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7-GeV Advanced Photon Source : Conceptual Design Report

Description: During the past decade, synchrotron radiation emitted by circulating electron beams has come into wide use as a powerful, versatile source of x-rays for probing the structure of matter and for studying various physical processes. Several synchrotron radiation facilities with different designs and characteristics are now in regular operation throughout the world, with recent additions in this country being the 0.8-GeV and 2.5-GeV rings of NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, none of the operating facilities has been designed to use a low-emittance, high-energy stored beam, together with modern undulator devices, to produce a large number of hard x-ray beams of extremely high brilliance. This document is a proposal to the Department of Energy to construct and operate high-energy synchrotron radiation facility at Argonne National Laboratory. We have now chosen to set the design energy of this facility at 7.0 GeV, with the capability to operate at up to 7.5 GeV.
Date: April 1987
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory

²³⁵U(n,f), ²³⁸U(n, gamma), ²³⁸U(n,f), ²³⁹Pu(n,f) Reaction Rate Measurement Calibrations at ZPPR

Description: New reference deposits for uranium-235, plutonium-239 and uranium-238 have been established with mass uncertainties of <0.2%. These new deposits replace the older reference deposits which were used during the last 17 years and improve the uncertainty of reaction rate measurements due to reference mass uncertainties by about a factor of 6. Measurements of the fission fragment absorption in 2 pi and low-geometry count rates. Two measurements of the uranium-238 capture rate in depleted uranium samples based upon the thermal cross sections of uranium-238(n, gamma), uranium-235(n,f) and plutonium-239(n,f) and based upon the americium-243 calibration technique confirm the ZPPR measurement technique within the quoted uncertainty of +/-0.5%
Date: January 1987
Creator: Poenitz, W. P.; Maddison, D. W.; Gasidlo, J. M.; Carpenter, S.G. & Armani, R. J.

An Algebraic Theory of Program Specification and Correctness Using Symmetry Operations

Description: This report applies some methods from the theory of group representation to the questions of program specification and knowledge about programs. The theory is that of a program as a transformation on a state space, and operators commuting with that transformation being symmetries of the program, means of specifying properties, and generators of program invariants. Because a program can simulate a system in the real world, there is a corresponding model of engineered artifacts, that is, manmade objects having a theory for their design.
Date: March 1987
Creator: Gabriel, John R.

Analysis of Proposed Gamma-Ray Detection System for the Monitoring of Core Water Inventory in a Pressurized Water Reactor

Description: An initial study has been performed of the feasibility of employing an axial array of gamma detectors located outside the pressure vessel to monitor the coolant in a PWR. A one-dimensional transport analysis model is developed for the LOFT research reactor and for a mock-PWR geometry. The gamma detector response to coolant voiding in the core and down-comer has been determined for both geometries. The effects of various conditions (for example, time after shutdown, materials in the transport path, and the relative void fraction in different water regions) on the detector response are studied. The calculational results have been validated by a favorable comparison with LOFT experimental data. Within the limitations and approximations considered in the analysis, the results indicate that the gamma-ray detection scheme is able to unambiguously respond to changes in the coolant inventory within any vessel water region.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Markoff, Diane Melanie

Application of a Multigrid Method to a Buoyancy-Induced Flow Problem

Description: The numerical prediction of buoyancy-induced flows provides special difficulties for standard numerical techniques associated with velocity-buoyancy coupling. We present a multigrid algorithm based upon a novel relaxation scheme that handles this coupling correctly. Numerical experiments have been performed that show that this approach is reasonably efficient and robust for a range of Rayleigh numbers and a variety of cycling strategies.
Date: October 1987
Creator: Thompson, C. P.; Leaf, G. K. & Vanka, S. P.

An Approach to Implementing State Space Searches on Heterogeneous Systems of Multiprocessors

Description: We report on experiments run on a set of shared-memory multiprocessors. Our goal was to demonstrate that one could conveniently utilize a set of shared-memory multiprocessors cooperatively working on typical state-space searches. We utilized a technology for writing portable code for multiprocessors, coded three depth-first state-space searches, and ran them on a set of multiprocessors. The final problem used substantial resources (over 65 hours on a single processor) and was successfully distributed over four distinct shared memory multiprocessors (2 Sequents and 2 Encores), reducing the time to perform the computation to slightly over 2 hours.
Date: September 1987
Creator: Glickfeld, Barney & Overbeek, Ross A.

Assessment of Impact of Advanced Energy Transmission Fluids on District Heating and Cooling Systems : (Phase 1)

Description: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced fluids will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the fluids yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-phase results of assessment of impact of the advanced fluids on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital equipment, and operation costs.
Date: September 1987
Creator: Kasza, Kenneth Edmund & Chen, M. M.

Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment : 1000-h Laboratory Test A

Description: A laboratory test program is described to evaluate the corrosion behavior of several metallic alloys, coatings, claddings, and weldments in support of the atmospheric fluidized-bed air heater experiment. Results are presented from the first 1000-h test (Test A) conducted at metal and gas temperatures of 871 C and 899 C, respectively. Detailed information is also presented on the corrosion scale morphologies, scale compositions and thicknesses, intergranular penetration of the substrate material, and metal recession.
Date: March 1987
Creator: Natesan, K. & Podolski, W. F.

Beyond ''Speedup' ': Performance Analysis of Parallel Programs

Description: This paper addresses the problem of measuring and analyzing the performance of fine-grained parallel programs running on shared-memory multiprocessors. Such processors use locking (either directly in the application program, or indirectly in a subroutine library or the operating system) to serialize accesses to global variables. Given sufficiently high rates of locking, the chief factor preventing linear speedup (besides lack of adequate inherent parallelism in the application) is lock contention - the blocking of processes that are trying to acquire a lock currently held by another process.
Date: February 1987
Creator: Dritz, Kenneth W. & Boyle, James M.

Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report: 1986

Description: Annual report of Argonne National Laboratory's Chemical Technology (CMT) Division. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries--mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3)advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management.
Date: June 1987
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Chemical Technology Division.

Computerized Operating Procedures for Shearing and Dissolution of Segments from LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Fuel Rods

Description: This report presents two detailed computerized operating procedures developed to assist and control the shearing and dissolution of irradiated fuel rods. The procedures were employed in the destructive analysis of end-of-life fuel rods from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) that was designed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Seventeen entire fuel rods from the end-of-life core of the LWBR were sheared into 169 precisely characterized segments, and more than 150 of these segments were dissolved during execution of the LWBR Proof-of-Breeding (LWBR-POB) Analytical Support Project at Argonne National Laboratory. The procedures illustrate our approaches to process monitoring, data reduction, and quality assurance during the LWBR-POB work.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Osudar, J.; Deeken, P. G.; Graczyk, D. G.; Fagan, J. E.; Martino, F. J.; Parks, J. E. et al.

Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area Radioactively Contaminated Surplus Facilities : Final Report

Description: ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings.
Date: July 1987
Creator: Kline, W. H.; Fassnacht, G. F. & Moe, H. J.

Final Report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor Proof-of-Breeding Analytical Support Project

Description: The technology of breeding uranium-233 from thorium-232 in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Graczyk, D. C.; Hoh, J. C.; Martino, F. J.; Nelson, R. E.; Osudar, John & Levitz, Norman M.

Insertion Device and Beam Line Plans for the Advanced Photon Source : a Report and Recommendations by the Insertion Device and Beam Line Planning Committee

Description: In the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) Conceptual Design Report (CDR), fifteen complete experimental beam lines were specified in order to establish a representative technical and cost base for the components involved. In order to optimize the composition of the insertion devices and the beam line, these funds are considered a ''Trust Fund.'' The present report evaluates the optimization for the distribution of these funds so that the short- and long-term research programs will be most productive, making the facility more attractive from the user's point of view. It is recommended that part of the "Trust Fund" be used for the construction of the insertion devices, the front-end components, and the first-optics, minimizing the cost to potential users of completing a beam line. In addition, the possibility of cost savings resulting from replication and standardization of high multiplicity components (such as IDs, front ends, and first-optics instrumentation) is addressed.
Date: February 1987
Creator: Boyce, R.; Hewitt, R.; Morrison, T. I.; Shenoy, G. K.; Thomlinson, W. & Viccaro, P. J.

Investigation of Primary Li-Si/FeS2 Cells

Description: The factors that limit the performance of thermally activated Li-Si/FeS2 batteries were defined through the use of electrochemical characterization tests and post-test examinations. For the characterization tests, 82 individual cells were instrumented with multiple voltage sensors and discharged under isothermal and isobaric conditions. The voltage data for the sensors were recorded to determine the ohmic and electrochemical impedances of each cell component at different levels of discharge. The data analysis completed to date has demonstrated that this approach can successfully differentiate the influence of various operating parameters (e.g., temperature, current density), electrode structures (e.g., FeS2 particle size), and additives on cell capacity, specific energy, and power capability. Thirty cells selected from these tests and additional tests at SNL were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses documented microstructural and compositional changes in the active materials and electrolyte. In general, the electrochemical impedance of the FeS2 electrode limited cell performance. Several methods (including use of fine FeS2 particle size, graphite additions, and higher operating temperatures) produced measurable reductions in this impedance and yielded significant improvements in specific energy and power. Additions of KCl to the negative electrode extended the low-temperature capacity of this electrode by counterbalancing gradients in electrolyte composition that develop during discharge.
Date: April 1987
Creator: Redey, L.; Smaga, J. A.; Battles, J. E. & Guidotti, Ronald

