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Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1977

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes work aimed at understanding and improving the performance of fuel cells having molten alkali-carbonate mixtures as electrolytes; the fuel cells operate at temperatures near 925 K.
Date: March 1978
Creator: Ackerman, J. P.; Kinoshita, K.; Finn, P. A.; Sim, J. W. & Nelson, P. A.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1978

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving the components of molten-carbonate-electrolyte fuel cells operated at temperatures near 925 K.
Date: June 1979
Creator: Finn, P. A.; Ackerman, J. P.; Pierce, R. D.; Nelson, P. A. & Arons, R. M.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1979

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward understanding and improving components of molten carbonate fuel cells and have included operation of 10-cm square cells.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Pierce, R. D.; Kucera, G. H.; Kupperman, D. S.; Poeppel, R. B.; Sim, J. W.; Singh, R. N. et al.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1980

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) developing alternative concepts for components of molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) improving understanding of component behavior.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Pierce, R. D.; Arons, R. M.; Dusek, J. T.; Fraioli, A. V.; Kucera, G. H.; Sim, J. W. et al.

Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1981

Description: Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes efforts directed toward (1) improving understanding of component behavior in molten carbonate fuel cells and (2) developing alternative materials and concepts for components. The principal focus was changed during this period from the development of cathodes fabricated from NiO and electrolyte supports of sintered y-LiA102 to an investigation of NiO cathode dissolution and deposition and a search for alternative cathode materials.
Date: April 1983
Creator: Pierce, Robert Dean & Arons, R. M.

Advanced Materials in the Manufacturing Revolution: Proceedings of the Conference Held at Argonne National Laboratory June 14, 1988

Description: A conference at Argonne National Laboratory for senior executives of small and medium-size manufacturing companies covered technical and managerial issues involved in adapting advanced materials and new manufacturing methods. Seven speakers discussed how high performance metals, alloys, ceramics, polymerics and their composites are replacing conventional mill-product materials and how these new materials are impacting manufacturing methods and products.
Date: February 1989
Creator: Nevitt, Michael V. & Peterson, Norman D.

Advanced Thermoplastic Materials for District Heating Piping Systems

Description: The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems.
Date: April 1988
Creator: Raske, D. T. & Karvelas, D. E.

Air Pollution and the Siting of Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Description: The decision to locate a fossil-fueled electrical power plant on a particular site involves trade-offs among the costs of: (1) land acquisition, (2) plant construction, operation, and maintenance, (3) power transmission, and (4) air pollution damage to humans, animals, plants and materials. The fourth of these, pollution costs, has been of great concern in recent years. But seldom, if ever, are the specific dollar trade-offs between the environmental and the other costs associated with site selection taken into account. The sum of the costs of power generation (land, construction, operation, maintenance), power transmission, and air pollution damages (from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates) is the total social cost of a fossil-fuel plant; this total cost will generally vary by site. This paper presents an analysis of the total social cost, and the trade-offs between generation/transmission and air pollution costs, for various types of fossil plants at different sites in northern Illinois. The analysis identifies the combinations of site, fossil fuel, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology that minimize total social costs.
Date: 1976
Creator: Fishelson, Gordon; Rausser, Gordon C. & Cohen, Alan S.

An Algebraic Theory of Program Specification and Correctness Using Symmetry Operations

Description: This report applies some methods from the theory of group representation to the questions of program specification and knowledge about programs. The theory is that of a program as a transformation on a state space, and operators commuting with that transformation being symmetries of the program, means of specifying properties, and generators of program invariants. Because a program can simulate a system in the real world, there is a corresponding model of engineered artifacts, that is, manmade objects having a theory for their design.
Date: March 1987
Creator: Gabriel, John R.

Alternative Fuel Cycle Options : Performance Characteristics and Impact on Nuclear Power Growth Potential

Description: The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies.
Date: September 1977
Creator: Chang, Y. I.; Till, C. E.; Rudolph, R. R.; Deen, J. R. & King, M. J.

