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Uses of Advanced Pulsed Neutron Sources. Report of a Workshop Held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 21-24, 1975
This report contains the conclusions that were drawn by nine panels of scientists in the fields of Biology; Chemical Spectroscopy; Chemical Structures of Crystalline Solids; Chemical Structures of Disordered Solids and Inhomogeneous Systems; Dynamics of Solids, Liquids, Glasses, and Gases; Magnetism; Neutron Sources; and Radiation Effects. The nine panel reports describe the applications found in these scientific areas, accompanying them with conceptual instruments designed for the measurements and with calculations to establish feasibility.
Proceedings of the Third Post-Accident Heat Removal Information Exchange November 2-4, 1977, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois
Papers presented at the third Post-Accident Heat Removal Information Exchange concerning heat distribution and criticality considerations, particulate-bed phenomena, pool heat transfer and melt-front phenomena, behavior of heated concrete and sodium-concrete interactions, design-related studies, gas bubbling and boiling effects, and materials interactions at high temperatures and experimental methods.
Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Summary Report: July, August, September 1960
9 : : 7 : 7 9 : 5 5 ? 5 9 G -- 8 ; 8 ; = -activity levels of the melt-refining process for EBR-II core fuel was completed. An experiment was also completed on the evolution of fission- product krypton and xenon from an irradiated fuel pim as it was heat to a temperature above the melting point. In tests of alternate materials for use in a meltrefining furnace, a fibrous potassium titanate grain retainer was found to be a very effective heat insulator, but to have less strength than nigid Fibenfrax retainers. The skull remaining in the zirconia crucible after a meltrefining operation must be processed to recover, as partially purified metal, the fissionable material for return to the fuel cycle. Several essentially quantitative reductions of uranium dioxide and skull oxides were achieved in times of less than 8 hr at 800 deg C in dilute magnesium-zinc solutions and in magnesium containing a small percentage (0.5 to 2) of sodium as a wetting agent. Data and equations for solubilities of other elements in liquid cadmium are included. The partition coefficients of a numbsr of representative fissile and fission product elements between the two immiscible liquids, lead and zinc, at about 735 deg C were measured. The free energy of formation of the uraniumthallium intermetallic compound UTl/sub 3/ was measured, using a galvanic cell method. Galvanic cell measurements with the cerium-zinc system at 443 to 742 deg C were also made. The determination of the heat of formation of zirconium tetrafluoride by combustions of zirconium in fluonine was completed. A valus of -372.44 kcal/mole was obtained for the heat of formation of molybdenum hexafluoride. Calorimetric oombustions of boron in fluorine are being continued. Exploratory combustions of magnesium, aluminum, zinc, and cadmium are being carried out. Fuel ...
Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division Summary Report: September, October 1960
The use and operation of the Van de Graaff generator are summarized for the period from January 1 to June 30, 1960. Molecular beam study final results are given for Mn/sup 56/, and progress on the new atomic-beam machine is reported to date. A preliminary investigation was made of the neutron total cross section of cobalt. Results are presented. The decomposition of trichlorobromomethane by the isomeric transition of 4.4-hr Br/sup 80m/ and to 1000 deg F. /sup -/, decay of 35.9-hr Br/sup 82/ was studied. The fragmnentation patterns initiated by the two nuclear transitions differ markedly, the one caused by the isomeric transition was dominated by spectra of multiply-charged atomic species, whereas the pattern due to Br/sup 82/ was entirely made up of singlycharged products. An investigition of nondiagonal matrix elements arising in a shell-model treatment of a deformed nucleus showed that their neglect in determining the degree of deformation does not lead to serious error. A previous statement, in a study of collective effects and the shell model, about K = 0 bands in odd-odd nuclei is corrected. The effect of residual interactions is calculated, and the result is applied to Ho/sup 166/. (For preceding period see ANL-6190.) (W.D.M.)
Argonne National Laboratory Sodium Technology Quarterly Report: January, February, March 1970
No Description Available.
Argonne National Laboratory Sodium Technology Quarterly Report: July, August, September 1970
No Description Available.
The TRIO Experiment
The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an analytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.
DISPL1: a Software Package for One and Two Spatially Dimensioned Kinetics-Diffusion Problems
DISPL1 is a software package for solving some second order nonlinear systems of partial differential equations including parabolic, elliptic, hyperbolic, and some mixed types such as parabolic-elliptic equations. Fairly general nonlinear boundary conditions are allowed as well as interface conditions for problems in an inhomogeneous media. The spatial domain is one or two dimensional with Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical (in one dimension only) geometry. The numerical method is based on the use of Galerkin's procedure combined with the use of B-splines in order to reduce the system of PDE's to a system of ODE's. The latter system is then solved with a sophisticated ODE software package. Software features include extensive dump/restart facilities, free format input, moderate printed output capability, dynamic storage allocation, and three graphics packages.