Measurement of Stibine and Arsine Generation from the Exide 3100-Ah Lead-Acid Module

Description: Stibine and arsine evolution from lead-acid cells in a 36-kWh Exide load-leveling module was measured as this module approached 1900 cycles of operation. A specially prepared gas-collection apparatus enabled us to determine the maximum and average rates for evolution of both toxic hydrides. Hydride generation began once the cell voltage exceeded 2.4 V. The maximum rate for arsine occurred just above 2.5 V and consistently preceded the peak rate for stibine for each sampled cell. When adjusted for size effects, the degree of stibine and arsine evolution was greater than found in a continuous overcharge study conducted by Exide. The average rates of hydride generation were found to be 175 microgm/min for stibine and 12.6 microgm/min for arsine. The former rate proved to be the critical value in determining safe ventilation requirements for cell off-gases. The minimum airflow requirement was calculated to be 340 L/min per cell. Projections for a hypothetical 1-MWh Exide battery without an abatement system indicated that the normal ventilation capacity in the Battery Energy Storage Test facility provides nearly five times the airflow needed for safe hydride removal.
Date: January 1987
Creator: Marr, J. J. & Smaga, J. A.

One-Dimensional Leakage-Flow Vibration Instabilities

Description: Simple boundary conditions, pressure losses, and channel geometries necessary for the unstable, rigid-body translational vibrations of the wall of one-dimensional leakage-flow channel are identified. General expressions for the flow damping and stiffness forces acting on the vibrating channel wall are derived and specific results are given for channels with wall friction, point pressure losses, sharp-edged constrictions, and diverging or converging widths. The minimum conditions necessary for dynamic and static (divergence) instability were found to be an upstream point pressure loss and a diverging channel width with a finite-length throat region, respectively.
Date: September 1987
Creator: Mulcahy, T. M.

Post-Test Analyses of Aqueous Batteries Developed for Electric Propulsion : Summary Report for January 1985-September 1986

Description: This document is a summary of the activities conducted on post-test examination of aqueous electric-vehicle batteries from January 1985 to September 1986. The post-test analyses were conducted to determine the causes of performance degradation (e.g., capacity decline, power loss, self-discharge) in lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. For the lead-acid batteries, the primary causes of capacity decline were generally found to be morphological changes in the positive active material, corrosion of the positive electrode grid, and loss of contact between the active material and grid in the positive electrode. For the nickel/iron batteries, the primary factors responsible for performance degradation were transport of iron through the separator to the nickel electrode and loss of contact between the active materials and current collector. These results have permitted more accurate assessments of current technical progress in development of aqueous electric-vehicle batteries and have helped to direct future R and D efforts.
Date: July 1987
Creator: Miller, J. F.; Marr, J. J. & Smaga, J. A.

REDUCE-Aided Study of a Problem in Hermitian Matrix Theory

Description: Let A be any n x n positive definite matrix and B any n x n non-negative definite matrix. In an earlier paper we showed that for each n there is a real number t/sub n/> 2 such that if t <t/sub n/ then the solution X of the matrix equation A²X + XA² + tAXA = B is non-negative definite. For n = 2, t₂ = infinity and for n = 3, t₃ = 8. In this report we show that t₄ = 4, t₅ <3.02048507 and t₆ <2.62120330.
Date: July 1987
Creator: Kwong, Man Kam

A Review and Analysis of Fortran 8x

Description: The ANSI Standards Subcommittee X3J3 on Fortran has recently completed a draft proposed standard for the Fortran programming language. The draft proposed standard, known informally as Fortran 8x, is a revision of the current standard X3.9-1978, known informally as Fortran 77. This report is a review of Fortran 8x and consists of a series of six articles. The first article gives a general overview of Fortran 8x. The next three articles give brief discussions of the array facilities; the enhanced numeric facilities; and user-defined data types, procedure interfaces, and the new program unit called a module. The fifth article provides a brief analysis of the controversial issues discussed by X3J3 (including both the accepted and rejected facilities for Fortran 8x). The sixth article gives a brief comparison with Ada. The report concludes with a summary giving information on how and where to express opinions of the draft proposed standard.
Date: October 1987
Creator: Smith, Brian T.