An Alternative Library Under 4. 2 BSD UNIX on a VAX 11/780

Description: This paper describes an alternative library of elementary functions prepared for use with the standard Fortran compiler under 4.2 BSD UNIX on a VAX 11/780. The library, written in C and based on the book ''Software Manual for the Elementary Functions'' by Cody and Waite, offers improved accuracy over the standard system library, as well as additional capabilities. Listings and output from the ELEFUNT suite of test programs are included in the appendix.
Date: February 1986
Creator: Cody, William James

Alternatives for Conversion to Solid Interim Waste Forms of the Radioactive Liquid High-Level Wastes Stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center

Description: Techniques for isolating and solidifying the nuclear wastes in the storage tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center plant have been examined. One technique involves evaporating the water and forming a molten salt containing the precipitated sludge. The salt is allowed to solidify and is stored in canisters until processing into a final waste form is to be done. Other techniques involve calcining the waste material, then agglomerating the calcine with sodium silicate to reduce its dispersibility. This option can also involve a prior separation and decontamination of the supernatant salt. The sludge and all resins containing fission-product activity are then calcined together. The technique of removing the water and solidifying the salt may be the simplest method for removing the waste from the West Valley Plant.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Vogler, S.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Ziegler, A. A. & Steindler, M. J.

Alternatives for Disposal of Raffinate from the TRUEX Process

Description: Possible methods for disposing of the immobilized raffinate from TRUEX processing are reviewed. The purpose of the TRUEX process is to extract transuranium elements from high-level and TRU wastes into a small volume that can be managed at lower cost than that of the original wastes. The raffinate from the TRUEX process, containing negligible concentrations of transuranium elements, would be combined with salt solutions also derived from processing high-level waste, and the mixture would be converted to grout.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Trevorrow, L. E. & Vandegrift, G. F.

Analysis of a Cylindrical Shell Vibrating in a Cylindrical Fluid Region

Description: Analytical and experimental methods are presented for evaluating the vibration characteristics of cylindrical shells such as the thermal liner of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor vessel. The NASTRAN computer program is used to calculate the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and response to a harmonic loading of a thin, circular cylindrical shell situated inside a fluid-filled rigid circular cylinder. Solutions in a vacuum are verified with an exact solution method and the SAP IV computer code. Comparisons between analysis and experiment are made, and the accuracy and utility of the fluid-solid interaction package of NASTRAN is assessed.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Chung, Ho; Mulcahy, T. M.; Turula, P. & Jendrzeczyk, J. A.

Analysis of an Internally Pressurized Prismatic Cell Can

Description: This report contains an elastic stress and displacement analysis of a prismatic cell can subjected to internal pressure. A computer program was written to perform the analysis. The results show that, for the geometry chosen, the thicknesses of the cell-can walls and the magnitude of the internal pressure are the most important parameters that determine the stresses and deformations of the cell can. Recommendations for future studies are included.
Date: April 1980
Creator: Majumdar, S.

Analysis of Cracked Core Spray Injection Line Piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors

Description: Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Diercks, D. R.

Analysis of EBR-II Low-Power Dosimetry Run 78C

Description: This report compares calculated reaction rates based on neutron-transport calculations in RZ and XY geometries with measured values from a low-power dosimetry test in EBR-II. Axial distributions of Uranium-235 and uranium-238 fission rates and uranium-238 capture rate are given for various radial locations along the length of the core and the axial reflectors, and along the length of the radial steel reflectors. Reaction rates, primarily at the reactor midplane, are given for a number of fission and capture reactions. The analytical RZ- and XY-geometry models used for the neutronics calculations are described.
Date: December 1977
Creator: Franklin, F. C.; Ebersole, E. R. & Heinrich, R. R.

An Analysis of Factors Influencing the Reliability of Retrievable Storage Canisters for Containment of Solid High-Level Radioactive Waste

Description: The reliability of stainless steel type 304L canisters for the containment of solidified high-level radioactive wastes in the glass and calcine forms was studied. A reference system, drawn largely from information furnished by Battelle Northwest Laboratories and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company is described. Operations include filling the canister with the appropriate waste form, interim storage at a reprocessing plant, shipment in water to a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), interim storage at the RSSF, and shipment to a final disposal facility.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Mecham, W. J.; Seefeldt, Waldemar B. & Steindler, M. J.

Analysis of Heat-Pipe Absorbers in Evacuated-Tube Solar Collectors

Description: Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or non-evacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.
Date: February 1986
Creator: Hull, John R.; Schertz, William W. & Allen, John W.