Baseline Energy Consumption Forecasts for Transportation: A Review and Evaluation
A baseline projection of energy consumption is needed to estimate the potential energy savings from proposed transport technology and operational improvements. The Reference Energy System projection by Brookhaven National Laboratories and that which Stanford Research Institute produced for Gulf Oil are reviewed here. Attention is focused on the growth rate assumptions of the forecasts and the allowances made for the sensitivity of transport demand and technological efficiency to fuel price changes. The alternative trajectories of energy use are examined for automobile, bus and intercity air and rail passenger travel, and also for freight movement. Little, if any, justification can be found for many of the assumptions used to estimate transport demand and energy intensiveness. The assumptions underlying the Brookhaven National Laboratories projections are more explicit on changes in energy efficiency and energy price and shifts in transport patterns. However, the relationship of automobile travel, the largest component, to energy price is not specified clearly. The Stanford projection is based on seemingly arbitrary assumptions about changes in travel patterns and energy efficiency with no reference to the market process which must bring them about. It is concluded that the Brookhaven projection is a reasonable interim benchmark. Its structure should improve by refining and validating or revising the judgmental estimates on which it is based. This can be accomplished by identifying those judgments to which the energy consumption projections are most sensitive and modifying them, based on information presently available concerning the transport sector and/or information and relationships which can be developed by limited research.
Physics of Reactor Safety Quarterly Report: July-September 1975
Quarterly progress report discussing work done in Argonne National Laboratory's Applied Physics Division for the Division of Reactor Safety Research. It includes reports on reactor safety research and technical coordination of the RSR safety analysis program by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Group, Monte Carlo analysis of safety-related critical assembly experiments by members of the Theoretical Fast Reactor Phys!cs Group, and planning of DEMO safety-related critical experiments by members of the Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) Planning and Experiments Group.
Radiative Cooling of a Voided Subassembly
A treatment is formulated for surface-to-surface radiative heat exchange between fuel pins and between pins and duct wall of a nuclear reactor subassembly voided of coolant. Specific attention is given to the case of equal power generation in each pin with uniform duct-wall temperature. Detailed temperature profiles and heat flux values are reported for hexagonal-ring subassemblies ranging in size from one to nine rings. It is found that a duct wall at 1153 degrees K can cool by radiation even a nine-ring voided subassembly operating at a power of up to 0.54 kW/ft per pin or 5.4% of full power without fuel slumping or melting, or that a seven-pin assembly can be cooled by radiation up to a power of 7.3 kw/ft.
Transportation Energy Conservation: Tools to Meet the National Objective. Summary of Meeting Held at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, February 12, 1976
From the discussions it was concluded that: (1) energy conservation can be achieved in transportation systems through the implementation of system operation and technological strategies; (2) the Federal government should play a vital role in achieving energy conservation by strengthening its position as a central information source, a clearinghouse for state and local governments, industry, and private citizens; (3) the potential for energy savings in transportation system operation and management, demand shifts, and reductions must not be overlooked; (4) modeling can be a useful tool in both research program management and forecasting the effects of implementing a particular strategy for energy conservation; (5) the evaluation and selection process for technology R and D must include commercialization studies along with the technological indicators of program success; and (6) Federal agencies need to coordinate their own activities in this area - - i.e., the Department of Transportation, the ERDA, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Environmental Protection Agency, among others, must work together so that research programs will be efficient and not redundant and strategies will not work at cross purposes.
Study of the State-of-the-Art of Instrumentation for Process Control and Safety in Large-Scale Coal Gasification, Liquefaction, and Fluidized-Bed Combustion Systems
A study has been carried out to determine the state-of-the-art of instrumentation which is available for process control and safety in planned demonstration and commercial scale coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion systems. The study identified available instrumentation which will perform satisfactorily in these systems and pinpointed deficiencies for which instruments must be developed. The identified deficiencies fall into the same few categories for all processes considered. These categories are presented with associated physical parameters found in the various processes studied. Development of instruments to meet these deficiencies is recommended along with development of control valves and optimal control schemes in order to assure the possibility of automatic control of the large scale coal conversion and combustion systems.
