous lead data suggest an age of 4.6 x 10⁹ years . The date of solidification may be the sum of these two ages.
Date: 1962
Creator: Fisher, David E.
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AGS Performance and Plans

Description: The scope of the AGS complex has expanded rapidly during the three years since an accelerated beam was first obtained. Demand for research time far exceeds the amount available although facilities have been much increased. At the same time, experiments are being designed which are more complicated than previous ones and which make more stringent demands on the accelerator and on its auxiliary equipment. There is a continuous trend of experiments to particle beams of greater momentum, as the experimental techniques are refined. This use of increased momentum means that larger areas are required for the apparatus and that more power is necessary for the magnetic optics. All beam-sharing at the AGS is done by multiple use of each accelerated pulse because our experience indicates that pulse-by-pulse beam-sharing is relatively inefficient. (Expansion chambers have seldom been used at the AGS.) The problems of scheduling experiments becomes increasingly complex since combinations must be found satisfying the criteria: maximum number of experiments to run simultaneously; minimum downtime to be taken for rearrangement between successive experimental arrays
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Green, G. K.
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Alternating Gradient Magnets

Description: The angle by which a magnet deflects the trajectory of a particle in the x-z plane is proportional to the integral [integral not transcribed] taken over the trajectory wherever B≠0. Alternating gradient focusing is achieved by designing magnets so that I=I(x) varies linearly with x over a suitable x interval. Usually this is done by shaping the poles to give a linear variation of By with x while keeping the length of the magnet constant for different x. Certain advantaged may be gained by varying the effective length of the magnet with x and keeping By constant so that the integral varies properly with x. Figure 1 shows several such poles for which the trajectory length, and hence the integral (1), varies approximately from 2/3 to 4/3 of the mean value.
Date: March 3, 1963
Creator: Beth, R. A.
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Analysis of Cell Population Kinetics

Description: The relation between trace kinetic parameters of cell populations and the statistics used in studies on cell populations is discussed. It is pointed out that responses in cell populations are complex and subject to many perturbations. Some of these are discussed. It is concluded that a complete check list of sources of error is required for studies of great accuracy, and a calculus to help in combining heterogeneous data is needed for studies of systems of great complexity.
Date: 1962
Creator: Quastler, Henry
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Analysis of Meteorological Tower Data, April 1950 - March 1952, Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: Report issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory discussing data collected from two BNL meteorological towers. As stated in the introduction, "results are presented in graphic form rather than tabular form" (p. 1). This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: June 1957
Creator: Singer, Irving A. & Raynor, Gilbert S.
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The Angular Dependence of Thermal Neutron Spectra in Lattices

Description: This technical report discusses techniques that have been developed for "computing the angular thermal flux spectrum emerging from a lattice. These methods are applied to water lattices and it is found that the computed spectra are sensitive to the geometrical description of the lattice, but insensitive to the anisotropic scattering by water. Comparisons with measured spectra indicate that corrections for gradients and the finite size of the experimental lattice are important." -- from abstract (p. 3).
Date: January 1962
Creator: Honeck, Henry C. & Takahashi, Hiroshi
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Antibody Formation by Transplanted Bone Marrow, Spleen, Lymph Node and Thymus Cells in Irradiated Recipients

Description: The role of the marrow as a site for antibody formation has been considered for many years. In 1912 Ludke reported the appearance of antibody in cultures of marrow cells obtained from previously immunized rabbits. Specific agglutinins for killed typhoid bacilli and lysins for ox red cells and sheep red cells were detected in the culture media 2 to 5 days later. However, the cultured cells failed to produce antibody when these antigens were added to the media. Similar findings by Reiter, Przygode, and Schilf appeared in the early literature with regard to the appearance of antibodies to various antigens in tissue cultures of bone marrow from immunized animals, along with failure to elicit antibody formation by addition of antigen to the culture resulted from the addition of excess amounts of antigen, so that if antibody synthesis occurred, the excess antigen combined with antibody and significant amounts of free antibody could not be detected in the culture media. Thorbecke and Keuning observed an increase in antibody in culture fluids when bone marrow fragments from rabbits immunized to paratyphoid B vaccine were cultured in roller tubes.
Date: February 25, 1963
Creator: Stoner, Richard D. & Bond, Victor P.
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Antiproton-Proton Two-Prong Interactions at 3.25 Bev/c

Description: A study is being made of two-prong antiproton interactions in hydrogen at 3.25 Bev/c. About 2250 two-prong events were measured on automatic digitized machines and their reconstruction and analysis were performed with standard programs. Of the total number of events 1003 were classified as elastic interactions. About 500 inelastic events were examined using bubble density estimates in addition to criteria based on distribution values in the classification procedure. The inelastic events in which a secondary nucleon or antinucleon was unambiguously identified were used to obtain limits for annihilation and non-annihilation partial cross sections. The two-prong events were 57% of the total. Results for angular distributions and cross sections are presented in graphs and tables. (M.C.G.)
Date: 1962
Creator: Ferbel, T.; Sandweiss, J.; Taft, H.D.; Culwick, B.B.; Gailloud, M.; Morris, T.W. et al.
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The Application of Inert Fluidized Beds to the Volatility Reprocessing of Reactor Fuels

Description: In the reprocessing of spent solid fuels from nuclear reactors by direct volatilization, one of the major problems is the removal of heat from the highly exothermic gas-solid reactions. The use of fluidized beds of inert granular material as heat transfer media to control these exothermic reactions forms the basis of one approach to volatile reprocessing which is under development at BNL The engineering scale work carried out under this development program is discussed.
Date: 1961
Creator: Regan, W. H.; Reilly, J. J.; Wirsing, E. & Hatch, L. P.
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Area Survey Manual

Description: Report issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory discussing the area survey manual covering the 15 service stations. Design and operations of the service stations are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, photographs, and a map.
Date: June 15, 1955
Creator: Weiss, Max M.
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The Ball Tuner Change Tables

Description: Technique used in deriving values of the linac ball tuner settings to produce various fields is discussed briefly, and tables showing ball tuner change numbers and values used in making up the ball tuner change numbers are given.
Date: May 3, 1962
Creator: Walters, J. L.
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