Gasification of Chars Produced Under Simulated in situ Processing Conditions Quarterly Report: October-December 1975
This effort is being directed toward support studies for the national endeavor on in situ coal gasification. This task involves the investigation of reaction-controlling variables and product distributions for the gasification of both coals and chars utilizing steam and oxygen. Included in this task is the investigation of the effects of using brackish water as the water supply. The high-pressure char gasification system has been received from the manufacturer and is currently undergoing testing. The types of experiments that would be most useful in their studies have been discussed with two of the three laboratories carrying out field tests of in-situ gasification.
Physical Parameters in Synthoil Process, Quarterly Report: October-December 1975
This work is being done in support of the development of processes for converting coal to liquid fuel of low sulfur content, suitable for use in power production. Most of the effort is intended to produce information applicable to the SYNTHOIL Process. In the SYNTHOIL Process for converting coal to a low-sulfur fuel oil, coal is liquefied and hydro-desulfurized in a turbulent-flow, catalytic packed-bed reactor. A slurry of coal in recycled oil is reacted with hydrogen at 450 degrees C and 2,000 to 4,000 psi in the presence of Co-MoSiO2-Al2O3 catalyst. The turbulent flow of fluid prevents the coal's mineral matter from settling and plugging the reactor. The gross liquid products are centrifuged to remove the unreacted solids. The centrifuged liquid product is a low-S, low-ash fuel. The following four tasks are included: (1) heat of reaction of hydrogen with coal slurries; (2) heat transfer coefficient; (3) additives to facilitate separation of solids from liquids; and (4) catalyst testing. These are now in the planning stage of development.
Argonne National Laboratory Patent Portfolio
This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology.
South Loop New Town Urban Pollutant Study: Status Report. Comparison of Two Proposed Franklin St. Connector Alternatives
Preliminary results are given of a study of probable carbon monoxide pollution concentrations in the South Loop area that may arise from either of two alternative Franklin Street Connector plans proposed by the Chicago Bureau of Street Traffic and by Alan M. Voorhees and Associates.
Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report: Part 3, Ecology, January-December 1975
Annual report of the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological and Environmental Research Division regarding activities related to ecology. This report includes a study of the effect of phosphorus on cadmium accumulation by exposure to 3-week-old soybeans to 0.5 ppm cadmium in the presence of added phosphate in a standard Hoagland nutrient solution for 2 days.
The Automated Reasoning System ITP
This report describes a system designed to provide a portable environment for the study of automated reasoning. The system is built on the LMA automated reasoning subroutine package. This program is not part of LMA itself but illustrates the level of inference-based system that can be constructed from the LMA package of tools. It is a clause-based reasoning system supporting a wide variety of techniques which have proven valuable over the years in a long-running automated deduction research project. In addition, it is designed to present a convenient, interactive interface to its user.
Proceedings of the Workshop on Electronic and Ionic Collision Cross Sections Needed in the Modeling of Radiation Interactions with Matter, Held at Argonne National Laboratory December 6-8, 1983
The term modeling in the Workship title refers to the mathematical analysis of the consequences of many collision processes for characterizing the physical stage of radiation actions. It requires as input some knowledge of collision cross sections. Traditionally, work on cross sections and work on the modeling are conducted by separate groups of scientists. It was the purpose of the Workshop to bring these two groups together in a forum that would promote effective communication. Cross-section workers described the status of their work and told what data were available or trustworthy. Modeling workers told what kind of data were needed or were most important. Twenty-two items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base.
A Design Philosophy for Reliable Systems, Including Control
This report develops a framework for a universe of discourse usable by such non-human experts. It is based on the idea that a design has many features of a contract and may be described as a contract between humans and a machine, defining what each must do to attain a goal. Several points are discussed: the use of techniques in analytical redundancy and their place as analogues in administrative control for conventional techniques in physical control; the use of redundant computer systems to protect against hardware faults; the necessity to prove properties of software used in redundant hardware, because software faults are common modes across redundant hardware; and some issues in choosing a programming language for provable control software. Because proof of correctness is costly, it should be used only where necessary. This report concludes that the degree of reliability needed by the plant model used in analytic redundancy protection need not be nearly as reliable as the mechanism to detect discrepancy between plant and model.
Annual Research Summary
Report on activities of the Division of Biological and Medical Research in carcinogenesis, low level radiation, molecular biology, and toxicology.
Mathematics and Computer Science Division Activities
Report of various projects carried out in applied analysis, computational mathematics, software engineering, and advanced scientific computing.
Nuclear Technology Programs Quarterly Progress Report: January-March 1984
Quarterly report on activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Nuclear Technical Programs, including studies on nuclear fuels and nuclear waste.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: October-December 1983
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities directed toward seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells.
Dynamic Characteristics of Heat Exchanger Tubes Vibrating in a Tube Support Plate Inactive Mode
Tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, including nuclear plant steam generators, derive their support from longitudinally positioned tube support plates (TSPs). Typically there is a clearance between the tube and TSP hole. Depending on design and fabrication tolerances, the tube may or may not contract all of the TSPs. Noncontact results in an inactive TSP which can lead to detrimental flow induced tube vibrations under certain conditions dependent on the resulting tube-TSP interaction dynamics and the fluid excitation forces. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tube-TSP interaction dynamics. Results of an experimental study of damping and natural frequency as functions of tube-TSP diametral clearance and TSP thickness are reported. Calculated values of damping ratio and frequency of a tube vibrating within an inactive TSP are also presented together with a comparison of calculated and experimental quantities.
Transuranic Decontamination of Nitric Acid Solutions by the Truex Solvent Extraction Process: Preliminary Development Studies
This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solverc (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste.
Burner Stabilized Flames in Fluids
In this report it is shown that a burner placed in a combustible fluid can have a stabilizing effect on a plane flame. A mathematical model is derived in which the flame is modeled as a surface of discontinuity in the flow field. Jump conditions for the fluid variables, as well as an expression for the flame speed, are obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the detailed structure of the flame. The model is applied to investigate the linear stability of a plane flame. Stable behavior is shown to exist for certain regimes of the parameters: Lewis number, burner strength, heat release and inflow velocity.
Proceedings of the Workshop on Polarized Targets in Storage Rings. May 17-18, 1984 at Argonne National Laboratory
Proceedings of a workshop of a unique group of physicists in the fields of high-energy, nuclear and atomic physics. The meeting was organized in a manner that stimulated discussion among the 58 participants and focused on developments in polarized target technology and the underlying atomic physics. An impressive array of future possibilities for polarized targets as well as current developments in polarized target technology were discussed at the workshop.
Use of Monitors in FORTRAN: a Tutorial on the Barrier, Self-Scheduling DO-Loop, and Ask for Monitors
A set of macro libraries has been developed that allows programmers to write portable FORTRAN code for multiprocessors. This document presents, in tutorial form, the macros used to implement three common synchronization patterns: self-scheduling DO-loops, barrier synchronization, and the askfor monitor.
Use of Monitors in FORTRAN: a Tutorial on the Barrier, Self-Scheduling DO-Loop, and Askfor Monitors
A set of macro libraries has been developed that allows programmers to write portable FORTRAN code for multiprocessors. This document presents, in tutorial form, the macros used to implement three common synchronization patterns: self-scheduling DO-loops, barrier synchronization, and the askfor monitor.
Use of Monitors in Pascal on the Lemur: a Tutorial on the Barrier, Self-Scheduling FOR-Loop, and Askfor Monitors
A set of macro libraries has been developed that allows programmers to write portable Pascal code for multiprocessors. This document presents, in tutorial form, the macros used to implement three common synchronization patterns: self-scheduling FOR-loops, barrier synchronization, and the askfor monitor.
Stability of Tubes Conveying Fluid
Tests and analysis are made for tubes conveying fluid for two types of support conditions. The objectives are to study the characteristics of different types of instability, the transition of one instability mechanism to another, and the control of instability.
Advanced Fuel Cell Development Progress Report: July-September 1983
Quarterly report discussing fuel cell research and development work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This report describes activities seeking alternative cathode materials to NiO for molten carbonate fuel cells.
Mathematical Modeling and Evaluation of Radionuclide Transport Parameters from the ANL Laboratory Analog Program
Computer model simulation is required to evaluate the performance of proposed or future high-level radioactive waste geological repositories. However, the accuracy of a model in predicting the real situation depends on how well the values of the transport properties are prescribed as input parameters. Knowledge of transport parameters is therefore essential. We have modeled ANL's Experiment Analog Program which was designed to simulate long-term radwaste migration process by groundwater flowing through a high-level radioactive waste repository. Using this model and experimental measurements, we have evaluated neptunium (actinide) deposition velocity and analyzed the complex phenomena of simultaneous deposition, erosion, and re-entrainment of bentonite when groundwater is flowing through a narrow crack in a basalt rock. The present modeling demonstrates that we can obtain the values of transport parameters, as added information without any additional cost, from the available measurements of laboratory analog experiments.
Environmental Monitoring at Argonne National Laboratory Annual Report: 1983
Annual report on the results of efforts to evaluate the effect of Argonne National Laboratory operations on the environment.
Nuclear Technology Programs Quarterly Progress Report: October-December 1983
Quarterly report on activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Nuclear Technical Programs, including evaluation of the potential of radiolytic production of nitric acid or ammonia in a nuclear waste repository to cause degradation of bentonite-based backfill materials.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Multicomponent Working Fluids for Rankine Bottoming Cycle Applications
The basic equations underlying a computer code are developed to describe the thermodynamic behavior of multi-component working fluids in Rankine cycles. The code is to be employed in the performance analysis of Rankine bottoming cycle systems. The performance of such systems depends strongly on the working fluid characteristics. The introduction of multi-component mixtures makes available a broad spectrum of fluid properties achievable by varying the mixture composition. The code provides a tool to analytically vary the mixture composition to optimize cycle performance.
Magnetically Confined Kinetic-Energy Storage Ring: a New Fundamental Energy-Storage Concept
The magnetically confined kinetic-energy storage ring (MCKESR) is a new, fundamental type of energy-storage device. Energy is stored as kinetic energy in mass circulated at high velocity around a circular loop. The constraining force necessary to keep the circulating ring from flying apart is provided by radial, inwardly directed forced exerted along the perimeter of the loop by magnetic fields. The magnets and ring are contained in a tunnel, which may be buried in the ground. Levitational support against gravity is also provided by magnetic fields. Energy insertion or extraction is similar to that for a synchronous motor.
Status of the Li-Al/FeS Battery Manufacturing Technology. Final Report. November 1983. An Evaluation for the US Army, Belvoir R and D Center
Research and development work on rechargeable lithium/molten salt batteries, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has been under way at Argonne National Laboratory and several industrial laboratories for the past decade. In 1978, a program for the US Army (Belvoir R and D Center) was initiated with ANL and Eagle-Picher Industries to ascertain the status and to aid the development of the manufacturing technology of the Li-Al/FeS battery as a power source for forklift trucks. A long-lived cell, achieving greater than 1000 discharge cycles, was developed in the Army program and was used as a basis for a forklift truck battery design. The projected performance of the Li-Al/FeS battery showed a 200% increase in stored energy when compared with a lead-acid battery of equal volume.
Physics Division Annual Review 1 April 1983 - 31 March 1984
Report on various studies in the physics division of Argonne National Laboratory, including medium-energy physics research, superconducting LINAC accelerator, and theoretical nuclear physics.
Self-Sustained Hydrodynamic Oscillations in a Natural Circulation Two-Phase-Flow Boiling Loop
Analysis of a class of steady magnetohydrodynamic channel flow problems when natural, as well as forced, convection is important.
Flow-Regime Transitions at Elevated Pressures in Vertical Two-Phase Flow
Two-phase flow-regime transitions at elevated pressures for a single-component, trichloromonofluoromethane, were investigated for forced-circulation, upward flow in a vertical, rectangular conduit with internal dimensions of 0.380 by 1.050 inches.
The Expulsion of Liquid from a Rapidly Heated Channel
Report documenting experiments in order to determine the "behavior of a partially confined liquid in contact with a rapidly heated surface" (p. 7). These liquids include water, methanol, ethylene bromide, and acetone.
A Multiple-Source Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Model
Report documenting the development phase of a multiple-source, urban atmospheric dispersion model that describes environmental transients.
A Study of Convective Magnetohydrodynamic Channel Flow
Analysis of a class of steady magnetohydrodynamic channel flow problems when natural, as well as forced, convection is important.
Reactor Engineering Division Quarterly Report, June 1, 1949 - August 31, 1949
Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory covering the quarterly report from the Reactor Engineering Division. A summary of reactor programs, designs, development, and experiments are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
The Relative Thermal Conductivities of Liquid Lithium, Sodium, and Eutectic NaK, and the Specific Heat of Liquid Lithium
Report discussing the relative thermal conductivities of liquid lithium, sodium, and eutectic NaK, and the specific heat of liquid lithium, as well as the methods and materials used to determine this information.
A Method of Calculating Transient Temperatures in a Multiregion, Axisymmetric, Cylindrical Configuration the Argus Program, 1089/Re248, Written in Fortran II
From Abstract: "A detailed description is given of ARGUS, a FORTRAN II computer program for calculating transient temperatures in any concentric cylindrical configuration. Included are an explanation of the mathematical methods, a discussion of special features and restrictions, input and output descriptions, operating instructions, several sample problems, and the code listing."
Breeding-Gain Specimens for EBR-I Core IV
Report issued by the Argonne National Laboratory over studies conducted on uranium and plutonium specimens used in fuel rods. The results are presented and discussed. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.